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1.
Food Chem ; 336: 127714, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828014

RESUMO

Five new flavonoids (1-5), along with 25 known compounds, were isolated from the rhizomes of Potentilla anserina L. and their structures were identified using spectroscopic and chemical evidence. The extract, all fractions, and all isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant, α-glucosidase, and tyrosinase inhibitory activities, and their structure-activity relationship was interpreted. The biflavanols and quercetin-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside-2″-gallate (14) exhibited significant antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibition activities. In this study, anti-tyrosinase activity and its mechanism of active compounds (potenserin C (4), potenserin D (5), and quercetin-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside-2″-gallate (14)) were explored by a combination of computational simulations and kinetic studies. Kinetic studies indicated that potenserin C (4) and quercetin-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside-2″-gallate (14) inhibited tyrosinase in a competitive manner, whereas potenserin D (5) acted in a reversible noncompetitive manner. The molecular docking result indicated that the substitution of the glucose moiety with galloyl and the presence of 3', 4', 5'-OH in flavonoid aglycones played a crucial role for the tyrosinase inhibiting effect. Moreover, the presence of biflavanols increased the activity against tyrosinase because of strong hydrogen binding, π-alkyl binding, and electrostatic interaction. Thus, the presented experiments developed several new lead compounds that could act as antioxidants and α-glucosidase inhibitors. Furthermore, biflavanols and quercetin-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside-2″-gallate played important roles in the anti-browning activity during food processing.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Potentilla/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Antioxidantes/química , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Cinética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Quercetina/química , Quercetina/farmacologia , Rizoma/metabolismo
2.
Gene ; 744: 144626, 2020 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224272

RESUMO

Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce is a well-known traditional Chinese herb. Polysaccharides are major bioactive components of Polygonatum odoratum, which can improve immunity, and are used to treat rheumatic heart disease, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. This study identified potential genes and transcription factors (TFs) that regulate polysaccharide synthesis in Polygonatum odoratum (Mill.) Druce using RNA sequencing data from leaf, stem, and rhizome tissues. 76,714 unigenes were annotated in public databases. Analysis of KEGG annotations identified 18 key enzymes responsible for polysaccharide biosynthesis and the most of the upregulated expressed unigenes were enriched in rhizome tissue compared with leaf or stem tissue. 73 TFs involved in polysaccharide synthesis were predicted. In addition, key enzyme genes were verified by quantitative real-time PCR. This study substantially enlarged the public transcriptome datasets of this species, and provided insight into detection of novel genes involved in synthesis of polysaccharides and other secondary metabolites.


Assuntos
Polygonatum/genética , Polissacarídeos/biossíntese , Transcriptoma , Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/genética , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Polygonatum/enzimologia , Polygonatum/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Rizoma/genética , Rizoma/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , beta-Frutofuranosidase/química
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 195: 110472, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199219

RESUMO

The mercury residue in soil not only poisons plants, but also bioaccumulates and biomagnifies through the food chain, causing a significant risk to human health. As an essential condiment on the table, the food safety of ginger should be focused on. Using soil culture experiments, this study aimed to identify the response of ginger growth to mercury pollution, assess the transmission and residue of mercury in different product organs and explore the mitigation mechanism of silicon on mercury toxicity. Effects of soil mercury pollution on ginger growth showed hormesis and time effect. Long-term mercury pollution led to growth inhibition and quality degradation of ginger, eventually reducing its yield by 25.96% (mercury = 9 mg kg-1). Contents of mercury and silicon in different organs both were the highest in root, followed by rhizome, less in stem and leaf, especially the mercury residue in rhizome manifested as Mother-ginger > Son-ginger > Grandson-ginger. At 6 mg kg-1 soil mercury level, the mercury residue of Mother-ginger exceeds the edible pollutant limit standard (China) by 10.7 times, which makes no obvious risk after being consumed by adults, but poses a potential health threat to children. Notably, it is safer to consume the newly sprouted and inflated tender ginger. Application of silicon fertilizer could alleviate mercury toxicity, mainly by promoting ginger root growth and leaf pigment synthesis, stimulating water-gas exchange system, fluorescence system and antioxidant system to make an anti-stress response. 2 mg kg-1 silicon fertilizer had the most significant mitigation effect on mercury stress, which increased the yield of ginger by 24.85% and reduced the mercury residue of ginger block by 44.44%-60.17%.


Assuntos
Gengibre/efeitos dos fármacos , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Silício/farmacologia , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Fertilizantes , Gengibre/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gengibre/metabolismo , Mercúrio/farmacocinética , Folhas de Planta/química , Rizoma/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética
4.
Plant Mol Biol ; 102(4-5): 477-499, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902069

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: The study carry out comprehensive transcriptome analysis of C. deltoidea and exploration of BIAs biosynthesis and accumulation based on UHPLC-MS/MS and combined sequencing platforms. Coptis deltoidea is an important medicinal plant with a long history of medicinal use, which is rich in benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs). In this study, Ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) and combined sequencing platforms were performed for exploration of BIAs biosynthesis, accumulation and comprehensive transcriptome analysis of C. deltoidea. By metabolism profiling, the accumulation of ten BIAs was analyzed using UHPLC-MS/MS and different contents were observed in different organs. From transcriptome sequencing result, we applied single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing to C. deltoidea and generated a total of 75,438 full-length transcripts. We proposed the candidate biosynthetic pathway of tyrosine, precursor of BIAs, and identified 64 full length-transcripts encoding enzymes putatively involved in BIAs biosynthesis. RNA-Seq data indicated that the majority of genes exhibited relatively high expression level in roots. Transport of BIAs was also important for their accumulation. Here, 9 ABC transporters and 2 MATE transporters highly homologous to known alkaloid transporters related with BIAs transport in roots and rhizomes were identified. These findings based on the combined sequencing platforms provide valuable genetic information for C. deltoidea and the results of transcriptome combined with metabolome analysis can help us better understand BIAs biosynthesis and transport in this medicinal plant. The information will be critical for further characterization of C. deltoidea transcriptome and molecular-assisted breeding for this medicinal plant with scarce resources.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/biossíntese , Benzilisoquinolinas/química , Coptis/genética , Coptis/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Rizoma/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
5.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 865, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gynostemma pentaphyllum is an important perennial medicinal herb belonging to the family Cucurbitaceae. Aerial stem-to-rhizome transition before entering the winter is an adaptive regenerative strategy in G. pentaphyllum that enables it to survive during winter. However, the molecular regulation of aerial stem-to-rhizome transition is unknown in plants. Here, integrated transcriptome and miRNA analysis was conducted to investigate the regulatory network of stem-to-rhizome transition. RESULTS: Nine transcriptome libraries prepared from stem/rhizome samples collected at three stages of developmental stem-to-rhizome transition were sequenced and a total of 5428 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. DEGs associated with gravitropism, cell wall biosynthesis, photoperiod, hormone signaling, and carbohydrate metabolism were found to regulate stem-to-rhizome transition. Nine small RNA libraries were parallelly sequenced, and seven significantly differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) were identified, including four known and three novel miRNAs. The seven DEMs targeted 123 mRNAs, and six pairs of miRNA-target showed significantly opposite expression trends. The GpmiR166b-GpECH2 module involved in stem-to-rhizome transition probably promotes cell expansion by IBA-to-IAA conversion, and the GpmiR166e-GpSGT-like module probably protects IAA from degradation, thereby promoting rhizome formation. GpmiR156a was found to be involved in stem-to-rhizome transition by inhibiting the expression of GpSPL13A/GpSPL6, which are believed to negatively regulate vegetative phase transition. GpmiR156a and a novel miRNA Co.47071 co-repressed the expression of growth inhibitor GpRAV-like during stem-to-rhizome transition. These miRNAs and their targets were first reported to be involved in the formation of rhizomes. In this study, the expression patterns of DEGs, DEMs and their targets were further validated by quantitative real-time PCR, supporting the reliability of sequencing data. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed a comprehensive molecular network regulating the transition of aerial stem to rhizome in G. pentaphyllum. These results broaden our understanding of developmental phase transitions in plants.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gynostemma/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , Rizoma/genética , Transcriptoma , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , China , Temperatura Baixa , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Biblioteca Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Gravitropismo/genética , Gynostemma/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/classificação , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais , RNA de Plantas/classificação , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Rizoma/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
6.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 201: 111643, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698218

RESUMO

Diabetes is a major emerging health consequence across the world which directly associated with the obesity. Contemporary anti-diabetic drugs have numeral limitations, and investigation of herbal remedies for diabetes give novel guide for the expansion of new drugs that can be used as harmonizing to present anti-diabetic allopathic medications. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) of 21 nm have been formerly well portrayed in vitro for their capability to intend active uptake in cell. Our present study was dealing with the synthesis of gold nanoparticles by means of Smilax glabra rhizome amend the anti-obesity constraints in high-fat diet by streptozotocin provoked obese diabetes in rat model. Characterization studies like UV -Spectroscopy, XRD analysis, SEM, TEM microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy, and FT-IR investigation confirms the availability of dimension, shape and size. Biochemical parameters like blood glucose and insulin sufferance and its release, lipid profile, aterogenic & coronary index, liver markers, inflammatory markers, hormones like leptin, resistin, adiponectin indicates the therapeutic effect of gold nanoparticles harvested from Smilax glabra on obese and diabetic rats. Histopathological examinations displayed the disturbed internal structures of obese and diabetic rats liver and heart tissues. Whereas, treatment with gold nanoparticles synthesized from Smilax glabra restored the internal membrane, nuclei and cytoplasm. All these findings confirmed the anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effect of synthesized gold nanoparticles from Smilax glabra.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Smilax/química , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Rizoma/química , Rizoma/metabolismo , Smilax/metabolismo , Estreptozocina/toxicidade
7.
Molecules ; 24(22)2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717456

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disease accompanied by a series of diseases such as diabetic nephropathy. The drug pair (HS) of Astragalus Radix (HQ) and Dioscoreae Rhizoma (SY) was designed by Dr. Shi Jinmo to improve the treatment of T2DM. However, the exact mechanism involved requires further clarification. In this work, 1H-NMR-based metabonomics and network pharmacology were adopted. Metabolic profiling indicated that the metabolic perturbation was reduced after HS treatment. The results found 21 biomarkers. According to the network pharmacology, we found that the regulation of T2DM was primarily associated with 18 active compounds in HS. These active compounds mainly had an effect on 135 targets. Subsequently, combining network pharmacology and metabonomics, we found four target proteins, which indicated that HS has potential hypoglycemic effects through regulating monoamine oxidases B (MAOB), acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACACA), carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA2), and catalase (CAT). In conclusion, the result showed that these four targets might be the most relevant targets for the treatment of T2DM with HS. This study clarified the mechanism of HS in the treatment of T2DM and also confirmed the feasibility of combining metabonomics and network pharmacology to study the mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In the future, this approach may be a potentially powerful tool to discovery active components of traditional Chinese medicines and elucidate their mechanisms.


Assuntos
Astrágalo (Planta)/química , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Rizoma/química , Animais , Astrágalo (Planta)/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metabolômica/métodos , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Extratos Vegetais , Ratos , Rizoma/metabolismo
8.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 766, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rhizome is the storage underground stem of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera), which is enlarged before winter season and could be used for asexual propagation. In addition, the enlarged rhizome is a nutritional vegetable with abundant starch, proteins, and vitamins. Enlargement of lotus rhizome is not only significance for itself to survive from the cold winter, but also important for its economic value. RESULTS: To explore the mechanism underlying its enlargement, integrative analyses of morphology, physiology and proteomics were conducted on the rhizome at stolon, middle, and enlarged stages. Morphological observation and physiological analyses showed that rhizomes were gradually enlarged during this process, in which the starch accumulation was also initiated. Quantitative proteomic analysis on the rhizomes at these three stages identified 302 stage-specific proteins (SSPs) and 172 differently expressed proteins (DEPs), based on which GO and KEGG enrichment analyses were conducted. The results indicated that light and auxin signal might be transduced through secondary messenger Ca2+, and play important roles in lotus rhizome enlargement. CONCLUSION: These results will provide new insights into understanding the mechanism of lotus rhizome enlargement. Meanwhile, some candidate genes might be useful for further studies on this process, as well as breeding of rhizome lotus.


Assuntos
Nelumbo , Rizoma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rizoma/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Modelos Biológicos , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteômica , Rizoma/genética , Amido/metabolismo
9.
Environ Toxicol ; 34(12): 1354-1362, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436008

RESUMO

Ultraviolet-B light (UV-B) is a major cause of skin photoaging, inducing cell death and extracellular matrix collapse by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). Belamcandae Rhizoma (BR), the rhizome of Belamcanda chinensis Leman, exhibits antioxidant properties, but it remains unknown whether BR extract ameliorates UV-B-induced skin damage. In this study, we evaluated the effects of a standardized BR extract on UV-B-induced apoptosis and collagen degradation in HaCaT cells. BR was extracted using four different methods. We used radical-scavenging assays to compare the antioxidative activities of the four extracts. Cells were irradiated with UV-B and treated with BR boiled in 70% (vol/vol) ethanol (BBE). We measured cell viability, intracellular ROS levels, the expression levels of antioxidative enzymes, and apoptosis-related and collagen degradation-related proteins. The irisflorentin and tectorigenin levels were measured via high-performance liquid chromatography. BBE exhibited the best radical-scavenging and cell protective effects of the four BR extracts. BBE inhibited intracellular ROS generation and induced the synthesis of antioxidative enzymes such as catalase and glutathione. BBE attenuated apoptosis by reducing the level of caspase-3 and increasing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. BBE reduced the level of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and increased that of type I collagen. The irisflorentin and tectorigenin contents were 0.23% and 0.015%, respectively. From these results, BBE ameliorated UV-B-induced apoptosis and collagen degradation by enhancing the expression of antioxidative enzymes. It may be a useful treatment for UV-B-induced skin damage.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Iris/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Raios Ultravioleta , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Linhagem Celular , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Iris/metabolismo , Isoflavonas/análise , Queratinócitos/citologia , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 1 da Matriz/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Rizoma/química , Rizoma/metabolismo
10.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 175: 112738, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362249

RESUMO

Turmeric (Curcuma longa L, Zingiberaceae) rhizomes exhibit versatile biological activities including the significant anti-cancer property. As an herbal medicine, the therapeutic effects of turmeric may be expressed by multi-components which have complicated integration effects on multi-targets. Therefore, having previously found three A549 cell-binding curcuminoids (curcumin, Cur; demethoxycurcumin, DMcur; bisdemethoxycurcumin, BMcur) from turmeric, studies were undertaken in this paper to determine the anti-cancer mechanism and integration effects of these curcuminoids by using chemical markers' knockout and UHPLC-LTQ Orbitrap MS-based metabolomics. Four curcuminoid-containing fractions including a mixture of 3 cell-binding curcuminoids (CE), and three individual curcuminoids with natural proportion in turmeric were prepared by chemical markers' knockout method. CE, Cur, DMcur and BMcur fractions showed significant anti-cancer activity on A549 cells. The activities of CE, Cur and BMcur fractions were comparative with the turmeric crude extract (TcE). In the metabolomics study, CE and three individual curcuminoid fractions changed the expression of 25 metabolites in A549 cells, which were involved in glycerophospholipid catabolism, sphingolipid metabolism and fatty acid metabolism, etc. Among them, glycerophospholipid catabolism was disordered greatly in CE group, while sphingolipid metabolism was suggested to be closely related to DMcur and BMcur activity. Furthermore, the metabolomics data showed that three curcuminoids existed synergistic and antagonistic actions and the use of multi-curcuminoids is more powerful than use of single curcuminoid on the metabolic alterations of A549 cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Curcuma/química , Diarileptanoides/metabolismo , Diarileptanoides/farmacologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Células A549 , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Curcuma/metabolismo , Curcumina/metabolismo , Curcumina/farmacologia , Humanos , Metabolômica/métodos , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Rizoma/química , Rizoma/metabolismo
11.
J Nat Prod ; 82(7): 1893-1901, 2019 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287681

RESUMO

The rhizomes of Bulbine natalensis furnished six previously unreported anthraquinone derivatives (1-6), together with eight known specialized metabolites. Their structures were determined by interpretation of 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS data. The absolute configurations of compounds 1-6 were determined by specific rotation and circular dichroism experiments. The isolated compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activities, and compound 1 was found to be a moderate inhibitor (IC50 0.02 µM) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).


Assuntos
Antraquinonas/metabolismo , Rizoma/metabolismo , Xanthorrhoeaceae/metabolismo , Antraquinonas/isolamento & purificação , Antraquinonas/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Análise Espectral/métodos
12.
J Sep Sci ; 42(19): 3067-3076, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347249

RESUMO

Ligustrazine was the active ingredient of the traditional Chinese medicine Chuanxiong Rhizoma. However, the content of ligustrazine is very low. We proposed a hypothesis that ligustrazine was produced by the mutual effects between endophytic Bacillus subtilis and the Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. This study aimed to explore whether the endophytic B. subtilis LB5 could make use of Chuanxiong Rhizoma fermentation matrix to produce ligustrazine and clarify the mechanisms of action preliminarily. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis showed the content of ligustrazine in Chuanxiong Rhizoma was below the detection limit (0.1 ng/mL), while B. subtilis LB5 produced ligustrazine at the yield of 1.0268 mg/mL in the Chuanxiong Rhizoma-ammonium sulfate fermentation medium. In the fermented matrix, the reducing sugar had a significant reduction from 12.034 to 2.424 mg/mL, and rough protein content increased from 2.239 to 4.361 mg/mL. Acetoin, the biosynthetic precursor of ligustrazine, was generated in the Chuanxiong Rhizoma-Ammonium sulfate (151.2 mg/mL) fermentation medium. This result showed that the endophytic bacteria B. subtilis LB5 metabolized Chuanxiong Rhizoma via secreted protein to consume the sugar in Chuanxiong Rhizoma to produce a considerable amount of ligustrazine. Collectively, our preliminary research suggested that ligustrazine was the interaction product of endophyte, but not the secondary metabolite of Chuanxiong Rhizoma itself.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Pirazinas/análise , Rizoma/química , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/metabolismo , Fermentação , Espectrometria de Massas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Pirazinas/metabolismo , Rizoma/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Food Chem ; 297: 124896, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253254

RESUMO

We report here the results of the study of the chemical composition of Cyperus esculentus rhizomes. Ethanolic extracts have been separated by column chromatography and analyzed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Quercetin, stigmasterol, and linoleic and oleic acid glycerol esters, together with 4-chlorobutyl oleate, oleamide, myricetin, tyramine and N-feruloyltyramine, found for the first time in Cyperus esculentus rhizomes, have been isolated and quantified in the extracts. Alkaloids have not been detected, and the presence of flavonoids and sterols is moderate.


Assuntos
Cyperus/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cyperus/metabolismo , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Quercetina/análise , Quercetina/isolamento & purificação , Rizoma/química , Rizoma/metabolismo
14.
Chemosphere ; 230: 303-307, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108441

RESUMO

Plant resistance to metals can be achieved by two strategies, tolerance and avoidance. Although metal tolerance has been broadly studied in terrestrial plants, avoidance has been less considered as a strategy to cope with soil metal pollution. Avoidance may be an effective alternative in herbaceous plants with connected clonal growth in environments having high heterogeneity in soil micro-spatial distribution of available metals and other soil conditions (i.e. organic matter). In this study, we performed a laboratory experiment on clonal growth of Solidago chilensis when exposed to copper-spiked soils (800 mg kg-1) at different depths (0, 2, 5 and 8 cm depth), with (20%) and without addition of organic matter to mimic contrasting microhabitats found at smelter hinterlands (i.e. open bare ground and microhabitats below shrubs). Results showed that plants grown in the 2 cm-depth Cu-spiked soils were able to growth and produce ramets and rhizomes. However, increased Cu uptake of plants determined phytotoxic effects and a reduction in clonal spread in the 5 cm- and 8 cm-depth Cu-spiked soils. Addition of organic matter to the Cu-spiked soil layers allowed clonal spread. Considering that ramet and rhizome production is decreased but not inhibited when copper pollution is restricted to the uppermost soil layer (2 cm depth) and that organic matter eliminated soil copper toxicity allowing normal clonal spread, connected clonal growth may be an effective avoidance mechanism of Solidago chilensis, particularly in environments with high heterogeneity in micro-spatial distribution of metals and organic matter in the soil profile and between microhabitats.


Assuntos
Cobre/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Solo/química , Solidago/efeitos dos fármacos , Solidago/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biodegradação Ambiental , Células Clonais , Cobre/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos , Rizoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Rizoma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rizoma/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Solidago/metabolismo
15.
J Theor Biol ; 476: 19-29, 2019 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128141

RESUMO

The Nye-Tinker-Barber model is a basic and representative one for single-ion nutrient uptake by plant root from the soil and we aim to derive its approximate analytical solutions of flux and concentration. We divide the rhizosphere into the inner and the outer fields, match the inner and the outer solutions near the root surface, and then obtain the approximate analytical solutions of nutrient uptake flux at the root surface and global nutrient concentration of the diffusion or the convection-diffusion Nye-Tinker-Barber model. The analytical and numerical fluxes of K+ and [Formula: see text] decay quickly to 0 in less than 3 days while [Formula: see text] and Cd2+ gradually decrease in more than 15 days; the depletion profile spread of [Formula: see text] is apparently narrower than [Formula: see text] and K+ in 24 days. The different flux and concentration patterns of 4 nutrients result from their mobility and solubility in the rhizosphere. In comparison with the numerical simulations and the previous analytical results, we find that the analytical flux will overestimate the numerical flux of [Formula: see text] and Cd2+ while the analytical concentration can accurately predict the numerical concentration; the flux and the concentration solutions of the convection-diffusion Nye-Tinker-Barber model can be simplified to the diffusion versions by the Péclet number, and they can more widely describe the transport of nutrients of different attributes in soils of different textures with different levels of saturation, conductivity and permeability.


Assuntos
Modelos Biológicos , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Rizoma/metabolismo , Solo , Transporte de Íons/fisiologia
16.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 221, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drought stress negatively affects plant growth and productivity. Plants sense soil drought at the root level but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. At the cell level, we aim to reveal the short-term root perception of drought stress through membrane dynamics. RESULTS: In our study, 15 Medicago truncatula accessions were exposed to a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced drought stress, leading to contrasted ecophysiological responses, in particular related to root architecture plasticity. In the reference accession Jemalong A17, identified as drought susceptible, we analyzed lateral roots by imaging of membrane-localized fluorescent probes using confocal microscopy. We found that PEG stimulated endocytosis especially in cells belonging to the growth differentiation zone (GDZ). The mapping of membrane lipid order in cells along the root apex showed that membranes of root cap cells were more ordered than those of more differentiated cells. Moreover, PEG triggered a significant increase in membrane lipid order of rhizodermal cells from the GDZ. We initiated the membrane analysis in the drought resistant accession HM298, which did not reveal such membrane modifications in response to PEG. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrated that the plasma membranes of root cells from a susceptible genotype perceived drought stress by modulating their physical state both via a stimulation of endocytosis and a modification of the degree of lipid order, which could be proposed as mechanisms required for signal transduction.


Assuntos
Secas , Endocitose , Medicago truncatula/fisiologia , Lipídeos de Membrana/metabolismo , Genótipo , Medicago truncatula/genética , Células Vegetais/metabolismo , Células Vegetais/fisiologia , Polietilenoglicóis/administração & dosagem , Rizoma/metabolismo , Rizoma/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico
17.
Mol Pharm ; 16(6): 2690-2699, 2019 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038962

RESUMO

The nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a key regulator of innate immune responses, and its aberrant activation is implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes. Targeting the NLRP3 inflammasome could hold promise to combat these complex diseases, but therapies specifically inhibiting the NLRP3 inflammasome have not been developed for patient treatment. The current study aimed to identify food-borne exosome-like nanoparticles (ELNs) that inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome activity. Nine vegetables or fruits were selected to extract ELNs, which were examined for their inhibitory effects on activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in primary macrophages. Although most of the tested ELNs posed minimal impacts, the ELNs from ginger rhizomes (G-ELNs) strongly inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation. The G-ELNs contained lipids, proteins, and RNAs and were easily taken up by macrophages. G-ELN treatment suppressed pathways downstream of inflammasome activation including caspase1 autocleavage, interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-18 secretion, and pyroptotic cell death. Apoptotic speck protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) oligomerization and speck formation assays indicated that G-ELNs blocked assembly of the NLRP3 inflammasome. The lipids in G-ELNs, rather than the RNAs or proteins, were responsible for the inhibitory activity observed. Together, the data suggested G-ELNs as new potent agents that block NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and activation. The unique features of G-ELNs including biomolecule protection and tissue bioavailability should facilitate the development of G-ELN-based therapy to target the NLRP3 inflammasome in the disease settings.


Assuntos
Exossomos/química , Gengibre , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Rizoma/metabolismo , Animais , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Immunoblotting , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Lipossomos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
18.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(5): e1900123, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933425

RESUMO

Two previously undescribed guaiane-type sesquiterpenes (1 and 2), a pair of new salvialane-type sesquiterpenes (3a and 3b), together with 11 known compounds were isolated and purified from the rhizomes of Curcuma kwangsiensis. Their structures were elucidated by the extensive spectroscopic data (1D- and 2D-NMR) analysis. All the isolated compounds were assessed for their anti-neuroinflammatory activity by inhibiting the nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine BV-2 microglial cells in vitro assay, and the isolates 3 and 11 showed anti-neuroinflammatory activity with IC50 values of 1.85 and 20.05 µm, respectively.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Curcuma/química , Sesquiterpenos/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Curcuma/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos , Microglia/citologia , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Conformação Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Rizoma/química , Rizoma/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia
19.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(5): e1900057, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30794339

RESUMO

Globba schomburgkii Hook.f. is an ornamental plant that has recently found increasing demand as cut flowers, hence generating a significant number of by-products from different parts of the plant. To investigate the further applications of these by-products, twelve crude extracts from rhizomes, stalks, leaves, and flowers were prepared by serial exhaustive extraction. The volatile composition of these extracts was analyzed by GC/MS; a total of 89 compounds were identified, most of which were sesquiterpenes as well as some labdane-type diterpenes. The antimicrobial activities of these extracts were evaluated, revealing a correlation between the terpenoid content and antibacterial activities. Notably, the dichloromethane extracts of rhizomes and flowers, which contained the highest amount of terpenoids (e. g., α-gurjunene, guaia-9,11-diene, γ-bicyclohomofarnesal, ß-caryophyllene, and caryophyllene oxide), displayed the most prominent antibacterial activities. This work demonstrates the potential use of the crude extracts from G. schomburgkii as natural antibacterial ingredients for pharmaceutical and other applications.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antifúngicos/química , Terpenos/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Zingiberaceae/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Flores/química , Flores/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Rizoma/química , Rizoma/metabolismo , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação , Terpenos/farmacologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia , Zingiberaceae/metabolismo
20.
Chin J Nat Med ; 17(2): 131-144, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30797419

RESUMO

Anemone flaccida Fr. Schmidt is a perennial medicinal herb that contains pentacyclic triterpenoid saponins as the major bioactive constituents. In China, the rhizomes are used as treatments for a variety of ailments including arthritis. However, yields of the saponins are low, and little is known about the plant's genetic background or phytohormonal responsiveness. Using one-quarter of the 454 pyrosequencing information from the Roche GS FLX Titanium platform, we performed a transcriptomic analysis to identify 157 genes putatively encoding 26 enzymes involved in the synthesis of the bioactive compounds. It was revealed that there are two biosynthetic pathways of triterpene saponins in A. flaccida. One pathway depends on ß-amyrin synthase and is similar to that found in other plants. The second, subsidiary ("backburner") pathway is catalyzed by camelliol C synthase and yields ß-amyrin as minor byproduct. Both pathways used cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases (CYPs) and family 1 uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferases (UGTs) to modify the triterpenoid backbone. The expression of CYPs and UGTs were quite different in roots treated with the phytohormones methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid and indole-3-acetic acid. This study provides the first large-scale transcriptional dataset for the biosynthetic pathways of triterpene saponins and their phytohormonal responsiveness in the genus Anemone.


Assuntos
Anemone/genética , Vias Biossintéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Saponinas/metabolismo , Triterpenos/metabolismo , Anemone/efeitos dos fármacos , Anemone/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Glicosiltransferases/metabolismo , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Oleanólico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais , Rizoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Rizoma/genética , Rizoma/metabolismo
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