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1.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 155(2): 99-106, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115486

RESUMO

Animals can make appropriate decisions based on sensory information about the environment. Vision is one of the most critical ability for survival in dynamic situations in nature, particularly for mammalian species, such as primates, carnivores, and rodents. Although there is a huge computational cost involved in processing visual information, the brain can perform this task very rapidly using well-organized parallel and hierarchical neural circuits, enabling animals to rapidly sense the environment and, in turn, perform adaptive actions. Physiological, psychophysical, and clinical studies over hundreds of years have delineated the neural circuit mechanisms of the visual system. Artificial intelligence and robotics have also started making progress in this area. However, due to technical limitations, there are still many open questions that elude explanation in understanding the neural mechanism of visuomotor integration. Herein, we initially describe the anatomical structures of occipital cortices related to vision and then provide an overview of the physiological and clinical studies of the dorsal visual pathway related to spatial perception and prediction in non-human primate species. Finally, we introduce recent approaches in which rodents have been used as model species to elucidate the neural circuit mechanism of visually-guided behavior. Uncovering neural implementation of the association between visual-spatial perception and visuomotor function could provide key insights into the engineering of highly active robots and could also contribute to the development of novel therapeutic strategies addressing visual impairment and psychiatric/neurological disorders.


Assuntos
Percepção Espacial , Visão Ocular , Percepção Visual , Animais , Inteligência Artificial , Encéfalo , Humanos , Robótica
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(10): e19517, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150113

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Radiotherapy is a valid treatment option for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. However, complications can occur following irradiation of the closest anatomical structures, including brainstem radionecrosis (BRN). The rehabilitation is poorly described in patients with BRN, despite its usefulness in improving functional independence in patients with brain tumors. We aimed at testing the usefulness of intensive, robot-assisted neurorehabilitation program to improve functional independence in a 57-year-old male with BRN. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 57-year-old male diagnosed with a nasopharyngeal carcinoma, received a radiation total dose of 72 Gy. Owing to the appearance of a severe symptomatology characterized by dysphagia, hearing loss, and left sided hemiparesis, the patient was hospitalized to be provided with intensive pharmacological and neurorehabilitation treatment. DIAGNOSIS: Follow-up brain magnetic resonance imaging disclosed no residual cancer, but some brainstem lesions compatible with BRN areas were appreciable. INTERVENTION: The patient underwent a 2-month conventional, respiratory, and speech therapy. Given that the patient only mildly improved, he was provided with intensive robot-aided upper limb and gait training and virtual reality-based cognitive rehabilitation for other 2 months. OUTCOMES: The patient reported a significant improvement in functional independence, spasticity, cognitive impairment degree, and balance. CONCLUSION: Our case suggests the usefulness of neurorobotic intensive rehabilitation in BRN to reduce functional disability. Future studies should investigate whether an earlier, even multidisciplinary rehabilitative treatment could lead to better functional outcome in patients with BRN.


Assuntos
Tronco Encefálico/lesões , Terapia por Exercício , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/radioterapia , Lesões por Radiação/reabilitação , Robótica , Tronco Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paresia/reabilitação , Lesões por Radiação/diagnóstico por imagem
3.
Stomatologiia (Mosk) ; 99(1): 95-99, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125311

RESUMO

In the present study, the role of robot-assistance in dentistry and the main ways of its further development are analyzed. The basic structures of mechatronic devices and the features of their application in dentistry were reviewed. A retro-prospective analysis of the structures of robotic and robot-assisted systems used in dental practice was carried out. The development of robot-assisted and robotic systems should include the improvement of methods of intraoperative imaging, diagnostic tools, the improvement of surgical instruments, as well as the emergence of new robotic developments.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Robótica , Odontologia , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
Psychiatr Hung ; 35(2): 175-181, 2020.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191221

RESUMO

The aim of the study is to describe the effect of robot anxiety. The forming of the concept and the description of similar constructs, like technological anxiety and computer anxiety, is presented through a historical review. Given our current knowledge of this topic it seems that cognitive aspects are the key factors underlying robot anxiety. According to literature dissemination of knowledge appears as the best way to lower anxiety. Attempts to develop cognitive therapies are also mentioned. As presented a widely accepted instrument for the measurement of robot anxiety is yet to be developed. RAS and NARS are introduced as possible scales as they are often adapted to studies although both leave things to be desired. The "Uncanny Valley" is also discussed, as it can explain how the appearance of robots affect the approval they gain from people, thus emphasising the importance of the design of robots.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Robótica/tendências , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Humanos
6.
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 38(1): 90-94, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037773

RESUMO

With the development of industrial robot technology, robotics has entered the medical field, and the research and development of new robots for many medical applications have become a significant research direction in global robotics. Robots are widely used in various aspects of dentistry, such as prosthodontics, orthodontics, implants, endodontics, and oral surgery. This article mainly introduces the application of robots in stomatology from the above five aspects.


Assuntos
Medicina Bucal , Ortodontia , Robótica , Cirurgia Bucal , Assistência Odontológica , Humanos
7.
Harefuah ; 159(1): 142-145, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048497

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In recent years, minimally invasive surgeries have been undergoing a revolution with the development of robotic assisted surgery. Due to the anatomical region in which many operations are carried out, in small spaces through natural orifices in the body such as the mouth, the nose or the ear, as well as the esthetic discomfort caused by external scars in the head and neck, the use of robotic assisted surgery in the field of head and neck surgery is gaining momentum and is being implemented more and more in Israel and around the globe. Most of the operations currently performed in otolaryngology are carried out through the oral cavity or through distant and camouflaged skin cuts. In this article we will review the new applications and technologies in the field of surgical robotics in otolaryngology - head and neck surgeries, as well as summarize the experience of the Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery at the Rabin Medical Center in robot assisted surgeries.


Assuntos
Esvaziamento Cervical , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Humanos , Israel , Otolaringologia , Robótica
8.
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi ; 37(1): 129-135, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32096386

RESUMO

In order to stimulate the patients' active participation in the process of robot-assisted rehabilitation training of stroke patients, the rehabilitation robots should provide assistant torque to patients according to their rehabilitation needs. This paper proposed an assist-as-needed control strategy for wrist rehabilitation robots. Firstly, the ability evaluation rules were formulated and the patient's ability was evaluated according to the rules. Then the controller was designed. Based on the evaluation results, the controller can calculate the assistant torque needed by the patient to complete the rehabilitation training task and send commands to motor. Finally, the motor is controlled to output the commanded value, which assists the patient to complete the rehabilitation training task. The control strategy was implemented to the wrist function rehabilitation robot, which could achieve the training effect of assist-as-needed and could avoid the surge of assistance torque. In addition, therapists can adjust multiple parameters in the ability evaluation rules online to customize the difficulty of tasks for patients with different rehabilitation status. The method proposed in this paper does not rely on the information from force sensor, which reduces development costs and is easy to implement.


Assuntos
Robótica , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/instrumentação , Punho/fisiologia , Humanos , Modalidades de Fisioterapia
10.
Adv Neurobiol ; 24: 679-693, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006380

RESUMO

Food selectivity by children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is relatively high as compared to typical children and consequently puts them at risk of nutritional inadequacies. Thus, there is a need to educate children with ASD on food types and their benefits in a simple and interesting manner that will encourage food acceptance and enable a move toward healthy living. The use of technological intervention has proven to be an effective tool for educating children with ASD in maintaining attention and mastering new skills as compared to traditional methods. Some of the popularly used technologies are computer-based intervention and robotics which do not support ecological validity (i.e., mimicking natural scenario). Consideration of natural factors is essential for better learning outcomes and generalized skills which can easily be incorporated into reality-based technologies such as virtual reality, augmented reality, and mixed reality. These technologies provide evidence-based support for ecological validation of intervention and sustaining the attention of children with ASD. The main objective of this study is to review existing reality-based technology intervention for children with ASD and investigate the following: (1) commonly used reality-based technology, (2) types of intervention targeted with reality-based technology, and (3) what subjects' inclusion types are used in the reality-based interventions. These objective statements have guided our recommendation of reality-based technology that can support ecological validity of food intake intervention.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/dietoterapia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares , Realidade Virtual , Criança , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Robótica
11.
Am J Occup Ther ; 74(1): 7401205070p1-7401205070p8, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078518

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Finding strategies to enhance imitation skills in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is of major clinical relevance. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether contact with dogs may be a useful approach to elicit spontaneous imitation in people with ASD. DESIGN: Participants completed a spontaneous imitation task under three experimental conditions: after a free-play interaction with a live dog, after a free-play interaction with a robotic dog, and after a waiting period that involved no stimuli. PARTICIPANTS: Ten children and 15 adults diagnosed with severe ASD. OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Imitation ratio, imitation accuracy, and indicators of social motivation. RESULTS: Children appeared more motivated and engaged more frequently in spontaneous imitation in the live dog condition than in the other conditions. No differences between conditions were found for adults for imitation or social motivation. However, correlations suggested a possible trend for adults in time spent engaging with the live dog before testing and in increased imitation frequency. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The results are preliminary and do not indicate the utility of integrating (live) dogs into interventions aimed at promoting social motivation and enhancing imitation skills in people with ASD. However, they suggest that doing so holds promise. Larger scale studies are now needed. WHAT THIS ARTICLE ADDS: This research calls for occupational therapy practitioners' attention to the potential benefits that may derive from using dogs to promote spontaneous imitation, and increase imitation performance, in people with ASD, particularly children.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Robótica , Adulto , Animais , Atenção , Criança , Cães , Humanos , Comportamento Imitativo , Robótica/instrumentação
12.
Urologe A ; 59(2): 142-148, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Localized renal cell carcinoma is increasingly relevant in daily urological practice due to earlier diagnosis and higher life expectancy. OBJECTIVES: To analyze and compare current treatment evidence for localized renal cell carcinoma regarding new aspects of nephron-sparing surgery, the different surgical approaches and focal therapy. METHODS: A systematic search was performed to identify relevant publications from 2018 and 2019. RESULTS: Prospective randomized trials comparing nephrectomy with partial nephrectomy, the three different surgical approaches with each other, and focal therapy with surgery are still lacking. Positive effects on survival by partial nephrectomy could be demonstrated, even though partial nephrectomy has a higher morbidity than radical nephrectomy. Older patients (>75 years) with advanced localized renal cell carcinoma did not appear to benefit from partial nephrectomy so far, but minimally invasive surgical approaches are underrepresented in such studies. Minimally invasive partial nephrectomy is superior to the open approach, and robot-assisted partial nephrectomy has better results than laparoscopy. Focal therapy of kidney tumors is technically safe and feasible, but relevant comparisons with partial nephrectomy are still lacking. CONCLUSIONS: Partial nephrectomy is still the gold standard treatment for localized renal cell carcinoma, it should be preferably performed by a robot-assisted approach. Focal therapy can serve as an alternative in highly selected cases.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/cirurgia , Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Laparoscopia , Nefrectomia/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Robótica , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos , Estudos Prospectivos , Radiocirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(679): 247, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995325

Assuntos
Robótica
14.
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 34(1): 69-75, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939238

RESUMO

Objective: To compare the effectiveness and screw planting accuracy of percutaneous reduction and internal fixation with robot and traditional fluoroscopy-assisted in the treatment of single-level thoracolumbar fractures without neurological symptoms. Methods: The clinical data of 58 patients with single-level thoracolumbar fractures without neurological symptoms between December 2016 and January 2018 were retrospectively analysed. According to different surgical methods, the patients were divided into group A (28 cases underwent robot-assisted percutaneous reduction and internal fixation) and group B (30 cases underwent fluoroscopy-assisted percutaneous reduction and internal fixation). There was no neurological symptoms, other fractures or organ injuries in the two groups. There was no significant difference in general data of age, gender, fracture location, AO classification, time from injury to surgery, and preoperative vertebral anterior height ratio, sagittal Cobb angle, visual analogue scale (VAS) score, and Oswestry disability index (ODI) score between the two groups ( P>0.05). The screw placement time, operation time, intraoperative blood loss, intraoperative fluoroscopy frequency, hospitalization time, operation cost, postoperative complications, VAS score, ODI score, anterior vertebral height ratio, and sagittal Cobb angle before operation, at 3 days, 6 months after operation, and at last follow-up were recorded and compared between the two groups. The accuracy of the pedicle screw placement was evaluated by Neo's criteria. Results: The screw placement time, operation time, and intraoperative fluoroscopy frequency of group A were significantly less than those of group B, and the operation cost was significantly higher than that of group B ( P<0.05). But there was no significant difference in intraoperative blood loss and hospitalization time between the two groups ( P>0.05). Both groups were followed up 12-24 months, with an average of 15.2 months. The accuracy rate of screw placement in groups A and B was 93.75% (150/160) and 84.71% (144/170), respectively, and the difference was significant ( χ 2=5.820, P=0.008). Except for 1 case of postoperative superficial infection in group A and wound healing after dressing change, there was no complication such as neurovascular injury, screw loosening and fracture in both groups, and there was no significant difference in the incidence of complications between the two groups ( χ 2=0.625, P=0.547). The anterior vertebral height ratio, sagittal Cobb angle, VAS score, and ODI score of the two groups were significantly improved ( P<0.05); there was no significant difference between the two groups at all time points after operation ( P>0.05). Conclusion: The spinal robot and traditional fluoroscopy-assisted percutaneous reduction and internal fixation can both achieve satisfactory effectiveness in the treatment of single-level thoracolumbar fractures without neurological symptoms. However, the former has higher accuracy, fewer fluoroscopy times, shorter time of screw placement, and lower technical requirements for the operator. It has wide application potential.


Assuntos
Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Parafusos Pediculares , Robótica , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral , Fluoroscopia , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vértebras Torácicas , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 34(1): 76-82, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939239

RESUMO

Objective: To compare short-term effectiveness between robot-guided percutaneous minimally invasive pedicle screw internal fixation and traditional open internal fixation in the treatment of thoracolumbar fractures. Methods: The clinical data of 52 cases of thoracolumbar fracture without neurological injury symptoms admitted between January 2018 and May 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. According to the different surgical methods, they were divided into minimally invasive group (24 cases, treated with robot-assisted percutaneous minimally invasive pedicle screw internal fixation) and open group (28 cases, treated with traditional open internal fixation). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the general data such as gender, age, cause of injury, fracture segment, thoracolumbar injury classification and severity score (TLICS), preoperative back pain visual analogue scale (VAS) score, Oswestry disability index (ODI) score, fixed segment height, and fixed segment kyphosis Cobb angle ( P>0.05). The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, and hospitalization time of the two groups were recorded and compared; as well as the VAS score, ODI score, fixed segment height, and fixed segment kyphosis Cobb angle of the two groups before operation and at 3 days, 1 month, 6 months, and 10 months after operation. CT scan was reexamined at 1-3 days after operation, and the pedicle screw insertion accuracy rate was determined and calculated according to Gertzbein-Robbins classification standard. Results: The operation time of the minimally invasive group was significantly longer than that of the open group, but the intraoperative blood loss and hospitalization time were significantly shorter than those of the open group ( P<0.05). There were 132 pedicle screws and 158 pedicle screws implanted in the minimally invasive group and the open group respectively. According to the Gertzbein-Robbins classification standard, the accuracy of pedicle screws was 97.7% (129/132) and 96.8% (153/158), respectively, showing no significant difference between the two groups ( χ 2=0.505, P=0.777). The patients in both groups were followed up 10 months, and there was no rejection or internal fixation fracture. In the minimally invasive group, the internal fixator was removed at 10 months after operation, but not in the open group. The VAS score, ODI score, fixed segment heigh, and fixed segment kyphotic Cobb angle of the two groups were improved in different degrees when compared with preoperative ones ( P<0.05). Except that the VAS score and ODI score of the minimally invasive group were significantly better than those of the open group at 3 days after operation ( P<0.05), there was no significant difference between the two groups at other time points ( P>0.05). Conclusion: Robot-assisted percutaneous minimally invasive pedicle screw internal fixation for thoracolumbar fractures has significant advantages in intraoperative blood loss, hospitalization time, and early postoperative effectiveness and other aspects, and the effect of fracture reduction is good.


Assuntos
Parafusos Pediculares , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Robótica , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vértebras Torácicas , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Urology ; 135: 64-65, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895682
17.
Clin Biochem ; 75: 70-77, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dried specimens have been proposed in multiple environments to minimize costs associated with specimen storage and shipping in clinical studies. This report describes the development and validation of an automated method for qualitative toxicology screening of dried urine samples using LC-MS/MS. METHODS: Urine standards containing 41 compounds were prepared and applied to filter paper cards. Dried urine was eluted from the cards using a Dried Blood Spot (DBS) autosampler from Spark Holland, which was plumbed inline with a Thermo Scientific Turboflow chromatography system for subsequent MS/MS detection with selected reaction monitoring. Limits of detection, precision of peak areas, repeatability, and carryover studies were conducted. Concordance with a reference LC-MS/MS method using liquid samples was evaluated using remnant discarded specimens. RESULTS: The limit of detection ranged from 5 to 75 ng/mL for most compounds. At the LOD for each analyte, the peak area precision ranged from 8 to 29%. For 20 repeat injections of samples spiked at ±25% of the LOD, there was a 4% false positive rate for the 75% × LOD samples, and a 0.4% false negative rate for the +125% × LOD samples. In comparing 40 known positive specimens analyzed with the DUS method and a liquid urine reference method, there was 88% agreement. Analysis of 10 known negative specimens yielded negative results. There was no significant carryover detected up to 2000 ng/mL for any of the analytes in the assay. CONCLUSION: Using a robotic DUS sampling an inline HTLC-MS/MS system, we have developed and validated a fully-automated and robust method for multi-analyte detection of drugs of abuse in dried urine specimens.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/urina , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Urinálise/métodos , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/instrumentação , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Robótica/métodos
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