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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(9): e19253, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118732

RESUMO

Despite the development of vaccines in 2006, rotavirus is still a major cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. This study was performed to analyze the presence of circulating rotaviruses before and after the introduction of rotavirus vaccines to allow phylogenetic comparisons of vaccine strains in northern Taiwan.Rotavirus genotyping and sequencing of rotavirus VP7 and VP4 PCR products were performed by Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction and DNA autosequencing. Phylogenies were constructed by the neighbor-joining and maximum-likelihood methods using CLUSTAL W software included in the MEGA software package (version 6.0).Between April 2004 and December 2012, a total of 101 rotavirus specimens from pediatric patients with acute gastroenteritis hospitalized in Chang Gung Children's Hospital were amplified, and their VP4 and VP7 sequences were determined. These 101 specimens consisted of 55 pre-vaccine strains (G1 [13, 23.6%], G2 [12, 21.8%], G3 [16, 29.1%], and G9 [14, 25.5%]) and 46 post-vaccine strains (G1 [25, 54.3%], G2 [12, 26.1%], G3 [5, 10.9%], and G9 [4, 8.7%]). The most common combination of the G and P types was G2P[4], accounting for 36% cases, followed by G9P[8] (25%), G1P[8] (20%), G3P[4] (15%), G3P[8] (10%), G1P[4] (5%), and G2P[8] (5%). Phylogenetic analysis showed that only the G1 and P[8] genotypes clustered in the same lineages with the rotavirus vaccine strains.Based on our results, the inclusion of G9, modified G2 and G3 with target lineages, and the combination G2P[4] and G9P[8] in the rotavirus vaccines in Taiwan is warranted as a vaccination strategy.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/virologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/uso terapêutico , Rotavirus/imunologia , Criança , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogenia , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , RNA Viral/genética , Rotavirus/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Vacinação
2.
Arch Virol ; 165(4): 865-875, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052197

RESUMO

The G1P[8] genotype is one of the most common among rotaviruses circulating in the last 40 years. Therefore, this genotype is a component of rotavirus vaccines licensed throughout the world. This paper presents the results of a 35-year (1984-2019) observation of the circulation of G1P[8] rotaviruses among children under 14 in one region (Nizhny Novgorod, Russia) without vaccine pressure. Several complementary approaches were used: RNA electropherotyping by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, PCR genotyping, and cDNA sequencing of rotavirus VP4 and VP7 genes. A total of 8375 rotavirus-positive samples were examined, and the proportion of genotype G1P[8] rotaviruses was 39.9% (4.3-98.9%). Two cycles of high circulation activity (1984-1993 and 1993-2007) and one cycle of low activity (2007-2019) were noted. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of rotaviruses of two VP4 gene lineages (P[8]-1 and P[8]-3) and two VP7 gene lineages (sublineages IA, IB, ID, II-B, II-C, and II- E). The prolonged circulation of rotaviruses of only one sublineage (G1-II-E) and then a change of the prevailing sublineage within the G1-II lineage (from E to C) during the active circulation were shown. Since 2011, when the circulation intensity of G1P[8] rotaviruses was low, the appearance of strains of the G1-I lineage and their co-circulation with strains of the G1-II lineage were observed in the population.


Assuntos
Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Filogenia , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/genética , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Proteínas Virais/genética
3.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228506, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023295

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Palestinian Ministry of Health (MOH) started a routine rotavirus immunization program with ROTARIX in May 2016, with support for vaccine procurement and introduction provided through a global development organization. In 2018, financial responsibility for rotavirus vaccine procurement was transferred to the Palestinian government, which elected to shift to ROTAVAC vaccine because of its lower price per dose. This study aims to assess the cost, impact, and cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination, specifically evaluating the economic implications of the change in vaccine product, accounting for the different characteristics of each rotavirus vaccine used. METHODS: We conducted primary and secondary data collection to assess the introduction, procurement, supply chain, and service delivery costs related to each vaccine. We used the UNIVAC model to project costs and benefits of rotavirus vaccination over a 10-year period comparing the use of ROTARIX versus no vaccination; ROTAVAC versus no vaccination; and ROTAVAC versus ROTARIX. We undertook scenario and probabilistic analyses to capture uncertainty in some of the study parameters. We used a 3% discount rate, and all costs are in 2018 US$. RESULTS: The cost to deliver one dose was lower for ROTAVAC than ROTARIX (US$2.36 versus $2.70), but the total cost per course, excluding vaccine cost, favored ROTARIX ($7.09 versus $5.39). Both vaccines had high probability of being cost-effective interventions in Palestine compared to no vaccine. Because of lower vaccination program costs for ROTAVAC, however, switching from ROTARIX to ROTAVAC was cost-saving. CONCLUSION: National decision-makers should consider systematically assessing multiple criteria beyond vaccine price when comparing the health and economic value of several products in order to fully account for all characteristics including product presentation, number of doses per course, cold chain volume, cost of delivery, and wastage.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Programas de Imunização/economia , Infecções por Rotavirus/economia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/economia , Rotavirus/imunologia , Vacinação/economia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/classificação , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/uso terapêutico
4.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228942, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior to vaccine introduction in 2006, rotavirus was the leading cause of severe diarrhea in children under five years of age in the U.S. Vaccination of infants has led to major reductions in disease burden, a shift in the seasonal peak and the emergence of a biennial pattern of disease. However, rotavirus vaccine coverage has remained relatively low (70-75%) compared to other infant immunizations in the U.S. Part of the reason for this lower coverage is that children whose care is provided by family practitioners (FP) have considerably lower probability of being vaccinated compared to those seen be pediatricians (PE). We used a dynamic transmission model to assess the impact of improving rotavirus vaccine coverage by FP and/or PE on rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) incidence and seasonal patterns. METHODS: A deterministic age-structured dynamic model with susceptible, infectious, and recovered compartments (SIRS model) was used to simulate rotavirus transmission and vaccination. We estimated the reduction of RVGE cases by 2 doses of rotavirus vaccine with three vaccination scenarios: (Status Quo: 85% coverage by pediatricians and 45% coverage by family practitioners; Improved FP: 85% coverage by pediatricians and family practitioners; Improved FP+PE: 95% coverage by pediatricians and family practitioners). In addition, we tested the sensitivity of the model to the assumption of random mixing patterns between children visiting pediatricians and children visiting family practitioners. RESULTS: In this model, higher vaccine coverage provided by family practitioners and pediatricians leads to lower incidence of severe RVGE cases (23% averted in Improved FP and 57% averted in Improved FP+PE compared to Status Quo) including indirect effects. One critical impact of higher total vaccine coverage is the effect on rotavirus epidemic patterns in the U.S.; the biennial rotavirus epidemic patterns shifted to reduced annual epidemic patterns. Additionally, assortative mixing patterns in children visiting pediatricians and family practitioners amplify the impact of increasing vaccine coverage. CONCLUSION: Other high-income countries that introduced vaccine have not experienced biennial patterns, like the U.S. Our results suggest that increasing overall vaccine coverage to 85% among infants would lead to an overall reduction in incidence with annual epidemic patterns.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Cobertura Vacinal/tendências , Vacinação/tendências , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/virologia , Humanos , Imunização/tendências , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Rotavirus/imunologia , Rotavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Cobertura Vacinal/métodos , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem
5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5798, 2019 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862873

RESUMO

Childhood diarrheal disease causes significant morbidity and mortality in low and middle-income countries, yet our ability to accurately predict diarrhea incidence remains limited. El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has been shown to affect diarrhea dynamics in South America and Asia. However, understanding of its effects in sub-Saharan Africa, where the burden of under-5 diarrhea is high, remains inadequate. Here we investigate the connections between ENSO, local environmental conditions, and childhood diarrheal disease in Chobe District, Botswana. Our results demonstrate that La Niña conditions are associated with cooler temperatures, increased rainfall, and higher flooding in the Chobe region during the rainy season. In turn, La Niña conditions lagged 0-5 months are associated with higher than average incidence of under-5 diarrhea in the early rainy season. These findings demonstrate the potential use of ENSO as a long-lead prediction tool for childhood diarrhea in southern Africa.


Assuntos
Diarreia Infantil/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , El Niño Oscilação Sul/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Rotavirus/imunologia , Botsuana/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Diarreia Infantil/prevenção & controle , Diarreia Infantil/virologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Chuva , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia
6.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2019(10)2019 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus results in more diarrhoea-related deaths in children under five years than any other single agent in countries with high childhood mortality. It is also a common cause of diarrhoea-related hospital admissions in countries with low childhood mortality. Rotavirus vaccines that have been prequalified by the World Health Organization (WHO) include a monovalent vaccine (RV1; Rotarix, GlaxoSmithKline), a pentavalent vaccine (RV5; RotaTeq, Merck), and, more recently, another monovalent vaccine (Rotavac, Bharat Biotech). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate rotavirus vaccines prequalified by the WHO (RV1, RV5, and Rotavac) for their efficacy and safety in children. SEARCH METHODS: On 4 April 2018 we searched MEDLINE (via PubMed), the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (published in the Cochrane Library), Embase, LILACS, and BIOSIS. We also searched the WHO ICTRP, ClinicalTrials.gov, clinical trial reports from manufacturers' websites, and reference lists of included studies and relevant systematic reviews. SELECTION CRITERIA: We selected randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in children comparing rotavirus vaccines prequalified for use by the WHO versus placebo or no intervention. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility and assessed risks of bias. One review author extracted data and a second author cross-checked them. We combined dichotomous data using the risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). We stratified the analysis by country mortality rate and used GRADE to evaluate evidence certainty. MAIN RESULTS: Fifty-five trials met the inclusion criteria and enrolled a total of 216,480 participants. Thirty-six trials (119,114 participants) assessed RV1, 15 trials (88,934 participants) RV5, and four trials (8432 participants) Rotavac. RV1 Children vaccinated and followed up the first year of life In low-mortality countries, RV1 prevents 84% of severe rotavirus diarrhoea cases (RR 0.16, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.26; 43,779 participants, 7 trials; high-certainty evidence), and probably prevents 41% of cases of severe all-cause diarrhoea (RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.74; 28,051 participants, 3 trials; moderate-certainty evidence). In high-mortality countries, RV1 prevents 63% of severe rotavirus diarrhoea cases (RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.60; 6114 participants, 3 trials; high-certainty evidence), and 27% of severe all-cause diarrhoea cases (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.95; 5639 participants, 2 trials; high-certainty evidence). Children vaccinated and followed up for two years In low-mortality countries, RV1 prevents 82% of severe rotavirus diarrhoea cases (RR 0.18, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.23; 36,002 participants, 9 trials; high-certainty evidence), and probably prevents 37% of severe all-cause diarrhoea episodes (rate ratio 0.63, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.71; 39,091 participants, 2 trials; moderate-certainty evidence). In high-mortality countries RV1 probably prevents 35% of severe rotavirus diarrhoea cases (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.83; 13,768 participants, 2 trials; high-certainty evidence), and 17% of severe all-cause diarrhoea cases (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.96; 2764 participants, 1 trial; moderate-certainty evidence). No increased risk of serious adverse events (SAE) was detected (RR 0.88 95% CI 0.83 to 0.93; high-certainty evidence). There were 30 cases of intussusception reported in 53,032 children after RV1 vaccination and 28 cases in 44,214 children after placebo or no intervention (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.46 to 1.05; low-certainty evidence). RV5 Children vaccinated and followed up the first year of life In low-mortality countries, RV5 probably prevents 92% of severe rotavirus diarrhoea cases (RR 0.08, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.22; 4132 participants, 5 trials; moderate-certainty evidence). We did not identify studies reporting on severe all-cause diarrhoea in low-mortality countries. In high-mortality countries, RV5 prevents 57% of severe rotavirus diarrhoea (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.62; 5916 participants, 2 trials; high-certainty evidence), but there is probably little or no difference between vaccine and placebo for severe all-cause diarrhoea (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.11; 1 trial, 4085 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Children vaccinated and followed up for two years In low-mortality countries, RV5 prevents 82% of severe rotavirus diarrhoea cases (RR 0.18, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.39; 7318 participants, 4 trials; moderate-certainty evidence). We did not identify studies reporting on severe all-cause diarrhoea in low-mortality countries. In high-mortality countries, RV5 prevents 41% of severe rotavirus diarrhoea cases (RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.82; 5885 participants, 2 trials; high-certainty evidence), and 15% of severe all-cause diarrhoea cases (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.98; 5977 participants, 2 trials; high-certainty evidence). No increased risk of serious adverse events (SAE) was detected (RR 0.93 95% CI 0.86 to 1.01; moderate to high-certainty evidence). There were 16 cases of intussusception in 43,629 children after RV5 vaccination and 20 cases in 41,866 children after placebo (RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.41 to 1.45; low-certainty evidence). Rotavac Children vaccinated and followed up the first year of life Rotavac has not been assessed in any RCT in countries with low child mortality. In India, a high-mortality country, Rotavac probably prevents 57% of severe rotavirus diarrhoea cases (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.60; 6799 participants, moderate-certainty evidence); the trial did not report on severe all-cause diarrhoea at one-year follow-up. Children vaccinated and followed up for two years Rotavac probably prevents 54% of severe rotavirus diarrhoea cases in India (RR 0.46, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.60; 6541 participants, 1 trial; moderate-certainty evidence), and 16% of severe all-cause diarrhoea cases (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.98; 6799 participants, 1 trial; moderate-certainty evidence). No increased risk of serious adverse events (SAE) was detected (RR 0.93 95% CI 0.85 to 1.02; moderate-certainty evidence). There were eight cases of intussusception in 5764 children after Rotavac vaccination and three cases in 2818 children after placebo (RR 1.33, 95% CI 0.35 to 5.02; very low-certainty evidence). There was insufficient evidence of an effect on mortality from any rotavirus vaccine (198,381 participants, 44 trials; low- to very low-certainty evidence), as the trials were not powered to detect an effect at this endpoint. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: RV1, RV5, and Rotavac prevent episodes of rotavirus diarrhoea. Whilst the relative effect estimate is smaller in high-mortality than in low-mortality countries, there is a greater number of episodes prevented in these settings as the baseline risk is much higher. We found no increased risk of serious adverse events. 21 October 2019 Up to date All studies incorporated from most recent search All published trials found in the last search (4 Apr, 2018) were included and 15 ongoing studies are currently awaiting completion (see 'Characteristics of ongoing studies').


Assuntos
Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/virologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Rotavirus/imunologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia Infantil/prevenção & controle , Diarreia Infantil/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/uso terapêutico , Vacinação , Vacinas Atenuadas/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
7.
Vet Res ; 50(1): 84, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640807

RESUMO

Rotavirus C (RVC) has been detected increasingly in humans and swine in different countries, including the US. It is associated with significant economic losses due to diarrheal disease in nursing piglets. In this study we aimed: (1) to determine the prevalence of RVC in healthy and diarrheic suckling piglets on US farms; and (2) to evaluate if maternal antibody (Ab) levels were associated with protection of newborn suckling piglets against RVC. There was a significantly higher prevalence (p = 0.0002) of litters with diarrhea born to gilts compared with those born to multiparous sows. Of 113 nursing piglet fecal samples tested, 76.1% were RVC RNA positive. Fecal RVC RNA was detected in significantly (p = 0.0419) higher quantities and more frequently in piglets with diarrhea compared with healthy ones (82.5 vs. 69.9%). With the exception of the historic strain Cowden (G1 genotype), field RVC strains do not replicate in cell culture, which is a major impediment for studying RVC pathogenesis and immunity. To circumvent this, we generated RVC virus-like particles (VLPs) for Cowden (G1), RV0104 (G3) and RV0143 (G6) and used them as antigens in ELISA to detect swine RVC Abs in serum and milk from the sows. Using RVC-VLP Ab ELISA we demonstrated that sows with diarrheic litters had significantly lower RVC IgA and IgG Ab titers in milk compared to those with healthy litters. Thus, our data suggest that insufficient lactogenic protection provided by gilts plays a key role in the development of and the increased prevalence of clinical RVC disease.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Rotavirus/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Lactentes , Diarreia/virologia , Feminino , Ohio/epidemiologia , Paridade , Prevalência , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
8.
Intervirology ; 62(3-4): 164-168, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487720

RESUMO

Despite the significant medical advances which have taken place in the last decades, acute diarrhoea cases remain a public health issue of major significance, with gastroenteritis agents being associated with severe symptoms in adults and high morbidity in infants and children. Regarding rotaviruses, while children are the predominant victims of rotavirus infection, adults (often caretakers or parents of these children) may experience the same symptoms of fever, vomiting, and non-bloody diarrhoea. Three different routine schemes for the detection of rotaviruses in archived stool samples were evaluated in terms of diagnostic performance. A total of 640 archived stool samples were included in the study. The samples were screened with three different techniques: a commercial rapid immunochromatographic test, a modified in-house conventional one-step reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screen protocol, and a com-mer-cial one-step real-time PCR kit. Technical aspects and considerations are discussed.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Imunoensaio/métodos , Infecções por Rotavirus/diagnóstico , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Gastroenterite/virologia , Grécia , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Rotavirus/imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Centros de Atenção Terciária
9.
Pediatrics ; 144(4)2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus vaccine has been funded for infants under the Australian National Immunisation Program since 2007, with Rotarix vaccine used in New South Wales, Australia, from that time. In 2017, New South Wales experienced a large outbreak of rotavirus gastroenteritis. We examined epidemiology, genotypic profiles, and vaccine effectiveness (VE) among cases. METHODS: Laboratory-confirmed cases of rotavirus notified in New South Wales between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2017 were analyzed. VE was estimated in children via a case-control analysis. Specimens from a sample of hospitalized case patients were genotyped and analyzed. RESULTS: In 2017, 2319 rotavirus cases were reported, representing a 3.1-fold increase on the 2016 notification rate. The highest rate was among children aged <2 years. For notified cases in 2017, 2-dose VE estimates were 88.4%, 83.7%, and 78.7% in those aged 6 to 11 months, 1 to 3 years, and 4 to 9 years, respectively. VE was significantly reduced from 89.5% within 1 year of vaccination to 77.0% at 5 to 10 years postvaccination. Equinelike G3P[8] (48%) and G8P[8] (23%) were identified as the most common genotypes in case patients aged ≥6 months. CONCLUSIONS: Rotarix is highly effective at preventing laboratory-confirmed rotavirus in Australia, especially in infants aged 6 to 11 months. Reduced VE in older age groups and over time suggests waning protection, possibly related to the absence of subclinical immune boosting from continuously circulating virus. G8 genotypes have not been common in Australia, and their emergence, along with equinelike G3P[8], may be related to vaccine-induced selective pressure; however, further strain-specific VE studies are needed.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/uso terapêutico , Rotavirus/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Notificação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Gastroenterite/imunologia , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Genótipo , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New South Wales/epidemiologia , Rotavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinas Atenuadas/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 89: 3-9, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521853

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Rotavirus is the major cause of severe diarrhea in young children worldwide. In countries like Croatia, where rotavirus vaccine has not been introduced in the national immunization program, prospective surveillance is necessary to establish the diversity of rotavirus strains. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and geographical distribution of rotavirus strains in Croatia and to detect the possible emergence of novel strains. METHODS: The study was conducted among children ≤5 years of age with acute gastroenteritis at three hospitals located in different geographical regions of Croatia, during the years 2012 to 2014. Rotavirus was detected in stools using an immunochromatographic assay and then sent for further molecular analysis. RESULTS: Genotyping of 822 rotaviruses showed that the predominant circulating strain was G1P[8] (61.9%), followed by G2P[4] (19.5%), G1P[4] (3.9%), and G3P[8] (2.9%). A high prevalence of reassortants among common human rotavirus genotypes was detected (7.7%). Possible zoonotic reassortants were found, including G8 and G6 strains. The latter is described for the first time in Croatia. CONCLUSIONS: This study represents pre-vaccination data that are important for decisions regarding immunization strategies in Croatia. The high prevalence of 'common' rotavirus strains circulating in Croatia may advocate for rotavirus vaccine introduction, but further surveillance is necessary to monitor the possible emergence of novel genotypes.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Rotavirus/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Croácia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genótipo , Hospitais , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Rotavirus/imunologia , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia
11.
Protein Pept Lett ; 26(12): 904-909, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is the most common cause of infectious diarrhea in infants and young children around the world. The inner capsid protein VP6 has been discussed as alternative vaccine as it can induce cross-protective immune responses against different RV strai. The use of ferritin nanoparticle may enhance the immunogenicity of the subunit vaccine. OBJECTIVE: In this article, our motivation is to design and obtain a self-assemble rotavirus nanoparticle vaccine which can induce efficiency immune response. METHODS: The VP6 protein was fused with ferritin and expressed in the Escherichia coli expression system. The recombinant VP6-ferritin (rVP6-ferritin) protein was purified by His-tag affinity chromatography and fast protein liquid chromatography. Transmission electron micrographic analysis was used to detect the nanostructure of the self-assembled protein. Mice were gavage with the protein and ELISA was used to detect the titer of the VP6 specific antibody. RESULTS: The recombined VP6-ferritin was expressed in the Escherichia coli as an inclusion body form and the purified protein has similar antigenicity to rotavirus VP6. Transmission electron micrographic analysis of rVP6-ferritin exhibited spherical architecture with a uniform size distribution, which is similar to the ferritin nanocage. Immune response analysis showed that mice immunized by rVP6-ferritin protein induced 8000 (8000±1093) anti-VP6 IgG titers or 1152 (1152±248.8) anti-VP6 IgA titers. CONCLUSION: According to the above research, the rotavirus VP6-ferritin protein can be easily express and self-assemble to the nano-vaccine and induce efficiency humoral and mucosal immunity. Our research makes a foundation for the development of oral rotavirus vaccine.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Imunidade nas Mucosas/imunologia , Nanopartículas , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/imunologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Rotavirus/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/genética , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Feminino , Ferritinas/genética , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/genética
13.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0220387, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361761

RESUMO

Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are one of the major causes of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in young children worldwide. Owing to lack of proper surveillance programs and health facilities, developing countries of Asia and Africa carry a disproportionately heavy share of the RVA disease burden. The aim of this hospital-based study was to investigate the circulation of RVA genotypes in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan in 2015 and 2016, prior to the implementation of RVA vaccine. 639 faecal samples collected from children under 10 years of age hospitalized with AGE were tested for RVA antigen by ELISA. Among 171 ELISA positive samples, 143 were successfully screened for RT-PCR and sequencing. The prevalence of RVA was found to be 26.8% with the highest frequency (34.9%) found among children of age group 6-11 months. The most predominant circulating genotypes were G3P[8] (22.4%) followed by G12P[6] (20.3%), G2P[4] (12.6%), G1P[8] (11.9%), G9P[6] (11.9%), G3P[4] (9.1%), G1P[6] (4.2%), G9P[8] (4.2%), and G3P[6] (0.7%). A single mixed genotype G1G3P[8] was also detected. The findings of this study provide baseline data, that will help to assess if future vaccination campaigns using currently available RVA vaccine will reduce RVA disease burden and instigate evolutionary changes in the overall RVA biology. The high prevalence of RVA infections in Pakistan require to improve and strengthen the surveillance and monitoring system for RVA. This will provide useful information for health authorities in planning public health care strategies to mitigate the disease burden caused by RVA.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/virologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Rotavirus/classificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Antígenos Virais/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/imunologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia
15.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(8): 1233-1239, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215861

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a DNA virus that is mostly associated with respiratory infections. However, because it has been found in stool samples, it has been suggested that it may be a causative agent for human enteric conditions. This underpins the continuous search for HBoVs, especially after the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine due to acute gastroenteritis cases related to emergent viruses, as HBoVs are more likely to be found in this post-vaccine scenario. Therefore, the aim of this study is to demonstrate the prevalence of HBoV in children aged less than 10 years with acute gastroenteritis in Brazil from November 2011 to November 2012. METHODOLOGY: Stool samples from hospitalized children ≤10 years old who presented symptoms of acute gastroenteritis were analysed for the presence of rotavirus A (RVA) by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and for HBoV DNA by nested PCR. RESULTS: HBoV positivity was detected in 24.0 % (54/225) of samples. Two peaks of HBoV detection were observed in November 2011 and from July to September 2012. Co-infections between HBoV and rotavirus A were identified in 50.0 % (27/54) of specimens. Phylogenetic analysis identified the presence of HBoV-1 (94.8 %), HBoV-2 (2.6 %) and HBoV-3 (2.6 %) species, with only minor variations among them. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide evidence for the circulation of most HBoV genotypes (except HBoV-4) in the North Region of Brazil at a considerable rate and further investigations are necessary to improve our knowledge in the context of HBoV infections and their role in gastrointestinal diseases.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Bocavirus Humano/genética , Epidemiologia Molecular , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda , Brasil/epidemiologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , DNA Viral/genética , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genótipo , Bocavirus Humano/classificação , Bocavirus Humano/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Rotavirus/imunologia , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
16.
Arch Virol ; 164(8): 2107-2117, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144039

RESUMO

Species A rotavirus still remains a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children. Globally, six genotypes (G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G4P[8], G9P[8] and G12P[8]) account for >90% of circulating strains; however, genotype G12 in combination with P[6] or P[9] has been detected at increasing rates. We sought to broaden our knowledge about the rotavirus strains circulating during the early post-vaccine-introduction period. Stool samples were obtained from children hospitalised for acute gastroenteritis in Belém, Northern Brazil, from May 2008 to May 2011 and examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing. A total of 122 out of the original 1076 rotavirus strains were judged to be non-typeable in the first analysis and were therefore re-examined. G2P[4] was the most prevalent genotype (58.0%), followed by G1P[8] (16.9%), and G12P[6] (7.5%). G12P[6] strains were identified at similar rates during the first (2.5%) and second (3.9%) years, and the rate jumped to 15.6% in the third year. Analysis of VP7 sequences of the G12P[6] strains showed that they belonged to lineage III. In addition, co-circulating G12P[6] strains displaying long and short RNA patterns were found to belong to the Wa-like and DS-1-like constellation, respectively. Additional unusual circulating strains G12P[9] and G3P[9] were also identified. This hospital-based study showed a high prevalence of G12P[6] strains in the third year of surveillance. Our results highlight the need for continuous longitudinal monitoring of circulating rotavirus strains after introduction of rotavirus vaccines in Brazil and elsewhere.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/virologia , Rotavirus/genética , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Brasil , Criança , Criança Hospitalizada , Gastroenterite/imunologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Epidemiologia Molecular/métodos , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Viral/genética , Rotavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
17.
Arch Virol ; 164(6): 1639-1646, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982935

RESUMO

Rabbits are widely used as models in biological research, and the pathogen status of rabbits used in studies can directly affect the results of experiments. Serological surveillance is the common monitoring method used in laboratory animals. A rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective high-throughput Luminex xMAP assay could be an attractive alternative to labor-intensive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods. In this study, recombinant proteins from rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus and rabbit rotavirus and whole viral lysates of Sendai virus were used as coating antigens in an xMAP assay for the simultaneous detection of antibodies against these pathogens. The xMAP assay showed high specificity, with no cross-reaction with other pathogens. The coefficient of variation for intra-assay and inter-assay comparisons was less than 3% and 4%, respectively, indicating good repeatability and stability of the assay. The xMAP assay exhibited similar limits of detection for rabbit hemorrhagic virus and Sendai virus and was less sensitive for the detection of rabbit rotavirus when compared with commercial ELISA kits. A total of 52 clinical samples were tested simultaneously using both the xMAP assay and ELISA kits. The results obtained using these two methods were 100% coincident. In summary, the novel xMAP assay offers an alternative choice for rapid and sensitive high-throughput detection of antibodies in rabbit serum and can be used as a daily monitoring tool for laboratory animals.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos/imunologia , Rotavirus/imunologia , Vírus Sendai/imunologia , Animais , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Reações Cruzadas , Imunoensaio/veterinária , Coelhos , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico
18.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(6): 4857-4869, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981494

RESUMO

Human rotaviruses represent a major cause of severe diarrheal disease in infants and young children. The limited impact of oral vaccines on global estimates of rotavirus mortality and the suboptimal use of oral rehydration justify the need for alternative prophylactic and therapeutic strategies, especially for immunocompromised hosts. The protective effects of colostrum-the first milk produced during the initial 24 to 48 h after parturition-are well documented in the literature. In particular, the ingestion of hyperimmune bovine colostrum has been proposed as an alternative preventive approach against human rotavirus gastroenteritis. Although the immunization of pregnant cows with human rotavirus boosts the release of specific immunoglobulin G in bovine colostrum, it raises regulatory and safety issues. In this study, we demonstrated that the conventional bovine rotavirus vaccine is sufficient to enhance the anti-human rotavirus protective efficacy of bovine colostrum, thus providing a conservative approach to produce hyperimmune bovine colostrum, making it exploitable as a functional food.


Assuntos
Colostro/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Rotavirus/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Células HeLa , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Gravidez , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/veterinária , Células Vero
19.
BMJ Open ; 9(4): e024840, 2019 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028037

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus infection accounts for 39% of under-five diarrhoeal deaths globally and 22% of these deaths occur in India. Introduction of rotavirus vaccine in a national immunisation programme is considered to be the most effective intervention in preventing severe rotavirus disease. In 2016, India introduced an indigenous rotavirus vaccine (Rotavac) into the Universal Immunisation Programme in a phased manner. This paper describes the protocol for surveillance to monitor the performance of rotavirus vaccine following its introduction into the routine childhood immunisation programme. METHODS: An active surveillance system was established to identify acute gastroenteritis cases among children less than 5 years of age. For all children enrolled at sentinel sites, case reporting forms are completed and a copy of vaccination record and a stool specimen obtained. The forms and specimens are sent to the referral laboratory for data entry, analysis, testing and storage. Data from sentinel sites in states that have introduced rotavirus vaccine into their routine immunisation schedule will be used to determine rotavirus vaccine impact and effectiveness. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The Institutional Review Board of Christian Medical College, Vellore, and all the site institutional ethics committees approved the project. Results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and with stakeholders of the universal immunisation programme in India.


Assuntos
Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Programas de Imunização , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Rotavirus/imunologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/imunologia , Diarreia/mortalidade , Diarreia/virologia , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/normas , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Rotavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Rotavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/mortalidade , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/uso terapêutico , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela
20.
J Infect Dis ; 220(2): 213-218, 2019 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816414

RESUMO

Despite rotavirus vaccination, diarrhea remains a leading cause of child mortality. We collected stool specimens from 684 children <5 years of age hospitalized with diarrhea (cases) and 527 asymptomatic community controls for 4 years after rotavirus vaccine introduction in Malawi. Specimens were tested for 29 pathogens, using polymerase chain reaction analysis. Three or more pathogens were detected in 71% of cases and 48% of controls. Pathogens significantly associated with diarrhea included rotavirus (in 34.7% of cases and 1.5% of controls), enteric adenovirus (in 29.1% and 2.7%, respectively), Cryptosporidium (in 27.8% and 8.2%, respectively), heat-stable enterotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (in 21.2% and 8.5%, respectively), typical enteropathogenic E. coli (in 18.0% and 8.3%, respectively), and Shigella/enteroinvasive E. coli (in 15.8% and 5.7%, respectively). Additional interventions are required to prevent diarrhea due to rotavirus and other common causal pathogens.


Assuntos
Diarreia/etiologia , Diarreia/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/imunologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Rotavirus/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança Hospitalizada , Criptosporidiose/complicações , Cryptosporidium/patogenicidade , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/complicações , Humanos , Lactente , Malaui , Masculino
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