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1.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696405

RESUMO

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are widespread and highly diversified in wildlife and domestic mammals and can emerge as zoonotic or epizootic pathogens and consequently host shift from these reservoirs, highlighting the importance of veterinary surveillance. All genera can be found in mammals, with α and ß showing the highest frequency and diversification. The aims of this study were to review the literature for features of CoV surveillance in animals, to test widely used molecular protocols, and to identify the most effective one in terms of spectrum and sensitivity. We combined a literature review with analyses in silico and in vitro using viral strains and archive field samples. We found that most protocols defined as pan-coronavirus are strongly biased towards α- and ß-CoVs and show medium-low sensitivity. The best results were observed using our new protocol, showing LoD 100 PFU/mL for SARS-CoV-2, 50 TCID50/mL for CaCoV, 0.39 TCID50/mL for BoCoV, and 9 ± 1 log2 ×10-5 HA for IBV. The protocol successfully confirmed the positivity for a broad range of CoVs in 30/30 field samples. Our study points out that pan-CoV surveillance in mammals could be strongly improved in sensitivity and spectrum and propose the application of a new RT-PCR assay, which is able to detect CoVs from all four genera, with an optimal sensitivity for α-, ß-, and γ-.


Assuntos
Alphacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Deltacoronavirus/genética , Gammacoronavirus/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , COVID-19/veterinária , Quirópteros/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Gado/virologia , Roedores/virologia
2.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 301, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wenzhou virus (WENV), a newly discovered mammarenavirus in rodents, is associated with fever and respiratory symptoms in humans. This study was aimed to detect and characterize the emerging virus in rodents in Guangzhou, China. RESULTS: A total of 100 small mammals, including 70 Rattus norvegicus, 22 Suncus murinus, 4 Bandicota indica, 3 Rattus flavipectus, and 1 Rattus losea, were captured in Guangzhou, and their brain tissues were collected and pooled for metagenomic analysis, which generated several contigs targeting the genome of WENV. Two R. norvegicus (2.9%) were further confirmed to be infected with WENV by RT-PCR. The complete genome (RnGZ37-2018 and RnGZ40-2018) shared 85.1-88.9% nt and 83.2-96.3% aa sequence identities to the Cambodian strains that have been shown to be associated with human disease. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all identified WENV could be grouped into four different lineages, and the two Guangzhou strains formed an independent clade. We also analyzed the potential recombinant events occurring in WENV strains. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed a high genetic diversity of WENV strains in China, emphasizing the relevance of surveillance of this emerging mammarenavirus in both natural reservoirs and humans.


Assuntos
Arenaviridae/classificação , Arenaviridae/genética , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Roedores/virologia , Animais , Arenaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Encéfalo/virologia , China , Humanos , Metagenômica , Recombinação Genética
3.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372549

RESUMO

Hantaviruses are harbored by multiple small mammal species in Asia, Europe, Africa, and the Americas. To ascertain the geographic distribution and virus-host relationships of rodent-borne hantaviruses in Japan, Vietnam, Myanmar, and Madagascar, RNAlater™-preserved lung tissues of 981 rodents representing 40 species, collected in 2011-2017, were analyzed for hantavirus RNA by RT-PCR. Our data showed Hantaan orthohantavirus Da Bie Shan strain in the Chinese white-bellied rat (Niviventer confucianus) in Vietnam, Thailand; orthohantavirus Anjo strain in the black rat (Rattus rattus) in Madagascar; and Puumala orthohantavirus Hokkaido strain in the grey-sided vole (Myodes rufocanus) in Japan. The Hokkaido strain of Puumala virus was also detected in the large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) and small Japanese field mouse (Apodemus argenteus), with evidence of host-switching as determined by co-phylogeny mapping.


Assuntos
Infecções por Hantavirus/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/virologia , Animais , Arvicolinae/virologia , Hantavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Hantavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Hantavirus/virologia , Japão , Madagáscar , Camundongos , Murinae/virologia , Filogenia , Virus Puumala/patogenicidade , Ratos , Roedores/virologia , Vietnã
4.
J Virol ; 95(22): e0117321, 2021 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431700

RESUMO

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has reignited global interest in animal coronaviruses and their potential for human transmission. While bats are thought to be the wildlife reservoir of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, the widespread human coronavirus OC43 is thought to have originated in rodents. Here, we sampled 297 rodents and shrews, representing eight species, from three municipalities of southern China. We report coronavirus prevalences of 23.3% and 0.7% in Guangzhou and Guilin, respectively, with samples from urban areas having significantly higher coronavirus prevalences than those from rural areas. We obtained three coronavirus genome sequences from Rattus norvegicus, including a Betacoronavirus (rat coronavirus [RCoV] GCCDC3), an Alphacoronavirus (RCoV-GCCDC5), and a novel Betacoronavirus (RCoV-GCCDC4). Recombination analysis suggests that there was a potential recombination event involving RCoV-GCCDC4, murine hepatitis virus (MHV), and Longquan Rl rat coronavirus (LRLV). Furthermore, we uncovered a polybasic cleavage site, RARR, in the spike (S) protein of RCoV-GCCDC4, which is dominant in RCoV. These findings provide further information on the potential for interspecies transmission of coronaviruses and demonstrate the value of a One Health approach to virus discovery. IMPORTANCE Surveillance of viruses among rodents in rural and urban areas of South China identified three rodent coronaviruses, RCoV-GCCDC3, RCoV-GCCDC4, and RCoV-GCCDC5, one of which was identified as a novel potentially recombinant coronavirus with a polybasic cleavage site in the spike (S) protein. Through reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) screening of coronaviruses, we found that coronavirus prevalence in urban areas is much higher than that in rural areas. Subsequently, we obtained three coronavirus genome sequences by deep sequencing. After different method-based analyses, we found that RCoV-GCCDC4 was a novel potentially recombinant coronavirus with a polybasic cleavage site in the S protein, dominant in RCoV. This newly identified coronavirus RCoV-GCCDC4 with its potentially recombinant genome and polybasic cleavage site provides a new insight into the evolution of coronaviruses. Furthermore, our results provide further information on the potential for interspecies transmission of coronaviruses and demonstrate the necessity of a One Health approach for zoonotic disease surveillance.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus/genética , Recombinação Genética , Roedores/virologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Prevalência , Musaranhos/virologia
5.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0236971, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106949

RESUMO

Coronaviruses play an important role as pathogens of humans and animals, and the emergence of epidemics like SARS, MERS and COVID-19 is closely linked to zoonotic transmission events primarily from wild animals. Bats have been found to be an important source of coronaviruses with some of them having the potential to infect humans, with other animals serving as intermediate or alternate hosts or reservoirs. Host diversity may be an important contributor to viral diversity and thus the potential for zoonotic events. To date, limited research has been done in Africa on this topic, in particular in the Congo Basin despite frequent contact between humans and wildlife in this region. We sampled and, using consensus coronavirus PCR-primers, tested 3,561 wild animals for coronavirus RNA. The focus was on bats (38%), rodents (38%), and primates (23%) that posed an elevated risk for contact with people, and we found coronavirus RNA in 121 animals, of which all but two were bats. Depending on the taxonomic family, bats were significantly more likely to be coronavirus RNA-positive when sampled either in the wet (Pteropodidae and Rhinolophidae) or dry season (Hipposideridae, Miniopteridae, Molossidae, and Vespertilionidae). The detected RNA sequences correspond to 15 alpha- and 6 betacoronaviruses, with some of them being very similar (>95% nucleotide identities) to known coronaviruses and others being more unique and potentially representing novel viruses. In seven of the bats, we detected RNA most closely related to sequences of the human common cold coronaviruses 229E or NL63 (>80% nucleotide identities). The findings highlight the potential for coronavirus spillover, especially in regions with a high diversity of bats and close human contact, and reinforces the need for ongoing surveillance.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Roedores/virologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/genética , Quirópteros/genética , Congo/epidemiologia , Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/enzimologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Roedores/genética
6.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068409

RESUMO

Hamster polyomavirus (Mesocricetus auratus polyomavirus 1, HaPyV) was discovered as one of the first rodent polyomaviruses at the end of the 1960s in a colony of Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) affected by skin tumors. Natural HaPyV infections have been recorded in Syrian hamster colonies due to the occurrence of skin tumors and lymphomas. HaPyV infections of Syrian hamsters represent an important and pioneering tumor model. Experimental infections of Syrian hamsters of different colonies are still serving as model systems (e.g., mesothelioma). The observed phylogenetic relationship of HaPyV to murine polyomaviruses within the genus Alphapolyomavirus, and the exclusive detection of other cricetid polyomaviruses, i.e., common vole (Microtus arvalis polyomavirus 1) and bank vole (Myodes glareolus polyomavirus 1) polyomaviruses, in the genus Betapolyomavirus, must be considered with caution, as knowledge of rodent-associated polyomaviruses is still limited. The genome of HaPyV shows the typical organization of polyomaviruses with an early and a late transcriptional region. The early region encodes three tumor (T) antigens including a middle T antigen; the late region encodes three capsid proteins. The major capsid protein VP1 of HaPyV was established as a carrier for the generation of autologous, chimeric, and mosaic virus-like particles (VLPs) with a broad range of applications, e.g., for the production of epitope-specific antibodies. Autologous VLPs have been applied for entry and maturation studies of dendritic cells. The generation of chimeric and mosaic VLPs indicated the high flexibility of the VP1 carrier protein for the insertion of foreign sequences. The generation of pseudotype VLPs of original VP1 and VP2-foreign protein fusion can further enhance the applicability of this system. Future investigations should evaluate the evolutionary origin of HaPyV, monitor its occurrence in wildlife and Syrian hamster breeding, and prove its value for the generation of potential vaccine candidates and as a gene therapy vehicle.


Assuntos
Infecções por Polyomavirus/virologia , Polyomavirus/fisiologia , Pesquisa/tendências , Animais , Transformação Celular Viral , Cricetinae , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Genoma Viral , Genômica/métodos , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Polyomavirus/classificação , Polyomavirus/ultraestrutura , Infecções por Polyomavirus/complicações , Roedores/virologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/complicações , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/virologia
7.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066592

RESUMO

Whole-genome sequencing of infectious agents enables the identification and characterization of emerging viruses. The MinION device is a portable sequencer that allows real-time sequencing in fields or hospitals. Hantaan orthohantavirus (Hantaan virus, HTNV), harbored by Apodemus agrarius, causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and poses a critical public health threat worldwide. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using nanopore sequencing for whole-genome sequencing of HTNV from samples having different viral copy numbers. Amplicon-based next-generation sequencing was performed in A. agrarius lung tissues collected from the Republic of Korea. Genomic sequences of HTNV were analyzed based on the viral RNA copy numbers. Amplicon-based nanopore sequencing provided nearly full-length genomic sequences of HTNV and showed sufficient read depth for phylogenetic analysis after 8 h of sequencing. The average identity of the HTNV genome sequences for the nanopore sequencer compared to those of generated from Illumina MiSeq revealed 99.8% (L and M segments) and 99.7% (S segment) identities, respectively. This study highlights the potential of the portable nanopore sequencer for rapid generation of accurate genomic sequences of HTNV for quicker decision making in point-of-care testing of HFRS patients during a hantavirus outbreak.


Assuntos
Vírus Hantaan/genética , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/epidemiologia , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/virologia , Murinae/virologia , Animais , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , Geografia Médica , Vírus Hantaan/classificação , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/transmissão , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Prevalência , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Roedores/virologia , Carga Viral
8.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 20(1): 29, 2021 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33894784

RESUMO

Lassa fever (LF), a zoonotic illness, represents a public health burden in West African countries where the Lassa virus (LASV) circulates among rodents. Human exposure hinges significantly on LASV ecology, which is in turn shaped by various parameters such as weather seasonality and even virus and rodent-host genetics. Furthermore, human behaviour, despite playing a key role in the zoonotic nature of the disease, critically affects either the spread or control of human-to-human transmission. Previous estimations on LF burden date from the 80s and it is unclear how the population expansion and the improvement on diagnostics and surveillance methods have affected such predictions. Although recent data have contributed to the awareness of epidemics, the real impact of LF in West African communities will only be possible with the intensification of interdisciplinary efforts in research and public health approaches. This review discusses the causes and consequences of LF from a One Health perspective, and how the application of this concept can improve the surveillance and control of this disease in West Africa.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Febre Lassa/epidemiologia , Febre Lassa/transmissão , Febre Lassa/virologia , Vírus Lassa , Saúde Única , Roedores/virologia , África Ocidental/epidemiologia , Animais , Humanos , Febre Lassa/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública
9.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805304

RESUMO

The natural hosts of Orthohantaviruses are rodents, soricomorphs and bats, and it is well known that they may cause serious or even fatal diseases among humans worldwide. The virus is persistent among animals and it is shed via urine, saliva and feces throughout the entirety of their lives. We aim to identify the effectiveness of hantavirus detection in rodent tissue samples and urine originating from naturally infected rodents. Initially, animals were trapped at five distinct locations throughout the Transdanubian region in Hungary. Lung, liver, kidney and urine samples were obtained from 163 deceased animals. All organs and urine were tested using nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (nRT-PCR). Furthermore, sera were examined for IgG antibodies against Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) and Puumala virus (PUUV) by Western blot assay. IgG antibodies against hantaviruses and/or nucleic acid were detected in 25 (15.3%) cases. Among Apodemus, Myodes, and Microtus rodent species, DOBV, PUUV and Tula virus (TULV) were clearly identified. Amid the PCR-positive samples, the nucleic acid of the viruses was detected most effectively in the kidney (100%), while only 55% of screened lung tissues were positive. Interestingly, only three out of 20 rodent urine samples were positive when tested using nRT-PCR. Moreover, five rodents were seropositive without detectable virus nucleic acid in any of the tested organs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Hantavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Hantavirus/urina , Hantavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas Histológicas/normas , RNA Viral/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Hantavirus/genética , Hungria , Rim/virologia , Fígado/virologia , Pulmão/virologia , Roedores/virologia
10.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918083

RESUMO

Puumala orthohantavirus (PUUV) has a wide distribution throughout Europe. Distinctive temporal patterns of spillover into the human population are related to population dynamics of the reservoir host, the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus). As the rodent host is tied to specific habitats with small individual ranges, PUUV genetic diversity is also highly correlated with geographic distance. Using sequenced portions of viral S and M segments, we determined whether geographic clusters were supported. Human cases of PUUV infections are concentrated in southeastern Austria. We detected four distinct genotypes: two genotypes of the Alpe-Adria (ALAD) lineage typically associated with southeast Europe, and two sublineages of the Central Europe (CE) lineage. One cluster of CE genotypes represents a phylogenetically distinct sublineage compared to previously reported CE clades, and extends the boundary of the CE lineage further south than previously reported.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/epidemiologia , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/virologia , Virus Puumala/classificação , Virus Puumala/genética , Roedores/virologia , Animais , Áustria/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Filogenia , Filogeografia , RNA Viral/genética
11.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33919632

RESUMO

Rodent-borne arenaviruses have been traditionally predominantly associated with certain muroid species from Mastomys/Praomys genera (African arenaviruses) or with species that belong to murid subfamily Cricetidae (New World arenaviruses) [...].


Assuntos
Infecções por Arenaviridae/veterinária , Arenavirus/genética , Arenavirus/patogenicidade , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Infecções por Arenaviridae/transmissão , Arenavirus/classificação , Peixes/virologia , Humanos , Roedores/virologia , Serpentes/virologia
12.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5328-5332, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851740

RESUMO

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is one of the recently identified zoonotic coronaviruses. The one-hump camels are believed to play important roles in the evolution and transmission of the virus. The animal-to-animal, as well as the animal-to-human transmission in the context of MERS-CoV infection, were reported. The camels shed the virus in some of their secretions, especially the nasal tract. However, there are many aspects of the transmission cycle of the virus from animals to humans that are still not fully understood. Rodents played important roles in the transmission of many pathogens, including viruses and bacteria. They have been implicated in the evolution of many human coronaviruses, especially HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1. However, the role of rodents in the transmission of MERS-CoV still requires more exploration. To achieve this goal, we identified MERS-CoV that naturally infected dromedary camel by molecular surveillance. We captured 15 of the common rodents (rats, mice, and jerboa) sharing the habitat with these animals. We collected both oral and rectal swabs from these animals and then tested them by the commercial MERS-CoV real-time-PCR kits using two targets. Despite the detection of the viral shedding in the nasal swabs of some of the dromedary camels, none of the rodents tested positive for the virus during the tenure of this study. We concluded that these species of rodents did not harbor the virus and are most unlikely to contribute to the transmission of the MERS-CoV. However, further large-scale studies are required to confirm the potential roles of rodents in the context of the MERS-CoV transmission cycle, if any.


Assuntos
Camelus/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , RNA Viral/genética , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Cavidade Nasal/virologia , Ratos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reto/virologia , Roedores/virologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
13.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(3): e1008811, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657095

RESUMO

Forecasting the risk of pathogen spillover from reservoir populations of wild or domestic animals is essential for the effective deployment of interventions such as wildlife vaccination or culling. Due to the sporadic nature of spillover events and limited availability of data, developing and validating robust, spatially explicit, predictions is challenging. Recent efforts have begun to make progress in this direction by capitalizing on machine learning methodologies. An important weakness of existing approaches, however, is that they generally rely on combining human and reservoir infection data during the training process and thus conflate risk attributable to the prevalence of the pathogen in the reservoir population with the risk attributed to the realized rate of spillover into the human population. Because effective planning of interventions requires that these components of risk be disentangled, we developed a multi-layer machine learning framework that separates these processes. Our approach begins by training models to predict the geographic range of the primary reservoir and the subset of this range in which the pathogen occurs. The spillover risk predicted by the product of these reservoir specific models is then fit to data on realized patterns of historical spillover into the human population. The result is a geographically specific spillover risk forecast that can be easily decomposed and used to guide effective intervention. Applying our method to Lassa virus, a zoonotic pathogen that regularly spills over into the human population across West Africa, results in a model that explains a modest but statistically significant portion of geographic variation in historical patterns of spillover. When combined with a mechanistic mathematical model of infection dynamics, our spillover risk model predicts that 897,700 humans are infected by Lassa virus each year across West Africa, with Nigeria accounting for more than half of these human infections.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Febre Lassa , Vírus Lassa , Modelos Biológicos , África Ocidental , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Biologia Computacional , Ecologia , Humanos , Febre Lassa/epidemiologia , Febre Lassa/transmissão , Febre Lassa/veterinária , Febre Lassa/virologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Modelos Estatísticos , Risco , Roedores/virologia
14.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248244, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684147

RESUMO

Rodents are reservoirs of numerous zoonotic diseases caused by bacteria, protozoans, or viruses. In Gabon, the circulation and maintenance of rodent-borne zoonotic infectious agents are poorly studied and are often limited to one type of pathogen. Among the three existing studies on this topic, two are focused on a zoonotic virus, and the third is focused on rodent Plasmodium. In this study, we searched for a wide range of bacteria, protozoa and viruses in different organs of rodents from the town of Franceville in Gabon. Samples from one hundred and ninety-eight (198) small mammals captured, including two invasive rodent species, five native rodent species and 19 shrews belonging to the Soricidae family, were screened. The investigated pathogens were bacteria from the Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae families, Mycoplasma spp., Bartonella spp., Borrelia spp., Orientia spp., Occidentia spp., Leptospira spp., Streptobacillus moniliformis, Coxiella burnetii, and Yersinia pestis; parasites from class Kinetoplastida spp. (Leishmania spp., Trypanosoma spp.), Piroplasmidae spp., and Toxoplasma gondii; and viruses from Paramyxoviridae, Hantaviridae, Flaviviridae and Mammarenavirus spp. We identified the following pathogenic bacteria: Anaplasma spp. (8.1%; 16/198), Bartonella spp. (6.6%; 13/198), Coxiella spp. (5.1%; 10/198) and Leptospira spp. (3.5%; 7/198); and protozoans: Piroplasma sp. (1%; 2/198), Toxoplasma gondii (0.5%; 1/198), and Trypanosoma sp. (7%; 14/198). None of the targeted viral genes were detected. These pathogens were found in Gabonese rodents, mainly Lophuromys sp., Lemniscomys striatus and Praomys sp. We also identified new genotypes: Candidatus Bartonella gabonensis and Uncultured Anaplasma spp. This study shows that rodents in Gabon harbor some human pathogenic bacteria and protozoans. It is necessary to determine whether the identified microorganisms are capable of undergoing zoonotic transmission from rodents to humans and if they may be responsible for human cases of febrile disease of unknown etiology in Gabon.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Reservatórios de Doenças , Kinetoplastida , Roedores , Musaranhos , Toxoplasma , Vírus , Zoonoses , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Cidades , Gabão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Kinetoplastida/classificação , Kinetoplastida/isolamento & purificação , Roedores/microbiologia , Roedores/parasitologia , Roedores/virologia , Musaranhos/microbiologia , Musaranhos/parasitologia , Musaranhos/virologia , Toxoplasma/classificação , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/virologia
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(2): e0009108, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lassa fever (LF) is one of the most devastating rodent-borne diseases in West Africa, causing thousands of deaths annually. The geographical expansion of LF is also a concern; cases were recently identified in Ghana and Benin. Previous ecological studies have suggested that high natural-host biodiversity reduces the likelihood of spillover transmission of rodent-borne diseases, by suppressing the activities of reservoir species. However, the association of biodiversity with the geographical expansion of LF has not been the subject of epidemiological studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a spatial analysis based on sociodemographic, geographical, and ecological data, and found that higher rodent species richness was significantly associated with a lower risk of LF emergence in West Africa from 2008 to 2017 (Odds Ratio = 0.852, 95% Credible Interval = 0.745-0.971). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results reinforce the importance of the 'One Health' approach by demonstrating that a high level of biodiversity could benefit human health.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Febre Lassa/transmissão , Febre Lassa/veterinária , Roedores/virologia , África Ocidental , Animais , Benin , Biodiversidade , Surtos de Doenças , Geografia , Gana , Humanos , Vírus Lassa , Saúde Única , Doenças dos Roedores , Análise Espacial
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(3)2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397804

RESUMO

Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is an unusual RNA agent that replicates using host machinery but exploits hepatitis B virus (HBV) to mobilize its spread within and between hosts. In doing so, HDV enhances the virulence of HBV. How this seemingly improbable hyperparasitic lifestyle emerged is unknown, but it underpins the likelihood that HDV and related deltaviruses may alter other host-virus interactions. Here, we show that deltaviruses diversify by transmitting between mammalian species. Among 96,695 RNA sequence datasets, deltaviruses infected bats, rodents, and an artiodactyl from the Americas but were absent from geographically overrepresented Old World representatives of each mammalian order, suggesting a relatively recent diversification within the Americas. Consistent with diversification by host shifting, both bat and rodent-infecting deltaviruses were paraphyletic, and coevolutionary modeling rejected cospeciation with mammalian hosts. In addition, a 2-y field study showed common vampire bats in Peru were infected by two divergent deltaviruses, indicating multiple introductions to a single host species. One vampire bat-associated deltavirus was detected in the saliva of up to 35% of individuals, formed phylogeographically compartmentalized clades, and infected a sympatric bat, illustrating horizontal transmission within and between species on ecological timescales. Consistent absence of HBV-like viruses in two deltavirus-infected bat species indicated acquisitions of novel viral associations during the divergence of bat and human-infecting deltaviruses. Our analyses support an American zoonotic origin of HDV and reveal prospects for future cross-species emergence of deltaviruses. Given their peculiar life history, deltavirus host shifts will have different constraints and disease outcomes compared to ordinary animal pathogens.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/genética , Vírus Satélites/genética , Animais , Quirópteros/virologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Variação Genética/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B/transmissão , Hepatite B/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Hepatite D/genética , Hepatite D/transmissão , Hepatite D/virologia , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/patogenicidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Mamíferos/virologia , Filogenia , Roedores/virologia , Vírus Satélites/patogenicidade
17.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 18, 2021 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the largest group of mammalian species, which are also widely distributed all over the world, rodents are the natural reservoirs for many diverse zoonotic viruses. A comprehensive understanding of the core virome of diverse rodents should therefore assist in efforts to reduce the risk of future emergence or re-emergence of rodent-borne zoonotic pathogens. RESULTS: This study aimed to describe the viral range that could be detected in the lungs of rodents from Mainland Southeast Asia. Lung samples were collected from 3284 rodents and insectivores of the orders Rodentia, Scandentia, and Eulipotyphla in eighteen provinces of Thailand, Lao PDR, and Cambodia throughout 2006-2018. Meta-transcriptomic analysis was used to outline the unique spectral characteristics of the mammalian viruses within these lungs and the ecological and genetic imprints of the novel viruses. Many mammalian- or arthropod-related viruses from distinct evolutionary lineages were reported for the first time in these species, and viruses related to known pathogens were characterized for their genomic and evolutionary characteristics, host species, and locations. CONCLUSIONS: These results expand our understanding of the core viromes of rodents and insectivores from Mainland Southeast Asia and suggest that a high diversity of viruses remains to be found in rodent species of this area. These findings, combined with our previous virome data from China, increase our knowledge of the viral community in wildlife and arthropod vectors in emerging disease hotspots of East and Southeast Asia. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Pulmão/virologia , RNA Viral/análise , Roedores/virologia , Viroma/genética , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Insetos/virologia
18.
Viruses ; 13(1)2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435494

RESUMO

Understanding the ecology of rodent-borne hantaviruses is critical to assessing the risk of spillover to humans. Longitudinal surveys have suggested that hantaviral prevalence in a given host population is tightly linked to rodent ecology and correlates with changes in the species composition of a rodent community over time and/or habitat composition. We tested two hypotheses to identify whether resource addition and/or habitat composition may affect hantavirus prevalence among two sympatric reservoir hosts in a neotropical forest: (i) increased food resources will alter the rodent community and thus hantaviral prevalence; and (ii) host abundance and viral seroprevalence will be associated with habitat composition. We established a baseline of rodent-virus prevalence in three grid pairs of distinct habitat compositions and subjected one grid of each pair to resource augmentation. Increased rodent species diversity was observed on grids where food was added versus untreated control grids during the first post-treatment sampling session. Resource augmentation changed species community composition, yet it did not affect the prevalence of hantavirus in the host population over time, nor was there evidence of a dilution effect. Secondly, we show that the prevalence of the virus in the respective reservoir hosts was associated with habitat composition at two spatial levels, independent of resource addition, supporting previous findings that habitat composition is a primary driver of the prevalence of hantaviruses in the neotropics.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Ecossistema , Florestas , Infecções por Hantavirus/veterinária , Hantavirus/fisiologia , Roedores/virologia , Clima Tropical , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , Florida , Humanos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública
19.
Ecohealth ; 17(3): 345-358, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206274

RESUMO

In Nepal, rapid urbanization and rural-to-urban migration especially due to internal civil conflict have catalyzed the development of temporary settlements, often along rivers on undeveloped land. This study conducted surveillance for viruses in small mammals and assessed potential risks for virus transmission to people in urban settlements along rivers in Kathmandu, Nepal. We collected samples from 411 small mammals (100 rodents and 311 shrews) at four riverside settlement sites and detected six viruses from four virus families including Thottapalayam virus; a strain of murine coronavirus; two new paramyxoviruses; and two new rhabdoviruses. Additionally, we conducted surveys of 264 residents to characterize animal-human contact. Forty-eight percent of individuals reported contact with wildlife, primarily with rodents and shrews (91%). Our findings confirm that rodents and shrews should be considered a health threat for residents of temporary settlements, and that assessment of disease transmission risk coupled with targeted surveillance for emerging pathogens could lead to improved disease control and health security for urban populations. Additionally, interventions focused on disease prevention should consider the unique urban ecology and social dynamics in temporary settlements, along with the importance of community engagement for identifying solutions that address specific multi-dimensional challenges that life on the urban river margins presents.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Roedores/virologia , Musaranhos/virologia , Urbanização , Animais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Vetores de Doenças , Humanos , Nepal , Dinâmica Populacional , População Urbana
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(10): e0008778, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075097

RESUMO

In recent years, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) incidence has been becoming a severe public health problem again due to its significant increase in Shaanxi Province, China. Baoji, located in the Guanzhong Plain in the central part of Shaanxi Province, has been severely affected by HFRS since its first emergence in 1955. To better understand the epidemiology of orthohantaviruses infection in humans and the causative agents carried by the rodents, the long-term incidence patterns were analyzed and a molecular epidemiological investigation of orthohantaviruses infection in humans and rodents was performed. During 1984-2019, 13,042 HFRS cases were registered in Baoji, including 275 death cases. Except the first high prevalence of HFRS in 1988-1993, another two epidemic peaks were observed in 1998-2003 and 2012, respectively, although vaccination project was started since 1996. During the same period, HFRS cases in Baoji mainly were recorded in winter suggesting they may be caused by Hantaan orthohantavirus (HTNV), while a small peak of HFRS was also found in summer with unknown reason. Nucleotide identity and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that a novel clade of HTNV sequences recovered from HFRS cases were closely related to those from rodents, including species close contact with humans, suggesting a direct viral transmission from rodents to humans and the important role in the HTNV transmission the nontraditional rodent hosts may play. Moreover, two distant related Dabieshan orthohantavirus (DBSV) lineages were also identified in Niviventer niviventer in this area demonstrating its considerable genetic diversity. Our data indicated that continual spillover of HTNV from rodents to humans, contributing to the high prevalence of HFRS in humans in Baoji.


Assuntos
Vírus Hantaan/isolamento & purificação , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/veterinária , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/virologia , Doenças dos Roedores/virologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Vírus Hantaan/classificação , Vírus Hantaan/genética , Vírus Hantaan/fisiologia , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/epidemiologia , Febre Hemorrágica com Síndrome Renal/transmissão , Humanos , Incidência , Filogenia , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/transmissão , Roedores/classificação , Roedores/virologia , Estações do Ano
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