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1.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 45(2): 201-212, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: End-effector robots allow intensive gait training in stroke subjects and promote a successful rehabilitation. A comparison between conventional and end-effector Robot-Assisted Gait Training (RAGT) in subacute stroke patients is needed. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of end-effector RAGT in subacute stroke patients. METHODS: Twenty-six subacute stroke patients were divided into two group: 14 patients performed RAGT (RG); 12 patients performed conventional gait training (CG). Clinical assessment and gait analysis were performed at the beginning (T0) and at the end (T1) of the rehabilitation. RESULTS: The RG revealed a significant improvement in body function, activities, participation scales, and in the distance measured with the 6 MWT. The affected lower limb's spasticity significantly decreased at T1. In gait analysis, RG showed significantly increases in many parameters. The CG significantly improved clinical assessments but showed no significant changes in gait parameters. Statistically significant differences between RG and CG were found in MRC-HE, TCT, 10 MWT, 6 MWT, and TUG. No significant difference between groups was registered in gait kinematics. CONCLUSIONS: Both rehabilitation treatments produce promising effects in subacute stroke patients. RAGT device offers a more intensive, controlled, and physiological gait training and significantly improved deambulation.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Marcha , Robótica/métodos , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Idoso , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Terapia por Exercício/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Robótica/instrumentação , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/instrumentação
2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3873, 2019 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455784

RESUMO

Development of the next generation of bio- and nano-electronics is inseparably connected to the innovative concept of emulation and reproduction of biological sensorimotor systems and artificial neurobotics. Here, we report for the first time principally new artificial bioinspired optoelectronic sensorimotor system for the controlable immitation of opto-genetically engineered neurons in the biological motor system. The device is based on inorganic optical synapse (In-doped TiO2 nanofilm) assembled into a liquid metal (galinstan) actuator. The optoelectronic synapse generates polarised excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials to trigger the liquid metal droplet to vibrate and then mimic the expansion and contraction of biological fibre muscle. The low-energy consumption and precise modulation of electrical and mechanical outputs are the distinguished characteristics of fabricated sensorimotor system. This work is the underlying significant step towards the development of next generation of low-energy the internet of things for bioinspired neurorobotic and bioelectronic system.


Assuntos
Bioengenharia/métodos , Optogenética/métodos , Robótica/instrumentação , Ligas/química , Sinapses Elétricas/fisiologia , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Inibidores/fisiologia , Metais Pesados/química , Músculos/inervação , Músculos/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia
5.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot ; 2019: 21-27, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374601

RESUMO

Wearable exoskeletons show promise as a means for compensating lost function as well as for providing optimal assistance for maximal therapeutic benefit during everyday tasks. Development of lightweight spring systems for efficient storage and return are proposed as a key component in the successful deployment of wearable exoskeletons for individuals with neurological deficits. Both spring steel and natural rubber are common materials used in energy storage, but have not been directly compared by metrics such as energy storage density, energy storage efficiency, and hysteresis. In this work, we perform cyclic loading tests on spring steel extension springs of varying wire diameter and natural rubber tubing of varying wall thicknesses. We then use measured load-extension profiles to illustrate and compute metrics to better quantify the energy storing capabilities of each material and their appropriateness for use as energy storing and returning components in wearable robotic applications. Results show that natural rubber has a higher capacity for energy storage per unit weight in comparison to steel springs. Hysteresis is also higher in natural rubber and can be dramatically reduced by applying adequate pre-strain at levels greater than the anticipated strain during use.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto Energizado , Robótica/instrumentação , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Masculino , Borracha , Aço , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
6.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot ; 2019: 28-33, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374602

RESUMO

Rehabilitation robotics is an emerging field in which gait training has been largely automated allowing more intensive, repetitive motions which are important for facilitating recovery. However, there is no clear evidence that robot-assisted gait training is superior to conventional therapy. A limitation of current approaches to gait therapy is that they do not consider mechanisms of inter-leg coordination and how the sensory feedback from one leg affects the motion of the other leg. Instead they impose motion on the impaired limb. Recent research suggests that utilizing the coupling between limbs in stroke rehabilitation therapies could lead to improved functional outcome. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of underlying sensorimotor mechanisms of inter-leg coordination may facilitate improved interventions in gait therapy. This paper systematically explores and analyzes a sensorimotor mechanism of inter-leg coordination that is stimulated through sudden unilateral low-stiffness perturbations to the walking surface. The potential contribution of each sensory modality to the perception and response of the perturbation will be investigated. Additionally, the neural pathway that relays the sensory signal into the motor output will be described in order to fully characterize this sensorimotor mechanism of inter-leg coordination. This work provides physiological understanding of inter-leg coordination that will benefit robot-assisted gait therapies.


Assuntos
Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/reabilitação , Robótica/instrumentação , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Retroalimentação Sensorial , Feminino , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia
7.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot ; 2019: 46-52, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374605

RESUMO

This paper presents a voice control interface prototype for assistive robots aiming to help people living with upper limb disabilities to perform daily activities autonomously. Assistive robotic devices can be used to help people with upper-body disabilities gain more autonomy in their daily life. However, it is very difficult or even impossible for certain users to control the robot with conventional control systems (e.g. joystick, sip-and-puff). This paper presents the design and preliminary evaluation of a voice command system prototype for the control of assistive robotic arms' movements. This work aims at making the control of assistive robots more intuitive and fluid, and to perform various tasks in less time and with a lesser effort. The prototype of the voice command interface developed is first presented, followed by two experiments with five able-bodied subjects in order to assess the system's performance and guide future development.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência/reabilitação , Robótica/instrumentação , Atividades Cotidianas , Algoritmos , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Equipamentos de Autoajuda , Extremidade Superior , Interface Usuário-Computador
8.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot ; 2019: 65-70, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374608

RESUMO

In this paper, we present the new personalized 3D printed soft robotic hand for providing rehabilitation training and daily activities assistance to stroke survivors. The Soft-Elastic Composite Actuator (SECA) on the robotic hand is direct 3D printed to accommodate with different finger sizes. Flexion and extension can be actively facilitated on the SECA using the same pressurizing source. Iterative learning model predictive control (ILMPC) method is used to be the control algorithm of SECA. At 160 kPa of maximum input pressure, results show that the actuator bending angles can reach to 137 °, and tip output force can also reach to 2.45 N. Multiple 3D printed SECAs are integrated to a 3D printed hand base and then to be worn on stroke survivors. Two stroke survivors are recruited to evaluate the intention-based rehabilitation training with the 3D printed soft robotic hand, which improvement of their hand function can be observed on performing some daily tasks such as grasping a coin.


Assuntos
Mãos/fisiologia , Robótica/instrumentação , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/instrumentação , Algoritmos , Desenho de Equipamento , Exoesqueleto Energizado , Força da Mão , Humanos , Impressão Tridimensional , Amplitude de Movimento Articular
9.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot ; 2019: 89-94, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374612

RESUMO

The aim of this work is to present a novel robot-based method to assess the sources of a lack of functionality in patients with recent traumatic wrist injuries. Post-traumatic patients experience limited range of motion as well as strength and proprioceptive deficits. These dysfunctions are related to different complications that usually follow the injuries: pain, increased rigidity, lack of movement fluency and loss of stability could arise differently, according to the severity, site and kind of lesion. Their quantitative evaluation could be essential to target rehabilitation treatments to the specific problem and to optimize and speed up the functional recovery. The use of robotic devices for assessment not only ensures objectivity and repeatability, but could also help to estimate the goodness of the evaluation itself, in terms of reliability and patient's engagement. Ten subjects with different types of wrist injuries were enrolled in this study and required to perform passive robot-guided reaching movements. Forces and angular positions were used to evaluate subject's range of motion, rigidity and pain that, considered together, allowed a comprehensive characterization of the level of healing and functionality achieved by each subject.


Assuntos
Dor/reabilitação , Robótica/instrumentação , Traumatismos do Punho/reabilitação , Articulação do Punho/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aparelhos Ortopédicos , Dor/etiologia , Medição da Dor , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Traumatismos do Punho/complicações , Traumatismos do Punho/fisiopatologia
10.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot ; 2019: 115-120, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374616

RESUMO

Rehabilitative exercise for people suffering from upper limb impairments has the potential to improve their neuro-plasticity due to repetitive training. Our study investigates the usefulness of Electroencephalogram and Electromyogram (EMG) signals for incorporation in humanrobot interaction loop. Twenty healthy participants recruited who performed a series of physical and cognitive tasks, with an inherent fatiguing component in those tasks. Here we report observed effects on EMG signals. Participants performed a Biceps curl repetitions using a suitable dumbbell in three phases. In phase 1, the initial weight was set to achieve maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Phase 2 followed with 80 % MVC and phase 3 had 60% MVC. After each phase, they had a break around 3 minutes. EMG data were acquired from Biceps, Triceps, and Brachioradialis muscles. Different EMG features were explored to inform on muscle fatigue during this interaction. Comparing EMG during the first and last dumbbell of each phase demonstrated that the muscle fatigue had caused an increase in the average power (94% of cases) and amplitude (91%) and a decrease in the mean (80%) and the median frequency (57%) of EMG, which was more noticeable in Biceps. The results from integrated EMG showed a continuous rise in all three muscles which was more pronounced in Biceps muscle. Given these results, we identify EMG average power as the most reliable feature for informing on muscle fatigue.


Assuntos
Mãos/fisiologia , Fadiga Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Robótica/instrumentação , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Eletromiografia , Terapia por Exercício , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
11.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot ; 2019: 121-126, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374617

RESUMO

Proprioception, the ability to sense body position and limb movements in space without visual feedback, is one of the key factors in controlling body movements and performing activities of daily living. However, this capability might be affected after neural injuries such as stroke. Robotic platforms can be used to monitor and promote arm movements and, therefore, can assist in developing rehabilitation protocols that aim to improve proprioception through repetitive reaching motions without vision. The objective of this paper is to investigate if a robotic training protocol improves the end-position reaching proprioceptive sense in three-dimensional (3D) space. As an initial step towards clinical application, a robotic platform was employed to train the end-position proprioceptive sense in six healthy participants. During the training phase, volunteers used their dominant hand to reach without vision to two different targets in 3D space. Positions of these targets were carefully chosen to create a hand movement pattern similar to that used when self-feeding, which is an important activity of daily living. At the end of each training trial, participants were provided with visual feedback to help them move their hands to the exact locations confirmed through haptic feedback. Their performance was evaluated before and after the training in an assessment phase during which participants were asked to move from the start position to the same two targets as well as an additional third one without any visual or haptic feedback. The results from this study show significant improvements in overall reaching accuracy and trajectory smoothness, demonstrated by 41% decrease in the average end-position error and 13% reduction in the average index of curvature after the training. This research suggests the potential of designing robotic rehabilitation protocols for improving 3D proprioception.


Assuntos
Braço/fisiologia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia/instrumentação , Propriocepção/fisiologia , Robótica/instrumentação , Atividades Cotidianas , Adulto , Desenho de Equipamento , Retroalimentação , Retroalimentação Sensorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Postura , Adulto Jovem
12.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot ; 2019: 740-747, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374719

RESUMO

Design of rehabilitation and physical assistance robots that work safely and efficiently despite uncertain operational conditions remains an important challenge. Current methods for the design of energy efficient series elastic actuators use an optimization formulation that typically assumes known operational requirements. This approach could lead to actuators that cannot satisfy elongation, speed, or torque requirements when the operation deviates from nominal conditions. Addressing this gap, we propose a convex optimization formulation to design the stiffness of series elastic actuators to minimize energy consumption and satisfy actuator constraints despite uncertainty due to manufacturing of the spring, unmodeled dynamics, efficiency of the transmission, and the kinematics and kinetics of the load. To achieve convexity, we write energy consumption as a scalar convex-quadratic function of compliance. As actuator constraints, we consider peak motor torque, peak motor velocity, limitations due to the speed-torque relationship of DC motors, and peak elongation of the spring. We apply our formulation to the robust design of a series elastic actuator for a powered prosthetic ankle. Our simulation results indicate that a small trade-off between energy efficiency and robustness is justified to design actuators that can operate with uncertainty.


Assuntos
Articulação do Tornozelo/fisiologia , Elasticidade , Prótese Articular , Robótica/instrumentação , Simulação por Computador , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Atividade Motora , Torque , Incerteza , Caminhada/fisiologia
13.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot ; 2019: 748-753, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374720

RESUMO

We introduce Lil'Flo, an affordable robot for pediatric upper extremity rehabilitation. We present the design and fabrication methodology of the head and face of the robot, the central design element for emotional expression. Through a guided interview with 10 subjects, a number of faces which have a clear sentiment associated with them are identified. The data suggest that a digital face, characterized by eyes and a mouth, can express sadness, happiness, surprise, and mischievousness well, but that finer emotions, e.g., differentiating between happy and very happy can be difficult. The data fail to show that a robot with a dynamic face is viewed more positively than one with a static face. The results of numerical sentiment analysis and open ended questions provide a design direction for our face and a general idea of simple face designs which have a clear sentiment.


Assuntos
Reabilitação/instrumentação , Robótica/instrumentação , Comportamento Social , Desenho de Equipamento , Face , Feminino , Cabeça , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
14.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot ; 2019: 754-759, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374721

RESUMO

One of the main challenges in robotic neuroreha-bilitation is to understand how robots should physically interact with trainees to optimize motor leaning. There is evidence that motor exploration (i.e., the active exploration of new motor tasks) is crucial to boost motor learning. Furthermore, effectiveness of a robotic training strategy depends on several factors, such as task type and trainee's skill level. We propose that Model Predictive Controllers (MPC) can satisfy many training/trainee's needs simultaneously, while providing a safe environment without restricting trainees to a fixed trajectory. We designed two nonlinear MPCs to support training of a rich dynamic task (a pendulum task) with a delta robot. These MPCs differ from each other in terms of the application point of the intervention force: (i) to the virtual pendulum mass, and (ii) the virtual rod holding point, which corresponds to the robot end-effector. The effect of the MPCs on task performance, physical effort, motivation and sense of agency was evaluated in fourteen healthy participants. We found that the location of the applied controller force affects the task performance -i.e., the MPC that actuates on the pendulum mass significantly reduced performance errors and sense of agency during training, while the other MPC did not, probably due to low force saturation limits and slow optimization speed of the solver. Participants applied significantly more forces when training with the MPC that actuates on the pendulum holding point, probably because they reacted against the robotic assistance. Although MPCs look very promising for neurorehabilitation, further steps have to be taken to improve their technical limitations. Moreover, the effects of MPCs on motor learning should be evaluated.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Neurológica/instrumentação , Robótica/educação , Robótica/instrumentação , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Cinética , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3188, 2019 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320630

RESUMO

A diversity of self-propelled chemical motors, based on Marangoni propulsive forces, has been developed in recent years. However, most motors are non-functional due to poor performance, a lack of control, and the use of toxic materials. To overcome these limitations, we have developed multifunctional and biodegradable self-propelled motors from squid-derived proteins and an anesthetic metabolite. The protein motors surpass previous reports in performance output and efficiency by several orders of magnitude, and they offer control of their propulsion modes, speed, mobility lifetime, and directionality by regulating the protein nanostructure via local and external stimuli, resulting in programmable and complex locomotion. We demonstrate diverse functionalities of these motors in environmental remediation, microrobot powering, and cargo delivery applications. These versatile and degradable protein motors enable design, control, and actuation strategies in microrobotics as modular propulsion sources for autonomous minimally invasive medical operations in biological environments with air-liquid interfaces.


Assuntos
Loligo/metabolismo , Proteínas Motores Moleculares/síntese química , Proteínas Motores Moleculares/metabolismo , Robótica/instrumentação , Animais , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Nanoestruturas/química
16.
Nature ; 571(7765): 381-386, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292552

RESUMO

In ant colonies, collectivity enables division of labour and resources1-3 with great scalability. Beyond their intricate social behaviours, individuals of the genus Odontomachus4, also known as trap-jaw ants, have developed remarkable multi-locomotion mechanisms to 'escape-jump' upwards when threatened, using the sudden snapping of their mandibles5, and to negotiate obstacles by leaping forwards using their legs6. Emulating such diverse insect biomechanics and studying collective behaviours in a variety of environments may lead to the development of multi-locomotion robotic collectives deployable in situations such as emergency relief, exploration and monitoring7; however, reproducing these abilities in small-scale robotic systems with simple design and scalability remains a key challenge. Existing robotic collectives8-12 are confined to two-dimensional surfaces owing to limited locomotion, and individual multi-locomotion robots13-17 are difficult to scale up to large groups owing to the increased complexity, size and cost of hardware designs, which hinder mass production. Here we demonstrate an autonomous multi-locomotion insect-scale robot (millirobot) inspired by trap-jaw ants that addresses the design and scalability challenges of small-scale terrestrial robots. The robot's compact locomotion mechanism is constructed with minimal components and assembly steps, has tunable power requirements, and realizes five distinct gaits: vertical jumping for height, horizontal jumping for distance, somersault jumping to clear obstacles, walking on textured terrain and crawling on flat surfaces. The untethered, battery-powered millirobot can selectively switch gaits to traverse diverse terrain types, and groups of millirobots can operate collectively to manipulate objects and overcome obstacles. We constructed the ten-gram palm-sized prototype-the smallest and lightest self-contained multi-locomotion robot reported so far-by folding a quasi-two-dimensional metamaterial18 sandwich formed of easily integrated mechanical, material and electronic layers, which will enable assembly-free mass-manufacturing of robots with high task efficiency, flexibility and disposability.


Assuntos
Formigas/anatomia & histologia , Formigas/fisiologia , Biomimética , Locomoção , Movimento , Robótica/instrumentação , Robótica/métodos , Animais , Marcha
17.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(9): 2421-2428, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307899

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This trial aimed to validate the effectiveness of using the Gait Exercise Assist Robot (GEAR) in patients with hemiplegia after primary stroke. METHODS: The study design was open-label randomized controlled trial. Twenty-six patients with hemiplegia after primary stroke admitted to the comprehensive inpatient rehabilitation wards were enrolled and randomized to a group using GEAR in gait training and a control group. The intervention period was 4 weeks. Evaluations were conducted at admission, during intervention period, 8 weeks from start of intervention, and at discharge. Primary outcome measure was improvement efficiency of Functional Independence Measure (FIM)-walk score (FIM-walk improvement efficiency) that was calculated at the time of achieving FIM-walk score 5 (supervision level) during the intervention period or as weekly gain in FIM-walk score during 4 weeks for those who did not achieve score 5. RESULTS: FIM-walk improvement efficiency was .7 ± .4 in GEAR group and .4 ± .3 in control group, and was significantly higher in GEAR group (P = .01). The FIM-walk score gain after 4 weeks was significantly higher in the GEAR group (P = .01), but there were no significant differences between 2 groups after 8 weeks and at discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Gait training using GEAR for 4 weeks improved walking ability of subacute stroke patients. GEAR contributes to early improvement of walking ability probably by the knee flexion assist during swing phase on the paralyzed side thereby increasing the volume of training, and by the finely adjustable stance/swing assist mechanism for the paralyzed limb which optimizes the training difficulty level.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/instrumentação , Marcha , Hemiplegia/reabilitação , Limitação da Mobilidade , Robótica/instrumentação , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Avaliação da Deficiência , Desenho de Equipamento , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Feminino , Análise da Marcha , Hemiplegia/diagnóstico , Hemiplegia/etiologia , Hemiplegia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Robótica/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Teste de Caminhada , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2703, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266939

RESUMO

The functionalities of the untethered miniature swimming robots significantly decrease as the robot size becomes smaller, due to limitations of feasible miniaturized on-board components. Here we propose an untethered jellyfish-inspired soft millirobot that could realize multiple functionalities in moderate Reynolds number by producing diverse controlled fluidic flows around its body using its magnetic composite elastomer lappets, which are actuated by an external oscillating magnetic field. We particularly investigate the interaction between the robot's soft body and incurred fluidic flows due to the robot's body motion, and utilize such physical interaction to achieve different predation-inspired object manipulation tasks. The proposed lappet kinematics can inspire other existing jellyfish-like robots to achieve similar functionalities at the same length and time scale. Moreover, the robotic platform could be used to study the impacts of the morphology and kinematics changing in ephyra jellyfish.


Assuntos
Desenho de Equipamento , Robótica/instrumentação , Cifozoários/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Elastômeros/química , Locomoção , Magnetismo/instrumentação , Natação
19.
Adv Mater ; 31(36): e1807747, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267628

RESUMO

Living beings have an unsurpassed range of ways to manipulate objects and interact with them. They can make autonomous decisions and can heal themselves. So far, a conventional robot cannot mimic this complexity even remotely. Classical robots are often used to help with lifting and gripping and thus to alleviate the effects of menial tasks. Sensors can render robots responsive, and artificial intelligence aims at enabling autonomous responses. Inanimate soft robots are a step in this direction, but it will only be in combination with living systems that full complexity will be achievable. The field of biohybrid soft robotics provides entirely new concepts to address current challenges, for example the ability to self-heal, enable a soft touch, or to show situational versatility. Therefore, "living materials" are at the heart of this review. Similarly to biological taxonomy, there is a recent effort for taxonomy of biohybrid soft robotics. Here, an expansion is proposed to take into account not only function and origin of biohybrid soft robotic components, but also the materials. This materials taxonomy key demonstrates visually that materials science will drive the development of the field of soft biohybrid robotics.


Assuntos
Biomimética/métodos , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Robótica/métodos , Animais , Biomimética/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Robótica/instrumentação
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