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1.
Psychiatr Hung ; 35(2): 175-181, 2020.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191221

RESUMO

The aim of the study is to describe the effect of robot anxiety. The forming of the concept and the description of similar constructs, like technological anxiety and computer anxiety, is presented through a historical review. Given our current knowledge of this topic it seems that cognitive aspects are the key factors underlying robot anxiety. According to literature dissemination of knowledge appears as the best way to lower anxiety. Attempts to develop cognitive therapies are also mentioned. As presented a widely accepted instrument for the measurement of robot anxiety is yet to be developed. RAS and NARS are introduced as possible scales as they are often adapted to studies although both leave things to be desired. The "Uncanny Valley" is also discussed, as it can explain how the appearance of robots affect the approval they gain from people, thus emphasising the importance of the design of robots.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Robótica/tendências , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Humanos
3.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 79(5): 397-400, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671390

RESUMO

Artificial intelligence permits cerebral processes to be analyzed like computing processes. We can recognize two disturbing lines we can call: The Robot Project, android when is anthropomorphic, and The Cyborg Project. Robots are destined to perform repetitive, risky or accurate tasks in which they can surpass human limitations. No ethical conflicts are perceived here but there are new challenges to be faced as far as the social organization is concerned. As regards androids, apart from their robotic capabilities, their effect on the human being during interaction should be considered, as the impact of mimic's android on the emotion. The cyborgs are creatures composed by biological and cybernetic elements whose goal is to improve the capabilities of their biological parts. There has been no evidence of conflict in their use for rehabilitation or to supply impaired or non-existing functions. It would be different if they were used for manipulative activities. Another application of the cyborg project to consider is the term "enhancement", used to describe the increase of neurocognitive or sensory faculties through transcranial/intracranial stimulation. The ethical conflict here lies in the fact that the focus is not so much on healing but on seeking perfectibility or new modalities of perception. Health professionals must act in a new and constantly changing environment that transcends neurosciences and public health. Progress never stops; so, society have to be informed, anticipate dilemmas, and make room for reflection to help decision-making processes that involve individuals as well as the whole human species.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial/tendências , Neurociências/tendências , Robótica/tendências , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Cibernética/tendências , Humanos
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(20)2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623249

RESUMO

To improve the accuracy and robustness of hand-eye calibration, a hand-eye calibration method based on Schur matric decomposition is proposed in this paper. The accuracy of these methods strongly depends on the quality of observation data. Therefore, preprocessing observation data is essential. As with traditional two-step hand-eye calibration methods, we first solve the rotation parameters and then the translation vector can be immediately determined. A general solution was obtained from one observation through Schur matric decomposition and then the degrees of freedom were decreased from three to two. Observation data preprocessing is one of the basic unresolved problems with hand-eye calibration methods. A discriminant equation to delete outliers was deduced based on Schur matric decomposition. Finally, the basic problem of observation data preprocessing was solved using outlier detection, which significantly improved robustness. The proposed method was validated by both simulations and experiments. The results show that the prediction error of rotation and translation was 0.06 arcmin and 1.01 mm respectively, and the proposed method performed much better in outlier detection. A minimal configuration for the unique solution was proven from a new perspective.


Assuntos
Olho , Mãos/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Oculares , Robótica/tendências , Algoritmos , Calibragem , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Modelos Teóricos
5.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(8)2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience challenges with social interactions, a core feature of the disorder. Social skills therapy has been shown to be helpful. Over the past several years, computer-assisted and robot-assisted therapies have been infiltrating the social skills teaching environment. Rapid progress in the field of technology, especially in the robotics area, offers tremendous possibilities for innovation and treatment or even education for individuals with ASD. This paper's purpose is to drive awareness of these innovative interventions in order to support the social lives of children with ASD. The aims of the paper are identifying (1) the types of Information Technology platforms that are being evaluated in computer and robot-assisted therapies for children with ASD; (2) the various disciplines or professions studying and utilizing these computer and robot-assisted social skill therapies; (3) the outcomes being evaluated in each trial; and (4) if results demonstrate benefits to children with autism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed, CINAHL, Science Direct, and Web of Science databases were searched for clinical trials published over the past five years. Search terms incorporated the subject intersection of autism, and computer or robot-assisted therapy. Results were mined for pediatric populations only and study designs establishing controlled comparisons. RESULTS: Eighteen unique international studies were identified that utilize robot interventions (11 studies) and serious computer game interventions (seven studies). Most demonstrated promising results in improving outcomes for children with ASD. Study implications reveal a rapidly evolving assistive technology for ASD social skills therapy. CONCLUSIONS: These interventions show considerable promise, but more effectiveness and cost effectiveness research of high quality should be carried out with larger numbers of children. Also, further studies are necessary to evaluate these technologies' effectiveness amongst adults with ASD and within unique subsets of the higher functioning autism population.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Instrução por Computador/métodos , Relações Interpessoais , Robótica/métodos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Instrução por Computador/normas , Instrução por Computador/tendências , Função Executiva , Humanos , Robótica/normas , Robótica/tendências
8.
Nat Rev Neurol ; 15(6): 353-359, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073242

RESUMO

Dementia is a leading cause of disability, and the prevalence of dementia is steadily increasing. Although people with dementia are living longer lives in the community, without adequate support for their declining physical and psychological needs, the majority of these individuals end up in nursing homes. With no cure in sight, and in the context of population ageing, we must consider how to care for these individuals in the future. Technologies that augment existing care can maintain a person comfortably in their community, maximize individual autonomy and promote social participation. However, to date, such technologies have rarely been used in dementia care. This Perspectives article highlights the need for affordable and appropriate technologies to assist future dementia care, outlines some of the technologies currently available and describes the many challenges to integration of such technologies. Finally, guidelines are suggested for the development and implementation of new technologies in dementia care.


Assuntos
Demência/terapia , Equipamentos de Autoajuda/tendências , Humanos , Vida Independente , Sistemas de Alerta/tendências , Robótica/tendências , Telemedicina/tendências
9.
Neural Netw ; 116: 224-236, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121420

RESUMO

Many experiments have been performed that use evolutionary algorithms for learning the topology and connection weights of a neural network that controls a robot or virtual agent. These experiments are not only performed to better understand basic biological principles, but also with the hope that with further progress of the methods, they will become competitive for automatically creating robot behaviors of interest. However, current methods are limited with respect to the (Kolmogorov) complexity of evolved behavior. Using the evolution of robot trajectories as an example, we show that by adding four features, namely (1) freezing of previously evolved structure, (2) temporal scaffolding, (3) a homogeneous transfer function for output nodes, and (4) mutations that create new pathways to outputs, to standard methods for the evolution of neural networks, we can achieve an approximately linear growth of the complexity of behavior over thousands of generations. Overall, evolved complexity is up to two orders of magnitude over that achieved by standard methods in the experiments reported here, with the major limiting factor for further growth being the available run time. Thus, the set of methods proposed here promises to be a useful addition to various current neuroevolution methods.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Aprendizado de Máquina/tendências , Robótica/métodos , Robótica/tendências , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
10.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 139: 111334, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128479

RESUMO

Micro/Nano robots have shown enormous potential for diverse biomedical applications, such as targeted delivery, in vivo biosensing, minimally invasive surgery and cell manipulation through extending their area of operation to various previously inaccessible locations. The motion of these small-scale robots can be either self-propelled or remotely controlled by some external power sources. However, in order to use them for biomedical applications, optimization of biocompatible propulsion and precise controllability are highly desirable. In this article, the recent progress about the biocompatible propulsion (e.g. self-propulsion, external stimuli based propulsion and bio-hybrid propulsion) techniques for these micro/nano robotic devices are summarized along with their applications, with a special focus on the advantages and disadvantages of different propulsion techniques. The current challenges and future perspectives of these small-scale devices are discussed in the final section.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Nanotecnologia/tendências , Robótica/tendências , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Movimento (Física) , Nanoestruturas , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Robótica/métodos
11.
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(7)2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987038

RESUMO

Multi-agent hybrid social cognitive optimization (MAHSCO) based on the Internet of Things (IoT) is suggested to solve the problem of the generation of formations of unmanned vehicles. Through the analysis of the unmanned vehicle formation problem, formation principles, formation scale, unmanned vehicle formation safety distance, and formation evaluation indicators are taken into consideration. The application of the IoT enables the optimization of distributed computing. To ensure the reliability of the formation algorithm, the convergence of MAHSCO has been proved. Finally, computer simulation and actual unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) formation generation flight generating four typical formations are carried out. The result of the actual UAV formation generation flight is consistent with the simulation experiment, and the algorithm performs well. The MAHSCO algorithm based on the IoT is proved to be able to generate formations that meet the mission requirements quickly and accurately.


Assuntos
Aeronaves , Condução de Veículo , Robótica/tendências , Algoritmos , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Internet , Veículos Automotores , Mídias Sociais
14.
Inf. psiquiátr ; (235): 53-59, ene.-mar. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183986

RESUMO

El Centro de Referencia Estatal de atención a personas con enfermedad de Alzheimer y otras demencias (CREA) cuenta con un programa de terapias no farmacológicas (TNF) al que se van incorporando intervenciones novedosas, adaptándonos a los cambios sociales y tecnológicos. Una de las TNF que más interés ha generado en los últimos años es la Roboterapia, el uso de robots sociales con forma de animal. Numerosos estudios han mostrado que la roboterapia tiene beneficios en las áreas social, afectiva, fisiológica y comportamental, pudiendo repercutir en la calidad de vida de la persona con demencia. A este respecto desde el CREA se han realizado recientemente dos estudios: el primero de ellos para valorar la eficacia de la foca robótica Paro en la reducción de los síntomas psicológicos o conductuales y mejora de la calidad de vida; mientras que el segundo consistió en una comparación de las respuestas generadas por Paro o un cachorro de perro


The National Reference Centre for Alzheimer's and Dementia care (CREA) has a program of non-pharmacological therapies (NPT) to which new interventions are incorporated, adapting to social and technological changes. Robotherapy, the use of social robots in the form of animals, is a NPT that has attracted great interest in recent years. Numerous studies have shown that robotherapy has benefits in the social, affective, physiological and behavioural areas, and can have an impact on the quality of life of the person with dementia. In this regard, two studies have been carried out recently by CREA: the first of them to assess the effectiveness of the Paro robotic seal in reducing psychological or behavioural symptoms and improving quality of life; while the second consisted of a comparison of the responses generated by Paro or a puppy dog


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Robótica/tendências , Demência/terapia , Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Demência/reabilitação , Terapia Comportamental , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica Breve , Cães
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(4)2019 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30781527

RESUMO

Tactile sensing is a key enabling technology to develop complex behaviours for robots interacting with humans or the environment. This paper discusses computational aspects playing a significant role when extracting information about contact events. Considering a large-scale, capacitance-based robot skin technology we developed in the past few years, we analyse the classical Boussinesq⁻Cerruti's solution and the Love's approach for solving a distributed inverse contact problem, both from a qualitative and a computational perspective. Our contribution is the characterisation of the algorithms' performance using a freely available dataset and data originating from surfaces provided with robot skin.


Assuntos
Robótica/tendências , Pele , Tato/fisiologia , Algoritmos , Capacitância Elétrica , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Propriedades de Superfície
16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(4)2019 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30781647

RESUMO

The emerging demographic trends toward an aging population, demand new ways and solutions to improve the quality of elderly life. These include, prolonged independent living, improved health care, and reduced social isolation. Recent technological advances in the field of assistive robotics bring higher sophistication and various assistive abilities that can help in achieving these goals. In this paper, we present design and validation of a low-cost telepresence robot that can assist the elderly and their professional caregivers, in everyday activities. The developed robot structure and its control objectives were tested in, both, a simulation and experimental environment. On-field experiments were done in a private elderly care center involving elderly persons and caregivers as participants. The goal of the evaluation study was to test the software architecture and the robot capabilities for navigation, as well as the robot manipulator. Moreover, participants' reactions toward a possible adoption of the developed robot system in everyday activities were assessed. The obtained results of the conducted evaluation study are also presented and discussed.


Assuntos
Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Robótica/tendências , Telemedicina/tendências , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Moradias Assistidas , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Humanos , Vida Independente , Qualidade de Vida , Equipamentos de Autoajuda , Interface Usuário-Computador
17.
Encephale ; 45(2): 182-187, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders which core symptoms are impairments in socio-communication and repetitive symptoms and stereotypies. Although not cardinal symptoms per se, motor impairments are fundamental aspects of ASD. These impairments are associated with postural and motor control disabilities that we investigated using computational modeling and developmental robotics through human-machine interaction paradigms. METHOD: First, in a set of studies involving a human-robot posture imitation, we explored the impact of 3 different groups of partners (including a group of children with ASD) on robot learning by imitation. Second, using an ecological task, i.e. a real-time motor imitation with a tightrope walker (TW) avatar, we investigated interpersonal synchronization, motor coordination and motor control during the task in children with ASD (n=29), TD children (n=39) and children with developmental coordination disorder (n=17, DCD). RESULTS: From the human-robot experiments, we evidenced that motor signature at both groups' and individuals' levels had a key influence on imitation learning, posture recognition and identity recognition. From the more dynamic motor imitation paradigm with a TW avatar, we found that interpersonal synchronization, motor coordination and motor control were more impaired in children with ASD compared to both TD children and children with DCD. Taken together these results confirm the motor peculiarities of children with ASD despite imitation tasks were adequately performed. DISCUSSION: Studies from human-machine interaction support the idea of a behavioral signature in children with ASD. However, several issues need to be addressed. Is this behavioral signature motoric in essence? Is it possible to ascertain that these peculiarities occur during all motor tasks (e.g. posture, voluntary movement)? Could this motor signature be considered as specific to autism, notably in comparison to DCD that also display poor motor coordination skills? We suggest that more work comparing the two conditions should be implemented, including analysis of kinematics and movement smoothness with sufficient measurement quality to allow spectral analysis.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Simulação por Computador , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Neurológico/tendências , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras/diagnóstico , Postura/fisiologia , Robótica , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/classificação , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Criança , Diagnóstico por Computador/métodos , Diagnóstico por Computador/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras/psicologia , Robótica/métodos , Robótica/tendências
18.
Nurs Ethics ; 26(4): 962-972, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29262739

RESUMO

The use of social robots in elder care is entering the mainstream as robots become more sophisticated and populations age. While there are many potential benefits to the use of social robots in care for the older people, there are ethical challenges as well. This article focuses on the societal consequences of the adoption of social robots in care for people with dementia. Making extensive use of Alasdair MacIntyre's Dependent Rational Animals to discuss issues of unintended consequences and moral hazard, we contend that in choosing to avoid the vulnerability and dependency of human existence, a society blinds itself from the animal reality of humankind. The consequence of this is that a flourishing society, in which each individual is helped to develop the virtues essential to her flourishing, becomes harder to achieve.


Assuntos
Demência/terapia , Geriatria/métodos , Princípios Morais , Robótica/ética , Geriatria/tendências , Envelhecimento Saudável , Humanos , Robótica/tendências
19.
Salud Colect ; 14(3): 483-512, 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517559

RESUMO

This work discusses the dominant models and tensions within the health field regarding the conceptualization of the human body (as a machine), the process of health work (industrial and artisanal models), institutions (hospitals and health centers) and primary agents (the medical corporation and the medical industrial complex). The context of analysis is the United States from the end of the 19th century to the present. Economic-political, ideological-cultural, and scientific-technical dimensions are discussed, which permeate the historicity of the field. The purpose is to illustrate how the health field has transformed over time, as well as the role instrumental reason and financial capital has played in this process, to the detriment of relational aspects.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/história , Pessoal de Saúde/história , Corpo Humano , Indústrias/história , Medicina Tradicional/história , Filosofia Médica/história , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Instalações de Saúde/história , Instalações de Saúde/tendências , Pessoal de Saúde/organização & administração , Pessoal de Saúde/tendências , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Indústrias/métodos , Indústrias/tendências , Medicalização/história , Medicalização/métodos , Medicalização/tendências , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Medicina Tradicional/tendências , Robótica/história , Robótica/tendências , Estados Unidos
20.
J Neuroeng Rehabil ; 15(1): 107, 2018 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30454009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiplayer games have emerged as a promising approach to increase the motivation of patients involved in rehabilitation therapy. In this systematic review, we evaluated recent publications in health-related multiplayer games that involved patients with cognitive and/or motor impairments. The aim was to investigate the effect of multiplayer gaming on game experience and game performance in healthy and non-healthy populations in comparison to individual game play. We further discuss the publications within the context of the theory of flow and the challenge point framework. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted through EMBASE, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL and PsycINFO. The search was complemented by recent publications in robot-assisted multiplayer neurorehabilitation. The search was restricted to robot-assisted or virtual reality-based training. RESULTS: Thirteen articles met the inclusion criteria. Multiplayer modes used in health-related multiplayer games were: competitive, collaborative and co-active multiplayer modes. Multiplayer modes positively affected game experience in nine studies and game performance in six studies. Two articles reported increased game performance in single-player mode when compared to multiplayer mode. CONCLUSIONS: The multiplayer modes of training reviewed improved game experience and game performance compared to single-player modes. However, the methods reviewed were quite heterogeneous and not exhaustive. One important take-away is that adaptation of the game conditions can individualize the difficulty of a game to a player's skill level in competitive multiplayer games. Robotic assistance and virtual reality can enhance individualization by, for example, adapting the haptic conditions, e.g. by increasing haptic support or by providing haptic resistance. The flow theory and the challenge point framework support these results and are used in this review to frame the idea of adapting players' game conditions.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Neurológica , Robótica , Jogos de Vídeo , Terapia de Exposição à Realidade Virtual , Humanos , Reabilitação Neurológica/métodos , Reabilitação Neurológica/tendências , Robótica/métodos , Robótica/tendências , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia , Jogos de Vídeo/tendências , Terapia de Exposição à Realidade Virtual/métodos , Terapia de Exposição à Realidade Virtual/tendências
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