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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 477, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both underground rhizomes/buds and above-ground Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla) shoots/culms/branches are connected together into a close inter-connecting system in which nutrients are transported and shared among each organ. However, the starch storage and utilization mechanisms during bamboo shoot growth remain unclear. This study aimed to reveal in which organs starch was stored, how carbohydrates were transformed among each organ, and how the expression of key genes was regulated during bamboo shoot growth and developmental stages which should lay a foundation for developing new theoretical techniques for bamboo cultivation. RESULTS: Based on changes of the NSC content, starch metabolism-related enzyme activity and gene expression from S0 to S3, we observed that starch grains were mainly elliptical in shape and proliferated through budding and constriction. Content of both soluble sugar and starch in bamboo shoot peaked at S0, in which the former decreased gradually, and the latter initially decreased and then increased as shoots grew. Starch synthesis-related enzymes (AGPase, GBSS and SBE) and starch hydrolase (α-amylase and ß-amylase) activities exhibited the same dynamic change patterns as those of the starch content. From S0 to S3, the activity of starch synthesis-related enzyme and starch amylase in bamboo rhizome was significantly higher than that in bamboo shoot, while the NSC content in rhizomes was obviously lower than that in bamboo shoots. It was revealed by the comparative transcriptome analysis that the expression of starch synthesis-related enzyme-encoding genes were increased at S0, but reduced thereafter, with almost the same dynamic change tendency as the starch content and metabolism-related enzymes, especially during S0 and S1. It was revealed by the gene interaction analysis that AGPase and SBE were core genes for the starch and sucrose metabolism pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Bamboo shoots were the main organ in which starch was stored, while bamboo rhizome should be mainly functioned as a carbohydrate transportation channel and the second carbohydrate sink. Starch metabolism-related genes were expressed at the transcriptional level during underground growth, but at the post-transcriptional level during above-ground growth. It may be possible to enhance edible bamboo shoot quality for an alternative starch source through genetic engineering.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Poaceae/genética , Amido/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Enzima Ramificadora de 1,4-alfa-Glucana/genética , Enzima Ramificadora de 1,4-alfa-Glucana/metabolismo , Amilases/genética , Amilases/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/ultraestrutura , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poaceae/fisiologia , Poaceae/ultraestrutura , Rizoma/genética , Rizoma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rizoma/fisiologia , Rizoma/ultraestrutura
2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15310, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943706

RESUMO

Panax notoginseng is one of the most widely used traditional Chinese herbs with particularly valued roots. Triterpenoid saponins are mainly specialized secondary metabolites, which medically act as bioactive components. Knowledge of the ginsenoside biosynthesis in P. notoginseng, which is of great importance in the industrial biosynthesis and genetic breeding program, remains largely undetermined. Here we combined single molecular real time (SMRT) and Second-Generation Sequencing (SGS) technologies to generate a widespread transcriptome atlas of P. notoginseng. We mapped 2,383 full-length non-chimeric (FLNC) reads to adjacently annotated genes, corrected 1,925 mis-annotated genes and merged into 927 new genes. We identified 8,111 novel transcript isoforms that have improved the annotation of the current genome assembly, of which we found 2,664 novel lncRNAs. We characterized more alternative splicing (AS) events from SMRT reads (20,015 AS in 6,324 genes) than Illumina reads (18,498 AS in 9,550 genes), which contained a number of AS events associated with the ginsenoside biosynthesis. The comprehensive transcriptome landscape reveals that the ginsenoside biosynthesis predominantly occurs in flowers compared to leaves and roots, substantiated by levels of gene expression, which is supported by tissue-specific abundance of isoforms in flowers compared to roots and rhizomes. Comparative metabolic analyses further show that a total of 17 characteristic ginsenosides increasingly accumulated, and roots contained the most ginsenosides with variable contents, which are extraordinarily abundant in roots of the three-year old plants. We observed that roots were rich in protopanaxatriol- and protopanaxadiol-type saponins, whereas protopanaxadiol-type saponins predominated in aerial parts (leaves, stems and flowers). The obtained results will greatly enhance our understanding about the ginsenoside biosynthetic machinery in the genus Panax.


Assuntos
Ginsenosídeos/biossíntese , Ginsenosídeos/genética , Panax notoginseng/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Flores/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Genes de Plantas/genética , Ginsenosídeos/metabolismo , Anotação de Sequência Molecular/métodos , Panax/genética , Panax/metabolismo , Panax notoginseng/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , RNA-Seq/métodos , Rizoma/genética , Rizoma/metabolismo , Rizoma/fisiologia , Sapogeninas/metabolismo , Saponinas/genética , Saponinas/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1602, 2020 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005862

RESUMO

The Miscanthus genus of perennial grasses is grown for bioenergy and biorenewable feedstocks. Most Miscanthus crop is M × giganteus which is rhizome propagated and therefore difficult to multiply at large scale. Seed-based propagation of new hybrids is being developed, but Miscanthus is difficult to establish from seed especially in the field. Miscanthus is often grown on marginal land adding to the challenge of successfully establishing the crop. Improved understanding of the limits and biology of germination in Miscanthus species is needed. Seed germination is affected by physical and chemical factors that impact germination differently depending on level of exposure. In this investigation of Miscanthus germination, four hormones plus water stress were investigated and the range over which these factors affect germination was determined. An efficient Taguchi experimental design was used to assess the five factors in combination with the effects of light and seed priming. This determined an example of a set of optimum conditions for Miscanthus germination and demonstrated how this could change based on fixing one condition. The experiment showed how environmental stress impacted germination and how treatments such as gibberellic acid could be used to mitigate stress.


Assuntos
Germinação/fisiologia , Poaceae/fisiologia , Rizoma/fisiologia , Sementes/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(11)2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167353

RESUMO

Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn) is a wetland vegetable famous for its nutritional and medicinal value. Phenolic compounds are secondary metabolites that play important roles in the browning of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, and chemical constituents are extracted from lotus for medicine due to their high antioxidant activity. Studies have explored in depth the changes in phenolic compounds during browning, while little is known about their synthesis during the formation of lotus rhizome. In this study, transcriptomic analyses of six samples were performed during lotus rhizome formation using a high-throughput tag sequencing technique. About 23 million high-quality reads were generated, and 92.14% of the data was mapped to the reference genome. The samples were divided into two stages, and we identified 23,475 genes in total, 689 of which were involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. A complex genetic crosstalk-regulated network involved in the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds was found during the development of lotus rhizome, and 25 genes in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway, 18 genes in the pentose phosphate pathway, and 30 genes in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway were highly expressed. The expression patterns of key enzymes assigned to the synthesis of phenolic compounds were analyzed. Moreover, several differentially expressed genes required for phenolic compound biosynthesis detected by comparative transcriptomic analysis were verified through qRT-PCR. This work lays a foundation for future studies on the molecular mechanisms of phenolic compound biosynthesis during rhizome formation.


Assuntos
Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Lotus/fisiologia , Fenóis/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Rizoma/fisiologia , Transcriptoma , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 221, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drought stress negatively affects plant growth and productivity. Plants sense soil drought at the root level but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. At the cell level, we aim to reveal the short-term root perception of drought stress through membrane dynamics. RESULTS: In our study, 15 Medicago truncatula accessions were exposed to a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced drought stress, leading to contrasted ecophysiological responses, in particular related to root architecture plasticity. In the reference accession Jemalong A17, identified as drought susceptible, we analyzed lateral roots by imaging of membrane-localized fluorescent probes using confocal microscopy. We found that PEG stimulated endocytosis especially in cells belonging to the growth differentiation zone (GDZ). The mapping of membrane lipid order in cells along the root apex showed that membranes of root cap cells were more ordered than those of more differentiated cells. Moreover, PEG triggered a significant increase in membrane lipid order of rhizodermal cells from the GDZ. We initiated the membrane analysis in the drought resistant accession HM298, which did not reveal such membrane modifications in response to PEG. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrated that the plasma membranes of root cells from a susceptible genotype perceived drought stress by modulating their physical state both via a stimulation of endocytosis and a modification of the degree of lipid order, which could be proposed as mechanisms required for signal transduction.


Assuntos
Secas , Endocitose , Medicago truncatula/fisiologia , Lipídeos de Membrana/metabolismo , Genótipo , Medicago truncatula/genética , Células Vegetais/metabolismo , Células Vegetais/fisiologia , Polietilenoglicóis/administração & dosagem , Rizoma/metabolismo , Rizoma/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico
6.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 209, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: By sensing environmental cues indicative of pathogens or herbivores, plants can "prime" appropriate defenses and deploy faster, stronger responses to subsequent attack. Such priming presumably entails costs-else the primed state should be constitutively expressed-yet those costs remain poorly documented, in part due to a lack of studies conducted under realistic ecological conditions. We explored how defence priming in goldenrod (Solidago altissima) influenced growth and reproduction under semi-natural field conditions by manipulating exposure to priming cues (volatile emissions of a specialist herbivore, Eurosta solidaginis), competition between neighbouring plants, and herbivory (via insecticide application). RESULTS: We found that primed plants grew faster than unprimed plants, but produced fewer rhizomes, suggesting reduced capacity for clonal reproduction. Unexpectedly, this effect was apparent only in the absence of insecticide, prompting a follow-up experiment that revealed direct effects of the pesticide esfenvalerate on plant growth (contrary to previous reports from goldenrod). Meanwhile, even in the absence of pesticide, priming had little effect on herbivore damage levels, likely because herbivores susceptible to the primed defences were rare or absent due to seasonality. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced clonal reproduction in primed plants suggest that priming can entail significant costs for plants. These costs, however, may only become apparent when priming cues fail to provide accurate information about prevailing threats, as was the case in this study. Additionally, our insecticide data indicate that pesticides or their carrier compounds can subtly, but significantly, affect plant physiology and may interact with plant defences.


Assuntos
Herbivoria , Solidago/fisiologia , Tephritidae/fisiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Distribuição Aleatória , Rizoma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rizoma/fisiologia , Solidago/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Am J Bot ; 106(1): 29-41, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30633812

RESUMO

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Hybridization between previously isolated species or lineages can stimulate invasiveness because of increased genetic diversity and inherited traits facilitating competitive and reproductive potential. We evaluated differences in stand characteristics and sexual and vegetative reproduction among native, introduced, and hybrid Phragmites australis lineages in the southwestern United States. We also assessed the degree of hybridization among lineages and backcrossing of hybrids with parental lineages. METHODS: Growth and morphological characteristics were measured in native, introduced, and hybrid Phragmites stands to evaluate relative cover and dominance in associated plant communities. Panicles were collected from stands to evaluate germination, dormancy, and differences in seed traits. Seedlings from germination trials were genotyped to determine frequency of crossing and backcrossing among lineages. KEY RESULTS: Introduced and hybrid Phragmites stands had significantly greater stem and panicle densities than native stands and were more likely to be dominant members of their respective plant communities. Hybrid seed outputs were significantly greater, but hybrid seeds had lower germination rates than those from native and introduced lineages. We detected a novel hybridization event between native and introduced lineages, but found no strong evidence of hybrids backcrossing with parental lineages. CONCLUSIONS: Hybrid Phragmites in the Southwest exhibits reproductive, genetic, and morphological characteristics from both parental lineages that facilitate dispersal, establishment, and aggressive growth, including high reproductive output, rhizome viability, and aboveground biomass, with smaller seeds and greater genetic diversity than its progenitors. Our results show hybrids can inherit traits that confer invasiveness and provide insight for managing this species complex and other cryptic species with native and introduced variants with potential for intraspecific hybridization.


Assuntos
Hibridização Genética , Poaceae/fisiologia , Biomassa , Germinação , Dormência de Plantas , Poaceae/anatomia & histologia , Reprodução , Rizoma/fisiologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
J Plant Res ; 132(1): 69-80, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30610496

RESUMO

Clonal propagation is the main strategy for clonal plants to adapt to wind-sand habitat, and underground bud bank could reflect the potential ability of clonal propagation. However, the effects of population density on belowground bud bank are unknown, hindering efforts in the process of dune stabilization. We investigated the horizontal density and vertical distribution of belowground bud bank of a typical rhizomatous grass Leymus secalinus, and soil water content in four dune types with different population density (dune type I: 11.2 ± 1.7 no. m-2, type II: 24.2 ± 2.6 no. m-2, type III: 40.0 ± 4.0 no. m-2, and type IV: 53.5 ± 7.2 no. m-2) in Mu Us sandy land. Our results showed that (1) total bud density of population increased markedly with increasing population density, but it did not exhibit significant difference between dune types III and IV, where density was about 130 buds m-2; and tiller bud density of population first increased, then decreased, and reached a maximum in dune type III. (2) Total bud density per individual in dune type III was significantly larger than that in other dune types (P < 0.05), whereas rhizome and tiller bud density per individual did not show significant differences in dune types II, III and IV (P > 0.05). (3) Buds tended to be concentrated at 10-30 cm soil layer in all dune types, and be buried deeper in dune types III and IV than that in dune types I and II. (4) No pronounced relationship was shown between bud density and soil water content in 10-30 cm soil layer with increasing population density. Our results suggest that moderate population density (40.0 ± 4.0 no. m-2) significantly increase the bud bank density of L. secalinus population and individual. Soil water content was not the main factor responsible for the density of L. secalinus bud bank. These results can provide important information for implementation of effective sand fixation measures and species selection for desertification control in semiarid sandy land ecosystems.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Poaceae/fisiologia , Rizoma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , China , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Densidade Demográfica , Rizoma/fisiologia , Solo/química , Água/análise
9.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 31(9): 843-851, 2018 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30052031

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that Dioscorea bulbifera rhizome (DBR) can induce hepatotoxicity in clinical practice. However, its underlying mechanisms remain largely unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the global effect of DBR exposure on the proteomic and metabolomic profiles in rats over a 12-week administration using an integrated proteomics and metabolomics approach. The abundance of 1366 proteins and 58 metabolites in the liver of rats after subchronic exposure to DBR was dose-dependently altered. The results indicated that DBR mainly damaged hepatic cells through the aberrant regulation of multiple systems mainly including purine metabolism, pyrimidine metabolism, taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, and bile acid metabolism. Notably, the deregulated proteins including Pnp, Dpyd, Upp1, and Tymp and the differential metabolites including uridine, uracil, cytidine, thymine, adenine, adenosine, adenosine 3'-monophosphate, and deoxycytidine were well correlated to purine and pyrimidine metabolism, which might be novel pathways involved in metabolic abnormalities in rats with DBR-induced liver damage. Collectively, these findings not only contributed to understanding the mechanisms underlying the hepatotoxicity of DBR, but also illustrated the power of integrated proteomics and metabolomics approaches to improve the identification of metabolic pathways and biomarkers indicative of herb-induced liver injury.


Assuntos
Dioscorea/fisiologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolômica/métodos , Proteômica , Rizoma/fisiologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Fígado/fisiologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Testes de Toxicidade
10.
Ann Bot ; 121(5): 897-908, 2018 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29370337

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Ephemeral seagrasses that respond rapidly to environmental changes are important marine habitats. However, they are under threat due to human activity and are logistically difficult and expensive to study. This study aimed to develop a new functional-structural environmentally dependent model of ephemeral seagrass, able to integrate our understanding of ephemeral seagrass growth dynamics and assess options for potential management interventions, such as seagrass transplantation. Methods: A functional-structural plant model was developed in which growth and senescence rates are mechanistically linked to environmental variables. The model was parameterized and validated for a population of Halophila stipulacea in the Persian Gulf. Key Results: There was a good match between empirical and simulated results for the number of apices, net rhizome length or net number of internodes using a 330 d simulation. Simulated data were more variable than empirical data. Simulated structural patterns of seagrass rhizome growth qualitatively matched empirical observations. Conclusions: This new model successfully simulates the environmentally dependent growth and senescence rates of our case-study ephemeral seagrass species. It produces numerical and visual outputs that help synthesize our understanding of how the influence of environmental variables on plant functional processes affects overall growth patterns. The model can also be used to assess the potential outcomes of management interventions like seagrass transplantation, thus providing a useful management tool. It is freely available and easily adapted for new species and locations, although validation with more species and environments is required.


Assuntos
Hydrocharitaceae/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Biomassa , Ecossistema , Meio Ambiente , Hydrocharitaceae/anatomia & histologia , Hydrocharitaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oceano Índico , Biologia Marinha , Rizoma/anatomia & histologia , Rizoma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rizoma/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
New Phytol ; 217(4): 1449-1462, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29238982

RESUMO

The influence of soil temperature on rhizome depths of four intertidal seagrass species was investigated in central Queensland, Australia. We postulated that certain intertidal seagrass species are soil temperature-sensitive and vertically stratify rhizome depths. Below-ground vertical stratification of intertidal seagrass rhizome depths was analysed based upon microclimate (soil temperature) and microhabitat (soil type). Soil temperature profiles exhibited heat transfer from surface layers to depth that varied by microhabitat, with vertical stratification of rhizome depths between species. Halodule uninervis rhizomes maintain a narrow median soil temperature envelope; compensating for high surface temperatures by occupying deeper, cooler soil substrates. Halophila decipiens, Halophila ovalis and Zostera muelleri rhizomes are shallow-rooted and exposed to fluctuating temperatures, with broader median temperature envelopes. Halodule uninervis appears to be a niche specialist, with the two Halophila species considered as generalist niche usage species. The implications of niche use based upon soil temperature profiles and rhizome rooting depths are discussed in the context of species' thermal tolerances and below-ground biomass O2 demand associated with respiration and maintenance of oxic microshields. This preliminary evidence suggests that soil temperature interaction with rhizome rooting depths may be a factor that influences the distribution of intertidal seagrasses.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Temperatura , Zosteraceae/fisiologia , Queensland , Rizoma/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
PLoS One ; 12(11): e0188625, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29190752

RESUMO

Rice (Oryza sativa) is very sensitive to chilling stress at seedling and reproductive stages, whereas wild rice, O. longistaminata, tolerates non-freezing cold temperatures and has overwintering ability. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms of chilling tolerance (CT) in O. longistaminata should thus provide a basis for rice CT improvement through molecular breeding. In this study, high-throughput RNA sequencing was performed to profile global transcriptome alterations and crucial genes involved in response to long-term low temperature in O. longistaminata shoots and rhizomes subjected to 7 days of chilling stress. A total of 605 and 403 genes were respectively identified as up- and down-regulated in O. longistaminata under 7 days of chilling stress, with 354 and 371 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) found exclusively in shoots and rhizomes, respectively. GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analyses revealed that multiple transcriptional regulatory pathways were enriched in commonly induced genes in both tissues; in contrast, only the photosynthesis pathway was prevalent in genes uniquely induced in shoots, whereas several key metabolic pathways and the programmed cell death process were enriched in genes induced only in rhizomes. Further analysis of these tissue-specific DEGs showed that the CBF/DREB1 regulon and other transcription factors (TFs), including AP2/EREBPs, MYBs, and WRKYs, were synergistically involved in transcriptional regulation of chilling stress response in shoots. Different sets of TFs, such as OsERF922, OsNAC9, OsWRKY25, and WRKY74, and eight genes encoding antioxidant enzymes were exclusively activated in rhizomes under long-term low-temperature treatment. Furthermore, several cis-regulatory elements, including the ICE1-binding site, the GATA element for phytochrome regulation, and the W-box for WRKY binding, were highly abundant in both tissues, confirming the involvement of multiple regulatory genes and complex networks in the transcriptional regulation of CT in O. longistaminata. Finally, most chilling-induced genes with alternative splicing exclusive to shoots were associated with photosynthesis and regulation of gene expression, while those enriched in rhizomes were primarily related to stress signal transduction; this indicates that tissue-specific transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation mechanisms synergistically contribute to O. longistaminata long-term CT. Our findings provide an overview of the complex regulatory networks of CT in O. longistaminata.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Oryza/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , RNA de Plantas/genética , Rizoma/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Transcriptoma , Processamento Alternativo , Oryza/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA
13.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 99(6): 743-747, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29080112

RESUMO

Arundo donax (giant reed) has great potential for bioenergy biomass production in constructed wetlands. Large scale use of A. donax in constructed wetlands will require the use of either established plants sourced from nurseries, or the use of cuttings or rhizomes and stems from mother plants derived from nurseries or wild stands. The results of this study suggest that cuttings and rhizomes are not sensitive to salinity up to an EC ~ 4500 µS cm- 1. Plants used to establish a constructed wetland should have stems of at least 300 mm length, with well established roots. Moreover, culms will emerge from small pieces of stems with viable nodes regardless of salinity, albeit the fresher the water the less likely salinity will subsequently affect the emerging shoot. From a practical perspective, this suggests that wetlands can be planted with giant reed using horizontally laid stems. Unless using plants pre-stressed to a salinity matching that of the wastewater to be treated, giant reed should be established using reasonable quality water (EC < 1000 µS cm- 1) until the plants are of a reasonable size, e.g. > 500 mm in height, after which undiluted wastewater can be used.


Assuntos
Poaceae/fisiologia , Salinidade , Biomassa , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rizoma/fisiologia , Água , Qualidade da Água , Áreas Alagadas
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28480420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Production of medicinal plants in controlled environments, particularly hydroponic technology, provides opportunities for high quality biomass accumulation and optimizes production of secondary metabolites. Applying special watering regimes in combination with efficient soil draining is an encouraging new tool for the production of pharmaceutical relevant plants. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the effect of substrate combinations and watering regimes on nutrient uptake, anti-F. oxysporum activity and secondary metabolite profile of S. aethiopicus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Coir was used as the main component for the preparation of media in different combinations; TI (Coir + vermiculite + perlite + bark), T2 (Coir + bark), T3 (Coir + perlite) and T4 (Coir + vermiculite). Plants in different treatments were grown under two watering regimes: 3 and 5-days watering intervals. At 9 weeks post treatment, plants were harvested, oven dried and tissue nutrient content, anti-F. oxysporum activity and secondary metabolites were analyzed. RESULTS: The results showed that there were significant differences (P < 0.05) on the uptake of P, K, N, Mg, Fe, Cu, B and NH4-.The highest mean values for most nutrients were obtained in treatments under 3-days interval. Acetone extracts of S. aethiopicus under 5-days interval were the most bioactive against F. oxysporum. The MIC values obtained are relatively lower for the rhizomes, ranging from 0.078 - 0.3125 mg/ml compared to the higher MIC values (0.375 - 0.75 mg/ml) obtained in the leaves. LC-MS analysis of acetone extracts revealed the presence of phytochemicals such as caffeic acid, quercetin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, rutin, kaempferol, epicatechin, naringenin, hesperetin and protocatechuic acid. CONCLUSION: The antimicrobial activity and/or the phytochemical profile of the crude extracts were affected by watering regimes.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Asarum/fisiologia , Hidroponia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Água/administração & dosagem , Acetona/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Asarum/química , Biomassa , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Rizoma/química , Rizoma/fisiologia , Água/fisiologia
15.
Zh Obshch Biol ; 78(2): 47-60, 2017.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30024677

RESUMO

In the review, the problem of plant movements (photo- and gravitropism) is discussed. The contemporary data on physiological and molecular mechanisms of tropisms in underground shoots and roots are presented. Special attention is paid to diagravitropism phenomenon in underground shoots (stolons and rhizomes) that grow in perpendicular direction to the Earth's gravitational axis. The role of phytochrome control in maintaining the horizontal growth of stolons and rhizomes is demonstrated, and physiological mechanisms of photo- and diagravitropism are discussed. It is shown that switching of an underground shoot tip from diatropic to ortotropic (vertical) growth is dependent on the carbohydrate and phytohor-mone balance. The perspectives are outlined for further exploratory studies on mechanisms of growth orientation and morphogenesis of underground diagravitropic shoots.


Assuntos
Gravitropismo/fisiologia , Fototropismo/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas , Rizoma/fisiologia
16.
Ann Bot ; 119(3): 477-485, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28025285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Competitive crops are a central component of resource-efficient weed control, especially for problematic perennial weeds such as Elymus repens Competition not only reduces total weed biomass, but denial of resources can also change the allocation pattern - potentially away from the underground storage organs that make perennial weeds difficult to control. Thus, the competition mode of crops may be an important component in the design of resource-efficient cropping systems. Our aim was to determine how competition from companion crops with different modes of competition affect E. repens biomass acquisition and allocation and discuss that in relation to how E. repens responds to different levels of light and nutrient supply. METHODS: Greenhouse experiments were conducted with E. repens growing in interspecific competition with increasing density of perennial ryegrass or red clover, or growing at three levels of both light and nutrient supply. KEY RESULTS: Elymus repens total biomass decreased with increasing biomass of the companion crop and the rate of decrease was higher with red clover than with perennial ryegrass, particularly for E. repens rhizome biomass. A reduced nutrient supply shifted E. repens allocation towards below-ground biomass while a reduced light supply shifted it towards shoot biomass. Red clover caused no change in E. repens allocation pattern, while ryegrass mostly shifted the allocation towards below-ground biomass, but the change was not correlated with ryegrass biomass. CONCLUSIONS: The companion crop mode of competition influences both the suppression rate of E. repens biomass acquisition and the likelihood of shifts in E. repens biomass allocation.


Assuntos
Elymus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Daninhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomassa , Produção Agrícola , Elymus/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Plantas Daninhas/fisiologia , Rizoma/fisiologia , Luz Solar
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(34): 9451-6, 2016 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27503883

RESUMO

The colonization of terrestrial environments by rooted vascular plants had far-reaching impacts on the Earth system. However, the belowground structures of early vascular plants are rarely documented, and thus the plant-soil interactions in early terrestrial ecosystems are poorly understood. Here we report the earliest rooted paleosols (fossil soils) in Asia from Early Devonian deposits of Yunnan, China. Plant traces are extensive within the soil and occur as complex network-like structures, which are interpreted as representing long-lived, belowground rhizomes of the basal lycopsid Drepanophycus The rhizomes produced large clones and helped the plant survive frequent sediment burial in well-drained soils within a seasonal wet-dry climate zone. Rhizome networks contributed to the accumulation and pedogenesis of floodplain sediments and increased the soil stabilizing effects of early plants. Predating the appearance of trees with deep roots in the Middle Devonian, plant rhizomes have long functioned in the belowground soil ecosystem. This study presents strong, direct evidence for plant-soil interactions at an early stage of vascular plant radiation. Soil stabilization by complex rhizome systems was apparently widespread, and contributed to landscape modification at an earlier time than had been appreciated.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Fósseis , Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Rizoma/fisiologia , Solo/química , China , Ecossistema , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Plantas/classificação , Rizoma/anatomia & histologia
18.
Ann Bot ; 118(3): 481-94, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27443301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Rhizomes are underground stems with meristematic tissues capable of generating shoots and roots. However, mechanisms controlling rhizome formation and growth are yet to be completely understood. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether rhizome development could be regulated by cytokinins (CKs) and gibberellic acids (GAs), and determine underlying mechanisms of regulation of rhizome formation and growth of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) by a CK or GA through proteomic and transcript analysis. METHODS: A rhizomatous genotype of tall fescue ('BR') plants were treated with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP, a synthetic cytokinin) or GA3 in hydroponic culture in growth chambers. Furthermore, comparative proteomic analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were performed to investigate proteins and associated metabolic pathways imparting increased rhizome number by BAP and rhizome elongation by GA3 KEY RESULTS: BAP stimulated rhizome formation while GA3 promoted rhizome elongation. Proteomic analysis identified 76 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) due to BAP treatment and 37 DEPs due to GA3 treatment. Cytokinin-related genes and cell division-related genes were upregulated in the rhizome node by BAP and gibberellin-related and cell growth-related genes in the rhizome by GA3 CONCLUSIONS: Most of the BAP- or GA-responsive DEPs were involved in respiratory metabolism and amino acid metabolism. Transcription analysis demonstrated that genes involved in hormone metabolism, signalling pathways, cell division and cell-wall loosening were upregulated by BAP or GA3 The CK and GA promoted rhizome formation and growth, respectively, by activating metabolic pathways that supply energy and amino acids to support cell division and expansion during rhizome initiation and elongation in tall fescue.


Assuntos
Compostos de Benzil/farmacologia , Festuca/efeitos dos fármacos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Purinas/farmacologia , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Citocininas/metabolismo , Festuca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Festuca/fisiologia , Genótipo , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteômica , Rizoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Rizoma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rizoma/fisiologia
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(24): 6695-700, 2016 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27226309

RESUMO

Lycophyte trees, up to 50 m in height, were the tallest in the Carboniferous coal swamp forests. The similarity in their shoot and root morphology led to the hypothesis that their rooting (stigmarian) systems were modified leafy shoot systems, distinct from the roots of all other plants. Each consists of a branching main axis covered on all sides by lateral structures in a phyllotactic arrangement; unbranched microphylls developed from shoot axes, and largely unbranched stigmarian rootlets developed from rhizomorphs axes. Here, we reexamined the morphology of extinct stigmarian systems preserved as compression fossils and in coal balls from the Carboniferous period. Contrary to the long-standing view of stigmarian systems, where shoot-like rhizomorph axes developed largely unbranched, root-hairless rootlets, here we report that stigmarian rootlets were highly branched, developed at a density of ∼25,600 terminal rootlets per meter of rhizomorph, and were covered in root hairs. Furthermore, we show that this architecture is conserved among their only extant relatives, herbaceous plants in the Isoetes genus. Therefore, despite the difference in stature and the time that has elapsed, we conclude that both extant and extinct rhizomorphic lycopsids have the same rootlet system architecture.


Assuntos
Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , Rizoma/fisiologia , Árvores/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Rizoma/anatomia & histologia , Árvores/anatomia & histologia
20.
Nutr. hosp ; 32(2): 913-917, ago. 2015. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-140031

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to evaluate the medicinal values of different parts of Epimedium brevicornu Maxim. and the effect of processing on major pharmaceutical ingredients in it. The contents of icariin and epimedin C in different parts and processed medicinal material of E. brevicornu in Taihang Mountain were determined with ultrasonic extraction and RP-HPLC. The results indicated that the contents of icariin and epimedin C, respectively 3.4524% and 0.5485%, in the leaf are higher than that in other parts. The contents of icariin and epimedin C, respectively 0.1942 % and 0.1342%, in the stem (include petiole) are the lowest. The contents of these ingredients in the root (include rhizome) are close to that in the leaf. The icariin and epimedin C in all parts of E. brevicornu reduced after processing. The content of icariin in the processed leaf is about 59.5% of that in unprocessed leaves. The effect of prossing on the content of icariin in the stem is unobvious. The content of epimedin C in the processed leaf is about 33.7% of that in unprocessed leaf. The content of epimedin C in the processed stem (include petiole) is about 36.9% of that in unprocessed stem. It is worth to exploit the stem and petiole of E. brevicornu because there are certain contents of pharmaceutical ingredients in them. The firepower should be paid attention to and the temperature should not be very high to avoid the damage on pharmaceutical ingredients in E. brevicornu when process it (AU)


Este estudio pretende evaluar los valores medicinales de diferentes partes de la Epimedium brevicornu Maxim y el efecto de su procesamiento sobre sus principales componentes farmacéuticos. El contenido de icariina y epimedin C en diferentes partes y en material medicinal procesado de Epimedium brevicornu en la montaña de Taihang fue determinado mediante extracción ultrasónica y RP-HPLC. Los resultados indicaron que el contenido de icariina y epimedin C, respectivamente 3,4524% y 0,5485%, en la hoja son mayores que en otras partes. El contenido de icariina y epimedin C, respectivamente 0,1942% y 0,1342%, en el tallo (peciolo incluido) es más bajo. El contenido de estos componentes en la raíz (rizoma incluido) es similar al de la hoja. El contenido de icariina y epimedin C en todas las partes de E. brevicornu se vio reducido después del procesado. El contenido de icariina en la hoja procesada es aproximadamente el 59,5% del de la hoja sin procesar. El efecto del procesado sobre el contenido de icariina en el tallo no es evidente. El contenido de epimedin C en el tallo procesado es de aproximadamente el 33,7% del de la hoja sin procesar. El contenido de epimedin C en el tallo procesado (peciolo incluido) es de aproximadamente el 36,9% de aquel del tallo sin procesar. Vale la pena aprovechar el tallo y peciolo de la E. brevicornu porque hay cierto contenido de componentes farmacéuticos en ellos. Hay que controlar la potencia de fuego y la temperatura no debe ser muy alta para evitar dañar los componentes farmacéuticos de la E. brevicornu (AU)


Assuntos
Epimedium/metabolismo , Epimedium/fisiologia , Rizoma/metabolismo , Rizoma/fisiologia , Metanol , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/tendências , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Epimedium
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