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1.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 50(1): 3-10, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564530

RESUMO

Largehead atractylodes rhizome, known as "the first essential medicine for invigorating qi and strengthening spleen" , is one of the most commonly used Chinese materia medica. According to the different clinical treatment requirements, largehead atractylodes rhizome can be processed into a variety types of products, such as raw, fried with earth, stir-frying with bran, and deep-fried largehead atractylodes rhizome. The processing quality is of great significance to ensure the efficacy, drug safety and improve the preparation process. Through the detailed research on the processing methods of largehead atractylodes rhizome in ancient books, modern documents and norms, this study clarifies the history and evolution of the processing technology of largehead atractylodes rhizome in ancient and modern times, and summarizes the internal laws and external factors of the processing technology changes by combining the processing technology differences, materials addition and theoretical analysis of pharmacodynamics. It not only saves the tedious and repeated steps, but also improves and optimizes the efficacy and quality of the preparation, and gets standardization and unification in the follow-up practice, which provides a reference for the research and development of the processing technology of largehead atractylodes rhizome and other Chinese materia medica.


Assuntos
Atractylodes/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Rizoma/química , Tecnologia Farmacêutica
2.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(2): e20190615, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556053

RESUMO

Hedychium coronarium J. Koening, belonging to Zingiberaceae family, is a perennial herb with fleshly aromatic rhizomes. There are no information about the antiplatelet properties of essential oils (EOs) from rhizomes (HCR) and leaves (HCL) of this herb, additionally, there are reports about the antibacterial activity of the Zingiberaceae species, however, no studies have been carried out in the Colombian Amazon Region. The EOs were characterized by GC-MS, the antiaggregant activity was assessed by ADP and Collagen as platelet agonist and the antibacterial activity against E. faecalis and S. aureus were evidenced by the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). A high content of oxygenated monoterpenes were found in HCL essential oil (EO) and 20 compounds were identified in HCR EO. The HCL EO showed antiaggregant activity when collagen was used and HCR EO showed a concentration-dependent activity against ADP and collagen, meanwhile only the HCR EO showed antibacterial activity against E. faecalis and S. aureus.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Rizoma/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Zingiberaceae/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Folhas de Planta/química , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/isolamento & purificação , Rizoma/classificação , Zingiberaceae/classificação
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(8): 1859-1865, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32489070

RESUMO

The historical preparation methods of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma were summarized and analyzed by consulting relevant literatures of herbal medicines and medical classics. This study also reviewed the records of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma processing methods in previous editions of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and the regulations on processing technology of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma decoction pieces in China. This paper summarized the processing history of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and defined the development process of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma processing. According to textual research from ancient times to today, there are many ways to process Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. The processing methods without auxiliary materials include braising, frying, cooking, simmering and adding such auxiliary materials as wine, vinegar, salt, oil, ginger, honey, water and bile. There are 9 editions of the published Chinese Pharmacopoeia that document the processing of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, and 24 provinces and cities nationwide record the processing of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. At present, the 2015 edition of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia only records the processing technology of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma honey, and the honey processing method is still widely usedtoday. Whether or not Zhigancao should be used uniformly for honey-processed Zhigancao today should be based on the processing methods of Chinese herbal medicine and its clinical use in previous ancient medical books. This paper provides a reference and historical basis for subsequent studies on other processing techniques of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, the rational selection of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma varieties and the further development and utilization of corresponding medicinal materials.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Triterpenos , China , Extratos Vegetais , Rizoma/química
4.
Pharm Biol ; 58(1): 265-275, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223481

RESUMO

ABSRACTContext: Rhizoma Corydalis (RC) is the dried tubers of Corydalis yanhusuo (Y. H. Chou and Chun C. Hsu) W. T. Wang ex Z. Y. Su and C. Y. Wu (Papaveraceae). Traditionally, RC is used to alleviate pain such as headache, abdominal pain, and epigastric pain. Modern medicine shows that it has analgesic, anti-arrhythmia, and other effects.Objective: We provided an overview of the phytochemical and pharmacological properties of RC as a foundation for its clinical application and further research and development of new drugs.Methods: We collected data of various phytochemical and pharmacological effects of RC from 1982 to 2019. To correlate with existing scientific evidence, we used Google Scholar and the journal databases Scopus, PubMed, and CNKI. 'Rhizoma Corydalis', 'phytochemistry', and 'pharmacological effects' were used as key words.Results: Currently, more than 100 chemical components have been isolated and identified from RC, among which alkaloid is the pimary active component of RC. Based on prior research, RC has antinociceptive, sedative, anti-epileptic, antidepressive and anti-anxiety, acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effect, drug abstinence, anti-arrhythmic, antimyocardial infarction, dilated coronary artery, cerebral ischaemia reperfusion (I/R) injury protection, antihypertensive, antithrombotic, antigastrointestinal ulcer, liver protection, antimicrobial, anti-inflammation, antiviral, and anticancer effects.Conclusions: RC is reported to be effective in treating a variety of diseases. Current pharmacological studies on RC mainly focus on the nervous, circulatory, digestive, and endocrine systems, as well as drug withdrawal. Although experimental data support the beneficial effects of this drug, its physiological activity remains a concern. Nonetheless, this review provides a foundation for future research.


Assuntos
Corydalis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Rizoma/química , Animais , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Preparações de Plantas/isolamento & purificação
5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(4): 739-745, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237473

RESUMO

Study the growth and development process of rhizomes(bamboo-like part) of Notopterygium incisum and the changes of carbohydrate, endogenous hormones and secondary metabolites, and provide theoretical guidance for the formation of high-quality N. incisum medicinal commodities under artificial cultivation. The One-year-old seedlings were transplanted to the original habitat,and the growth and physiological characteristics of N. incisum were dynamically monitored. The results showed that: ① Seedlings transplanted to the original habitat in spring could form rhizomes(bamboo-like part) in the same year. ② After 60 days of transplantation, the root length and root diameter of underground part of N. incisum had increased rapidly, and carbohydrate content in roots and rhizomes had accumulated rapidly. After 120 days of transplantation, the roots and rhizomes of underground part had grown slowly, and starch content in roots and rhizomes increased continuously, while sucrose and total soluble sugar content decreased gradually. ③ The content of abscisic acid(ABA) in rhizomes decreased firstly and then increased, while the indole acetic acid(IAA) content stabilized firstly and then increased rapidly, and the contents of gibberellin(GA_3) and zeatin riboside(ZR) continued to increase. ④ The content of notopterol in rhizomes was higher than that in roots, while the content of isoimperatorin was lower than that in roots, but the total content of the both in rhizomes was higher than that in roots. Therefore, N. incisum can form rhizomes with high content of secondary metabolites under wild tending, and the growth and development of rhizomes are closely related to changes in carbohydrates and are regulated by related endogenous hormones.


Assuntos
Apiaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rizoma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Apiaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Medicinais/química , Rizoma/química , Metabolismo Secundário , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Food Chem ; 322: 126766, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305873

RESUMO

A simple, rapid, and effective method based on salting-out extraction and LC-MS/MS techniques was developed for the determination of 39 plant growth regulator (PGR) residues in two of the most common root and rhizome Chinese herbs, Codonopsis Radix (Dangshen) and Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma (Sanqi). The extraction process was performed with acetonitrile-water (5:1) and citrate buffer extraction salt. The performance of the method was validated in accordance with the analytical quality control criteria of SANTE/11813/2017 guidelines. Analyte recoveries of 79.49-109.41% (Dangshen) and 80.17-102.81% (Sanqi) were achieved. The limit of quantifications (LOQs) were determined with the consideration of accuracy and precision. LOQs were lower than the lowest residue limits in EU pesticide regulation (10 µg/kg) for most PGRs. Moreover, the method was successfully applied in the analysis of 35 batches of Dangshen, and 60 batches of Sanqi products. The concentration of eleven PGRs were determined in analyzed samples.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Codonopsis/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Rizoma/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(6): 1304-1310, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281340

RESUMO

In the clinical practice of traditional Chinese medicine, Pinelliae Rhizoma is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicinal material, with a very important medicinal value, but its raw products have certain toxicity. According to the basic theory of traditional Chinese medicine, after Pinelliae Rhizoma is processed, its toxic and side effects can be reduced, there by ensuring its medication safety in clinic. Based on the processing characteristics of Pinelliae Rhizoma replication method, this article discusses the changes before and after processing of Pinelliae Rhizoma with multiple materials and multiple processes. This method does not have a unified process. One or more materials are added, and various processes, such as dipping, soaking, bleaching, or steaming, cooking or combined methods are adopted. Then, Pinelliae Rhizoma is repeatedly processed to meet the specified quality requirements. By different processing methods, the efficacy changes accordingly, and Pinelliae Rhizoma can be used for the treatment of different diseases. The article starts in the two directions of multi-materials and multi-processes, and summarizes the effects of multi-materials or multi-processes on the chemical composition and efficacy, as well as the processing mechanism of reducing toxicity and increasing efficiency, in the expectation of reducing the toxicity and enhancing the efficacy of Pinelliae Rhizoma. The medicinal scope provides a reference and theoretical basis for further studies on the processing mechanism. An in-depth study is conducted to make Pinelliae Rhizoma more safe and effective in clinic application, and ensure its clinical efficacy. It will provide reference for future studies on quality control, active ingredients and new drug development of the processing of pinellia slices. It has laid a scientific foundation for exploring the best processing techno-logy, and provided a theoretical basis for solving the production problems of processed Pinelliae Rhizoma products, so as to improve the production efficiency and the quality of medicines.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Pinellia/química , Rizoma/química , Tecnologia Farmacêutica , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(6): 1329-1333, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281344

RESUMO

To reveal the main nutrients and functional ingredients in the flowers of Polygonatum cyrtonema and P. filipes, the content of the polysaccharides, saponins, amino acids, total phenols, mineral elements, and the DPPH free radical scavenging rates were determined. The flowers and rhizomes of P. cyrtonema were collected from Qingyang in Anhui and Qingyuan in Zhejiang, while the flowers and rhizomes of P. filipes were collected from Longyou in Zhejiang, respectively. The results showed that the polysaccharides content in flowers varied from 60.88 to 97.00 mg·g~(-1), about half of that in rhizomes. The saponins content in flowers varied from 32.55 to 40.93 mg·g~(-1), which was close to the content in rhizomes. The content of total phenols ranged from 40.79 to 50.95 mg·g~(-1), approximately 4.5 times of that in rhizomes. The total amino acids content in flowers was 111.85 to 131.03 mg·g~(-1), about 2.3 times of the content in rhizomes. The essential trace element content was abundant in flowers. The contents of heavy metal elements were all within the limits set by the standards. The DPPH free radical scavenging rate IC_(50) varied from 1.77 to 3.25 mg·mL~(-1), less than one-fifth of that in rhizomes, showing a significant superiority of antioxidant activity compared to rhizomes. The results initially revealed the fundamental of "the flowers exceed the rhizomes in effect", the common saying about the traditional Chinese medicinal herbs over the years, indicating a great developing potential of the flowers. Besides, as polysaccharides, saponins, amino acids, total phenols and other nutritive substances in flowers differ widely among species and provenances, it's important to develop variety breeding to improve the quality and yield of flowers.


Assuntos
Flores/química , Valor Nutritivo , Polygonatum/química , Aminoácidos/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , China , Nutrientes/análise , Extratos Vegetais , Rizoma/química , Oligoelementos/análise
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(6): 1374-1383, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281351

RESUMO

The present work is to establish an HPLC characteristic chromatograms of Asarum heterotropoides var. mandshuricum(AH) and A. sieboldii(AS), combined with cluster analysis for the identification of the two species, and predict their potential anti-inflammatory related targets by network pharmacological method. Eighty-nine samples(12 batches of AS and 77 batches of AH) were analyzed, and 11 characteristic peaks were identified by reference substances, UV spectrum and LC-MS. Cluster analysis showed that AS and AH were divided into two groups, and the ratio of characteristic peak areas can be used to distinguish them. When the ratio of characteristic peak sarisan to kakuol was greater than 5, it was AS, and when the ratio was less than 2, it was AH. The network pharmacological analysis of 119 constituents of Asari Radix et Rhizoma suggested that the anti-inflammatory effect of Asari Radix et Rhizoma might be related to COX-2, COX-1, iNOS, MAPK14, NR3 C1, PPARG and TNF. Among them, COX-2 is a relatively key target, which interacted with the characteristic constituents, asarinin, sesamin, safrole, methyleugenol and sarisan. The characteristic constituents asarinin and sesamin also interacted with the iNOS and MAPK14. Safrole and sarisan can also interact with iNOS, COX-1 and LAT4 H. Methyleugenol also showed interaction with COX-1 and LAT4 H. Since asarinin and sesamin interacted with three targets, COX-2, iNOS and MAPK14, it implied that they were the main active constituents for the anti-inflammatory activity of Asari Radix et Rhizoma. The COX-2 inhibitory activities of asarinin and sesamin were further studied by molecular docking and bioassay. The HPLC method established was simple, feasible and reliable, with predicted anti-inflammatory targets and anti-inflammatory constituents, which could provide a reference for improving the quality evaluation system of Asari Radix et Rhizoma.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Asarum/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Rizoma/química
10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4456, 2020 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157137

RESUMO

Edible nanoparticles (ENPs) are nano-sized vesicles derived from edible plants. These ENPs are loaded with plant derived microRNAs, protein, lipids and phytochemicals. Recently, ginger derived ENPs was shown to prevent inflammatory bowel diseases and colon cancer, in vivo, highlighting their therapeutic potential. Conventionally, differential centrifugation with an ultra-centrifugation step is employed to purify these ENPs which imposes limitation on the cost-effectiveness of their purification. Herein, we developed polyethylene glycol-6000 (PEG6000) based ginger ENP purification (PEG-ENPs) method, which eliminates the need for expensive ultracentrifugation. Using different PEG6000 concentrations, we could recover between 60% to 90% of ENPs compared to ultracentrifugation method. PEG-ENPs exhibit near identical size and zeta potential similar to ultra-ENPs. The biochemical composition of PEG-ENPs, such as proteins, lipids, small RNAs and bioactive content is comparable to that of ultra-ENPs. In addition, similar to ultra-ENPs, PEG-ENPs are efficiently taken up by the murine macrophages and protects cells from hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative stress. Since PEG has been approved as food additive, the PEG method described here will provide a cost-effective alternative to purify ENPs, which can be directly used as a dietary supplement in therapeutic formulations.


Assuntos
Gengibre/química , Macrófagos/citologia , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/economia , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Rizoma/química , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Análise Custo-Benefício , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/química
11.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 9641284, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32104711

RESUMO

The chemical constituents and the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activities of fresh rhizome essential oil (FR-EO) and dry rhizome essential oil (DR-EO) of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith obtained from Southwest China were compared. Zerumbone was the predominant component in both FR-EO and DR-EO (75.0% and 41.9%, respectively). FR-EO, DR-EO, and zerumbone were all demonstrated to have significant antimicrobial capacity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Proteus vulgaris, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 31.25 to 156.25 µg/mL and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranging from 62.50 to 625.00 µg/mL. Zerumbone showed the strongest antimicrobial potential against all tested microorganisms compared with the fresh and dry rhizome essential oils. FR-EO was found to be more active than DR-EO against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Proteus vulgaris. FR-EO, DR-EO, and zerumbone all showed significant cytotoxic activity against K562, PC-3, and A549 human tumor cell lines in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Zerumbone exhibited the strongest antiproliferative activity against all tested human tumor cell lines with an IC50 of 4.21-11.09 µg/mL for 72 h incubation, as compared with the fresh and dry rhizome oils. The cytotoxic activity of FR-EO (IC50: 10.48-14.51 µg/mL for 72 h) was found to be significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of DR-EO (IC50: 13.83-33.24 µg/mL for 72 h). FR-EO, DR-EO, and zerumbone exhibited selective cytotoxic activity to tumor cells, with a significantly low cytotoxicity to normal cells (MRC-5, IC50: 56.98-147.29 µg/mL). However, FR-EO, DR-EO, and zerumbone all exhibited weak free-radical-scavenging activity according to DPPH and ABTS analysis. The findings highlighted in this study show that FR-EO provides appreciably higher content of the bioactive compound, zerumbone, and has higher antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties than DR-EO. Thus, fresh Z. zerumbet rhizome should be preferred in cosmetic, food, and pharmaceutical applications.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óleos Voláteis , Rizoma/química , Zingiberaceae/química , Células A549 , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Dessecação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Células K562 , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Células PC-3
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(13): 15584-15591, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078128

RESUMO

In order to develop more environmentally benignant insecticides, the Ligusticum pteridophyllum Franch. rhizomes essential oil and supercritical fluid (SFE-CO2) extract were obtained by two published techniques, hydrodistillation and SFE-CO2. The chemical components of this two tested samples were identified by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Repellent activity and contact toxicity of the obtained samples and myristicin against the adults of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), Lasioderma serricorne (Coleoptera: Anobiidae), and Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) were compared. Nineteen components were identified in the SFE-CO2 extract. Twelve components were identified in the L. pteridophyllum rhizomes essential oil. SFE-CO2 extract exhibited higher contact toxicity against T. castaneum, L. serricorne, and L. bostrychophila (LD50 = 69.60 µg/adult, 14.58 µg/adult, and 1.69 µg/cm2, respectively) than that of L. pteridophyllum rhizomes essential oil (LD50 = 87.99 µg/adult, 89.82 µg/adult, and 7.87 µg/cm2, respectively). Besides, myristicin (LD50 = 36.46 µg/adult) showed superior contact toxicity against T. castaneum than that of the L. pteridophyllum rhizomes essential oil and SFE-CO2 extract. It possessed potentially practical significance to develop L. pteridophyllum rhizomes into plant pesticide or repellent agent for these stored insect controls. Graphical abstract .


Assuntos
Repelentes de Insetos/análise , Inseticidas/análise , Ligusticum , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Dióxido de Carbono , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Insetos , Extratos Vegetais , Rizoma/química
13.
J Nat Med ; 74(2): 487-494, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006354

RESUMO

Kaempulchraols B-D (2-4), isopimara-8(9),15-diene diterpenoids isolated from Kaempferia pulchra rhizomes collected in Myanmar, were identified as potent NF-κB inhibitors. These compounds were also effective as NO inhibitory agents, with IC50 values of 47.69, 44.97, and 38.17 µM, respectively, without showing any cytotoxicity against LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells. Investigations of the mechanisms of action of 2-4 revealed that they inhibit the NF-κB-mediated transactivation of a luciferase reporter gene, IL-6 production, and COX-2 expression, with an effective dose of 25 µM. Thus, isopimarane diterpenoids are suggested to be potent inhibitors of NF-κB pathways and could be further explored as potential anti-inflammatory lead compounds.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Diterpenos/uso terapêutico , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Rizoma/química , Zingiberaceae/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Camundongos
14.
J Med Food ; 23(5): 465-475, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069429

RESUMO

1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) is found in the rhizomes or seeds of Alpinia galanga and Alpinia conchigera, which are used as traditional spices in cooking and traditional medicines in Southeast Asia. ACA possesses numerous medicinal properties. Those include anticancer, antiobesity, antiallergy, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, gastroprotective, and anti-inflammatory activities. ACA is also observed to exhibit antidementia activity. Recent studies have demonstrated that combining ACA with other substances results in synergistic anticancer effects. The structural factors that regulate the activity of ACA include (1) the acetyl group at position 1', (2) the acetyl group at position 4, and (3) the unsaturated double bond between positions 2' and 3'. ACA induces the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which regulates the signal transduction pathways, and has an important role in the prevention of diseases, including cancer, obesity, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders. Such findings suggest that AMPK has a central role in different pharmacological functions of ACA, and ACA is useful for the prevention of life-threatening diseases. However, more studies should be performed to evaluate the clinical effects of ACA and to better understand its potential.


Assuntos
Alpinia/química , Álcoois Benzílicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos , Álcoois Benzílicos/química , Demência/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Rizoma/química
15.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 7, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the dry rhizome of Anemone raddeana Regel, Rhizoma Anemones Raddeanae (RAR), which belongs to Ranunculaceae, is usually used to treat wind and cold symptoms, hand-foot disease and spasms, joint pain and ulcer pain in China. It is well known that the efficacy of RAR can be distinctly enhanced by processing with vinegar due to the reduced toxicity and side effects. However, the entry of vinegar into liver channels can cause a series of problems. In this paper, the differences in the acute toxicity, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects between RAR and vinegar-processed RAR were compared in detail. The changes in the chemical compositions between RAR and vinegar-processed RAR were investigated, and the mechanism of vinegar processing was also explored. METHODS: Acute toxicity experiments were used to examine the toxicity of vinegar-processed RAR. A series of studies, such as the writhing reaction, ear swelling experiment, complete Freund's adjuvant-induced rat foot swelling experiment and cotton granuloma, in experimental mice was conducted to observe the anti-inflammatory effect of vinegar-processed RAR. The inflammatory cytokines of model rats were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Time of Flight mass spectrometer Detector (LC-Q-TOF) was used to analyse the chemical compositions of the RARs before and after vinegar processing. RESULTS: Neither obvious changes in mice nor death phenomena were observed as the amount of vinegar-processed RAR in crude drug was set at 2.1 g/kg. Vinegar-processed RAR could significantly prolong the latency, reduce the writhing reaction time to reduce the severity of ear swelling and foot swelling, and remarkably inhibit the secretion of Interleukin-1ß(IL-1ß), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) proinflammatory cytokines. The content of twelve saponins (e.g., Eleutheroside K) in RAR was decreased after vinegar processing, but six other types (e.g., RDA) were increased. CONCLUSIONS: These results revealed that vinegar processing could not only improve the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of RAR but also reduce its own toxicity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/química , Anemone/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Rizoma/toxicidade , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Anemone/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , China , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Rizoma/química , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
16.
Phytomedicine ; 68: 153143, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32018209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) has been used for years in the traditional medicine of several countries as an adaptogen drug, able to preserve homeostasis in response to stress stimuli. Currently R. rosea roots and rhizome are classified as a traditional herbal medicinal product for temporary relief of symptoms of stress, such as fatigue and sensation of weakness by the European Medicines Agency. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: Increasing evidences suggest the involvement of neuroinflammation in response to stress. However, whether the modulation of neuroinflammatory parameters could be involved in the anti-stress effect of R. rosea has been barely studied. Thus, the aim of this work is to investigate the possible modulation of molecular inflammatory processes elicited by a R. rosea roots and rhizome ethanolic extract in an in vitro model of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. METHODS: BV2 cells were stimulated with CRH 100 nM and changes in cell viability, cytokines production and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) levels were evaluated. Intracellular pathways related to inflammation, such as nuclear factor kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) nuclear translocation and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) activation were also analyzed. RESULTS: We found that R. rosea extract (2.7% m/m rosavin and 1% m/m salidroside) 20 µg/ml was able to counteract the neuroinflammatory effect of CRH by inhibiting NF-κB nuclear translocation with a mechanism of action involving the modulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MKK2), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) and c-Jun n-terminal kinase (JNK), resulting in a reduction of HSP70 expression. CONCLUSION: This work expands the knowledge of the intracellular mechanisms involved in R. rosea anti-stress activity and may be useful for the study of other adaptogen drugs.


Assuntos
Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/metabolismo , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rhodiola/química , Adaptação Biológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Microglia/citologia , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Rizoma/química , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Carbohydr Polym ; 231: 115732, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31888819

RESUMO

Cibotium barometz, an important traditional Chinese medicine, is used in strengthening bones and tendons. We found that C. barometz crude polysaccharides (CB70) could alleviate bone loss and markedly improve the biomechanical properties of OVX rats. Thus, to clarify biological active ingredient(s) of CB70, two homogeneous polysaccharides (CBP70-1-1 and CBP70-1-2) were purified from CB70. A combination of monosaccharide composition, FT-IR, GC-MS and NMR analysis indicated that CBP70-1-1 was composed of →6)-D-Galp-(1→, D-Glcp-(1→, →3,6)-D-Manp-(1→, →4)-D-Glcp-(1→ and →6)-D-Glcp-(1→ with relative molecular weights of 12,724 Da, and CBP70-1-2 was composed of →4)-D-Glcp-(1→, D-Glcp-(1→, →3,6)-D-Manp-(1→, →6)-D-Galp-(1→, →4,6)-D-Glcp-(1→ and →3)-L-Araf-(1→ with relative molecular weights of 3611 Da. Morphological analyses revealed that CBP70-1-1 and CBP70-1-2 appeared as a sheet that were irregular in size and shape, while the surface of CBP70-1-1 was full of sharp protuberances and CBP70-1-2 was smooth. Furthermore, the effects of CBP70-1-1 and CBP70-1-2 on the proliferation, differentiation and mineralization of mouse pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were assessed via CCK-8 assay, alkaline phosphatase activity assay, and alizarin red-based assay, respectively. These results revealed that CBP70-1-1 and CBP70-1-2 significantly promoted the proliferation, differentiation and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells, even better than E2. More importantly, quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis indicated that CBP70-1-2 pronouncedly promoted the expression of osteogenic-related marker genes (Runx2, Osx, Ocn and Opn) and proteins (BMP2, RUNX2, OSX and p-SMAD1), which implies that the osteogenic activity of CBP70-1-2 is accomplished mainly by activating the BMP2/SMAD1 signaling pathway. These findings suggest CBP70-1-2 as a potential natural anti-osteoporotic agent for pharmacotherapy.


Assuntos
Embriófitas/química , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Polissacarídeos/química , Células 3T3 , Animais , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Osteoporose/patologia , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Rizoma/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Smad1/genética , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
18.
Molecules ; 25(1)2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31947799

RESUMO

Unlike its aerial parts, the underground parts of Mentha have so far been studied only marginally. By examining the polyphenolic fingerprint, the antioxidant efficacy and the mutual antioxidant behaviour of mixtures of mint rhizomes, our study presents a modest contribution to addressing this gap. Firstly, we examined the composition of the mint rhizomes: Mentha × piperita cv. 'Perpeta' (MPP), M. longifolia (ML), and M. × villosa cv. 'Snezna' (MVS). Our LC-MS-DAD analysis revealed the presence of ten compounds belonging to groups of phenolic acids and flavonoids, of which the rosmarinic acid (RA) and lithospermic were most strongly represented. Secondly, we evaluated the antioxidant activity of rhizome infusions by DPPH and ABTS and on NIH/3T3 cell lines by DCFH-DA. Thirdly, we determined, examined, and explained the mutual interactions of rhizome infusions mixtures. While most of the combinations acted additive, synergy was observed in ternary infusion mixtures. The synergic action was also detected in the combination of MPP rhizome infusion and RA in the DCFH-DA test. The combinations of mint rhizomes and rosmarinic acid displayed a high dose-reduction index. This leads to beneficial dose reduction at a given antioxidant effect level in mixtures, compared to the dose of the parts used alone. So far, the pharmaceutical and food industry has not used mint rhizomes in commercial products. Hence, our study draws attention to further applications of the Mentha rhizomes as a valuable alternative source of natural antioxidants.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Cinamatos , Depsídeos , Flavonoides , Hidroxibenzoatos , Mentha/química , Rizoma/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cinamatos/química , Cinamatos/farmacologia , Depsídeos/química , Depsídeos/farmacologia , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Hidroxibenzoatos/química , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3
19.
Mol Biol Rep ; 47(3): 1691-1702, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970625

RESUMO

Phytotherapy has been used to treat a different type of diseases including cancer for a long time, and it was a source for different active anti-tumor agents. Oncolytic Newcastle disease virus (AMHA1) are very promising anti-tumor therapy. Nevertheless, NDV-based monotherapeutics have not been very useful to some resistant tumors. Thus, the efficiency of oncolytic NDV must enhance by combining NDV with other novel therapies. The current study aimed to determine the possibility of improving the oncolytic effect induced by NDV through Rheum ribes rhizomes extract administration in vitro and in vivo. Methods, the in vitro study include exposure of the crude extract of Rheum ribes alone or NDV alone or combination of both agents for 72 h. The cancer cells tested were murine mammary adenocarcinoma AMN3, Human Rhabdomyosarcoma RD, and Human Glioblastoma AMGM5, and using rat embryo fibroblast REF as normal control cells. MTT cell viability assay was used and analyzed for possible synergism using the Chou-Talalay analysis method. In vivo experiment included study the combination and the monotherapeutic modalities in the transplanted murine mammary adenocarcinoma AM3 line and tumor sections analyzed by histopathology. Results, Combination therapy of NDV-R. ribes showed enhanced oncolytic activity on cancer cells. With no cytotoxicity on normal cells. In vivo study showed that monotherapeutic modalities had lower growth inhibitory effect on transplanted tumors in mice in compare to combination therapy. Histopathological examination revealed the broader area of necrosis in tumors treated by combination therapy. In conclusion, the novel combination recommended for clinical application for cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/terapia , Terapia Viral Oncolítica/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rheum/química , Rizoma/química , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/patologia , Camundongos , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/fisiologia , Vírus Oncolíticos/fisiologia , Ratos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Food Sci ; 85(2): 432-441, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968399

RESUMO

Infrared radiation (IR)-assisted peeling is one of the effulent free, environtment friendly emerging technique for tender fruit and vegetables. In this study standerdization and optimization of the infrared assisted dry-peeling method was carried out for ginger rhizome. During the investigation, the effects of selected independent parameters like infrared temperature (300-400 °C), heater to product surface spacing (10-30 mm), and treatment time (120-300 s) were studied on the peeling feasibility and quality as dependent variables. The experimental conditions were designed through CCRD statistical method. Multiple response optimization was done through RSM. The optimum conditions of selected independent variables were 300 °C IR temperature, 21 mm heater to product spacing, and 120 seconds treatment time resulted in the 90.40% of peeling efficiency, 35 °C of rhizome surface temperature, 8.67% of color change, 0.56% volatile oil loss, and 11.53 kg of firmness. The comparison of optimized infrared assisted peeling was carried out with conventional abrasion and lye peeling methods based on their quality attributes. IR assisted dry-peeling results in minimum quality losses, higher peeling efficiency and feasible over conventional peeling methods of ginger rhizome. There was zero effluent generated during infrared assisted peeling of ginger rhizome. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Peeling is one of the foremost mandatory unit operation for processing of all fruits, vegetables, and rhizomes like ginger. Presently, lye peeling is most widely used peeling method in industries followed by mechanical peeling. Both of these methods have serious issues like huge effluent generation (BOD) and water consumption which leads to the concern about environmental issues. Infrared dry peeling is the most prominent alternative for industries having the potential to deals with environmental issues. IR peeling method can be easily designed and scaled-up as per the specific requirment of industries. Therefore, understanding its feasibility for peeling of a most difficult commodity like ginger and understanding its insight into the quality of peeled product is need of the hour.


Assuntos
Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Gengibre/química , Rizoma/efeitos da radiação , Estudos de Viabilidade , Conservação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Gengibre/efeitos da radiação , Raios Infravermelhos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Rizoma/química
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