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1.
J Virol ; 96(17): e0070622, 2022 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36000839

RESUMO

Rotavirus infects intestinal epithelial cells and is the leading cause of gastroenteritis in infants worldwide. Upon viral infection, intestinal cells produce type I and type III interferons (IFNs) to alert the tissue and promote an antiviral state. These two types of IFN bind to different receptors but induce similar pathways that stimulate the activation of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) to combat viral infection. In this work, we studied the spread of a fluorescent wild-type (WT) SA11 rotavirus in human colorectal cancer cells lacking specific interferon receptors and compared it to that of an NSP1 mutant rotavirus that cannot interfere with the host intrinsic innate immune response. We could show that the WT rotavirus efficiently blocks the production of type I IFNs but that type III IFNs are still produced, whereas the NSP1 mutant rotavirus allows the production of both. Interestingly, while both exogenously added type I and type III IFNs could efficiently protect cells against rotavirus infection, endogenous type III IFNs were found to be key to limit infection of human intestinal cells by rotavirus. By using a fluorescent reporter cell line to highlight the cells mounting an antiviral program, we could show that paracrine signaling driven by type III IFNs efficiently controls the spread of both WT and NSP1 mutant rotavirus. Our results strongly suggest that NSP1 efficiently blocks the type I IFN-mediated antiviral response; however, its restriction of the type III IFN-mediated one is not sufficient to prevent type III IFNs from partially inhibiting viral spread in intestinal epithelial cells. Additionally, our findings further highlight the importance of type III IFNs in controlling rotavirus infection, which could be exploited as antiviral therapeutic measures. IMPORTANCE Rotavirus is one of the most common causes of gastroenteritis worldwide. In developing countries, rotavirus infections lead to more than 200,000 deaths in infants and children. The intestinal epithelial cells lining the gastrointestinal tract combat rotavirus infection by two key antiviral compounds known as type I and III interferons. However, rotavirus has developed countermeasures to block the antiviral actions of the interferons. In this work, we evaluated the arms race between rotavirus and type I and III interferons. We determined that although rotavirus could block the induction of type I interferons, it was unable to block type III interferons. The ability of infected cells to produce and release type III interferons leads to the protection of the noninfected neighboring cells and the clearance of rotavirus infection from the epithelium. This suggests that type III interferons are key antiviral agents and could be used to help control rotavirus infections in children.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais , Interferons , Mucosa Intestinal , Infecções por Rotavirus , Rotavirus , Antivirais/imunologia , Criança , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Lactente , Interferon Tipo I/antagonistas & inibidores , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Interferons/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/virologia , Mutação , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rotavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética
2.
J Virol ; 96(16): e0062722, 2022 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35924923

RESUMO

Rotavirus live-attenuated vaccines, both mono- and pentavalent, generate broadly heterotypic protection. B-cells isolated from adults encode neutralizing antibodies, some with affinity for VP5*, that afford broad protection in mice. We have mapped the epitope of one such antibody by determining the high-resolution cryo-EM structure of its antigen-binding fragment (Fab) bound to the virion of a candidate vaccine strain, CDC-9. The Fab contacts both the distal end of a VP5* ß-barrel domain and the two VP8* lectin-like domains at the tip of a projecting spike. Its interactions with VP8* do not impinge on the likely receptor-binding site, suggesting that the mechanism of neutralization is at a step subsequent to initial attachment. We also examined structures of CDC-9 virions from two different stages of serial passaging. Nearly all the VP4 (cleaved to VP8*/VP5*) spikes on particles from the earlier passage (wild-type isolate) had transitioned from the "upright" conformation present on fully infectious virions to the "reversed" conformation that is probably the end state of membrane insertion, unable to mediate penetration, consistent with the very low in vitro infectivity of the wild-type isolate. About half the VP4 spikes were upright on particles from the later passage, which had recovered substantial in vitro infectivity but had acquired an attenuated phenotype in neonatal rats. A mutation in VP4 that occurred during passaging appears to stabilize the interface at the apex of the spike and could account for the greater stability of the upright spikes on the late-passage, attenuated isolate. IMPORTANCE Rotavirus live-attenuated vaccines generate broadly heterotypic protection, and B-cells isolated from adults encode antibodies that are broadly protective in mice. Determining the structural and mechanistic basis of broad protection can contribute to understanding the current limitations of vaccine efficacy in developing countries. The structure of an attenuated human rotavirus isolate (CDC-9) bound with the Fab fragment of a broadly heterotypic protective antibody shows that protection is probably due to inhibition of the conformational transition in the viral spike protein (VP4) critical for viral penetration, rather than to inhibition of receptor binding. A comparison of structures of CDC-9 virus particles at two stages of serial passaging supports a proposed mechanism for initial steps in rotavirus membrane penetration.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes , Proteínas do Capsídeo , Epitopos de Linfócito B , Rotavirus , Vacinas Atenuadas , Vírion , Animais , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/ultraestrutura , Proteínas do Capsídeo/química , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito B/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/ultraestrutura , Camundongos , Conformação Proteica , Ratos , Rotavirus/química , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/imunologia , Rotavirus/fisiologia , Inoculações Seriadas , Vacinas Atenuadas/química , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/metabolismo , Vírion/imunologia , Vírion/metabolismo , Vírion/ultraestrutura
3.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(12): 1135-1143, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34870393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus causes 215,000 deaths from severe childhood diarrhea annually. Concerns exist that a monovalent vaccine (RV1) and a pentavalent vaccine (RV5) may be less effective against rotavirus strains not contained in the vaccines. We estimated the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of RV1 and RV5 against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis caused by vaccine (homotypic) and nonvaccine (partially and fully heterotypic) strains. METHODS: After conducting a systematic review, we meta-analyzed 31 case-control studies (N = 27,293) conducted between 2006 and 2020 using a random-effects regression model. RESULTS: In high-income countries, RV1 VE was 10% lower against partially heterotypic (P = 0.04) and fully heterotypic (P = 0.10) compared with homotypic strains (homotypic VE: 90% [95% confidence intervals (CI): 82-94]; partially heterotypic VE: 79% [95% CI: 71-85]; fully heterotypic VE: 80% [95% CI: 65-88]). In middle-income countries, RV1 VE was 14-16% lower against partially heterotypic (P = 0.06) and fully heterotypic (P = 0.04) compared with homotypic strains (homotypic VE: 81% [95% CI: 69-88]; partially heterotypic VE: 67% [95% CI: 54-76]; fully heterotypic VE: 65% [95% CI: 51-75]). Strain-specific RV5 VE differences were less pronounced, and primarily derived from high-income countries. Limited data were available from low-income countries. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccine effectiveness of RV1 and RV5 was somewhat lower against nonvaccine than vaccine strains. Ongoing surveillance is important to continue long-term monitoring for strain replacement, particularly in low-income settings where data are limited.


Assuntos
Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Diarreia/virologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Rotavirus/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia
4.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34960760

RESUMO

Rotavirus is the major cause of severe gastroenteritis in children aged <5 years. Introduction of the G1P[8] Rotarix® rotavirus vaccine in Malawi in 2012 has reduced rotavirus-associated hospitalisations and diarrhoeal mortality. However, the impact of rotavirus vaccine on the severity of gastroenteritis presented in children requiring hospitalisation remains unknown. We conducted a hospital-based surveillance study to assess the impact of Rotarix® vaccination on the severity of gastroenteritis presented by Malawian children. Stool samples were collected from children aged <5 years who required hospitalisation with acute gastroenteritis from December 2011 to October 2019. Gastroenteritis severity was determined using Ruuska and Vesikari scores. Rotavirus was detected using enzyme immunoassay. Rotavirus genotypes were determined using nested RT-PCR. Associations between Rotarix® vaccination and gastroenteritis severity were investigated using adjusted linear regression. In total, 3159 children were enrolled. After adjusting for mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), age, gender and receipt of other vaccines, all-cause gastroenteritis severity scores were 2.21 units lower (p < 0.001) among Rotarix®-vaccinated (n = 2224) compared to Rotarix®-unvaccinated children (n = 935). The reduction in severity score was observed against every rotavirus genotype, although the magnitude was smaller among those infected with G12P[6] compared to the remaining genotypes (p = 0.011). Each one-year increment in age was associated with a decrease of 0.43 severity score (p < 0.001). Our findings provide additional evidence on the impact of Rotarix® in Malawi, lending further support to Malawi's Rotarix® programme.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Rotavirus/imunologia , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/patologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genótipo , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/patologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Vacinação , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 7288, 2021 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34911947

RESUMO

Identifying risk factors for impaired oral rotavirus vaccine (ORV) efficacy in low-income countries may lead to improvements in vaccine design and delivery. In this prospective cohort study, we measure maternal rotavirus antibodies, environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), and bacterial gut microbiota development among infants receiving two doses of Rotarix in India (n = 307), Malawi (n = 119), and the UK (n = 60), using standardised methods across cohorts. We observe ORV shedding and seroconversion rates to be significantly lower in Malawi and India than the UK. Maternal rotavirus-specific antibodies in serum and breastmilk are negatively correlated with ORV response in India and Malawi, mediated partly by a reduction in ORV shedding. In the UK, ORV shedding is not inhibited despite comparable maternal antibody levels to the other cohorts. In both India and Malawi, increased microbiota diversity is negatively correlated with ORV immunogenicity, suggesting that high early-life microbial exposure may contribute to impaired vaccine efficacy.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Rotavirus/microbiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Rotavirus/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Índia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/sangue , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/microbiologia , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/virologia , Malaui , Masculino , Leite Humano/química , Leite Humano/imunologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/sangue , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Reino Unido , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34948268

RESUMO

Rotavirus (RV) and norovirus (NoV) are the leading causes of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide. Several studies have demonstrated that histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) have a role in NoV and RV infections since their presence on the gut epithelial surfaces is essential for the susceptibility to many NoV and RV genotypes. Polymorphisms in genes that code for enzymes required for HBGAs synthesis lead to secretor or non-secretor and Lewis positive or Lewis negative individuals. While secretor individuals appear to be more susceptible to RV infections, regarding NoVs infections, there are too many discrepancies that prevent the ability to draw conclusions. A second factor that influences enteric viral infections is the gut microbiota of the host. In vitro and animal studies have determined that the gut microbiota limits, but in some cases enhances enteric viral infection. The ways that microbiota can enhance NoV or RV infection include virion stabilization and promotion of virus attachment to host cells, whereas experiments with microbiota-depleted and germ-free animals point to immunoregulation as the mechanism by which the microbiota restrict infection. Human trials with live, attenuated RV vaccines and analysis of the microbiota in responder and non-responder individuals also allowed the identification of bacterial taxa linked to vaccine efficacy. As more information is gained on the complex relationships that are established between the host (glycobiology and immune system), the gut microbiota and intestinal viruses, new avenues will open for the development of novel anti-NoV and anti-RV therapies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/microbiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/microbiologia , Animais , Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos/imunologia , Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos/metabolismo , Infecções por Caliciviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Genótipo , Glicômica , Humanos , Imunidade , Norovirus/imunologia , Norovirus/patogenicidade , Rotavirus/imunologia , Rotavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Rotavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Vacinas Virais
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 22037, 2021 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34764353

RESUMO

Conjugate vaccine platform is a promising strategy to overcome the poor immunogenicity of bacterial polysaccharide antigens in infants and children. A carrier protein in conjugate vaccines works not only as an immune stimulator to polysaccharide, but also as an immunogen; with the latter generally not considered as a measured outcome in real world. Here, we probed the potential of a conjugate vaccine platform to induce enhanced immunogenicity of a truncated rotavirus spike protein ΔVP8*. ΔVP8* was covalently conjugated to Vi capsular polysaccharide (Vi) of Salmonella Typhi to develop a bivalent vaccine, termed Vi-ΔVP8*. Our results demonstrated that the Vi-ΔVP8* vaccine can induce specific immune responses against both antigens in immunized mice. The conjugate vaccine elicits high antibody titers and functional antibodies against S. Typhi and Rotavirus (RV) when compared to immunization with a single antigen. Together, these results indicate that Vi-ΔVP8* is a potent and immunogenic vaccine candidate, thus strengthening the potential of conjugate vaccine platform with enhanced immune responses to carrier protein, including ΔVP8*.


Assuntos
Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Rotavirus/imunologia , Salmonella typhi/imunologia , Febre Tifoide/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Combinadas/imunologia , Vacinas Conjugadas/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Humanos , Imunização , Camundongos , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/imunologia , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/imunologia , Febre Tifoide/imunologia , Vacinas Combinadas/farmacologia , Vacinas Conjugadas/farmacologia , Proteínas Virais/farmacologia
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21760, 2021 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741103

RESUMO

Group A rotaviruses (RVA) remain a leading cause of pediatric diarrhea worldwide, in part due to underperformance of currently approved live-attenuated, oral vaccines in low-and-middle income countries. Improved immune correlates of protection (CoP) for existing oral vaccines and novel strategies to evaluate the performance of next-generation vaccines are needed. Use of oral vaccines as challenge agents in controlled human infection models is a potential approach to CoP discovery that remains underexplored. In a live-attenuated, oral rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix, GlaxoSmithKline) efficacy trial conducted among infants in Dhaka, Bangladesh, we explored the potential for the second dose of the two-dose series to be considered a challenge agent through which RVA immunity could be explored, using fecal virus shedding post-dose 2 as a marker of mucosal immunity. Among 180 vaccinated infants who completed the parent study per protocol, the absence of fecal vaccine shedding following the second dose of Rotarix suggested intestinal mucosal immunity generated by the first dose and a decreased risk of RVA diarrhea through 2 years of life (RR 0.616, 95% CI 0.392-0.968). Further development of controlled human infection models for group A rotaviruses, especially in prospective studies with larger sample sizes, may be a promising tool to assess rotavirus vaccine efficacy and CoPs.


Assuntos
Imunidade nas Mucosas , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Administração Oral , Estudos de Coortes , Fezes/química , Humanos , Lactente , Rotavirus/imunologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/análise , Vacinas Atenuadas/análise , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia
9.
J Infect Dis ; 224(12 Suppl 2): S801-S804, 2021 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528671

RESUMO

Safe and effective rotavirus vaccines (RVs) are needed to reduce the enormous public health burden of rotavirus illness in developing countries. Vaccination is critical for effective control of rotavirus infection since it cannot be prevented with improvements in water and sanitation. The International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b) has completed several groundbreaking RV trials (Phase I-Phase IV). The safety, immunogenicity, efficacy, and effectiveness of different RVs were evaluated among both urban and rural populations. In this study, we present the results, policy implications, and lessons learned for successful implementation of these trials as well as future directions for rotavirus vaccination in Bangladesh.


Assuntos
Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus , Rotavirus , Bangladesh , Humanos , Lactente , Rotavirus/imunologia
10.
J Infect Dis ; 224(12 Suppl 2): S331-S342, 2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590142

RESUMO

Worldwide, rotavirus is the leading pathogen causing severe diarrhea in children and a major cause of under 5 years mortality. In 1998, the first rotavirus vaccine, RotaShield, was licensed in the United States but a rare adverse event, intussusception, led to its withdrawal. Seven years passed before the next generation of vaccines became available, Rotarix (GSK) and Rotateq (Merck), and 11 years later, 2 additional vaccines from India, Rotavac (Bharat) and Rotasiil (Serum Institute), were recommended by World Health Organization for all children. Today, these vaccines are used in more than 100 countries and have contributed to marked decreases in hospitalizations and deaths from diarrhea. However, these live oral vaccines are less effective in low-income countries with high under 5 years mortality for reasons that are not understood. Efforts to develop new vaccines that avoid the oral route are in progress and will likely be needed to ultimately control rotavirus disease.


Assuntos
Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Rotavirus/imunologia , Criança , Diarreia/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Atenuadas/efeitos adversos
11.
J Infect Dis ; 224(12 Suppl 2): S184-S193, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To inform the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) and rotavirus vaccine, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Global Invasive Bacterial Vaccine-Preventable Disease Surveillance Network (GISN) and the Global Rotavirus Surveillance Network (GRSN) in 2008. We investigated whether participation in these networks or other surveillance was associated with vaccine introduction. METHODS: Between 2006 and 2018, among all WHO member states, we used multivariable models adjusting for economic status to assess (1) the association between surveillance for pneumococcal disease or rotavirus disease, including participation in GISN or GRSN and the introduction of the PCV or the rotavirus vaccine, respectively, and (2) the association between the rotavirus disease burden and the rotavirus vaccine introduction among 56 countries participating in GRSN from 2008 to 2018. RESULTS: Countries that participated in or conducted surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease or rotavirus disease were 3.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-7.1) and 4.2 (95% CI, 2.1-8.6) times more likely to introduce PCV or rotavirus respectively, compared to those without surveillance. Among countries participating in GRSN, there was insufficient evidence to demonstrate an association between countries with higher rotavirus positivity and vaccine introduction. CONCLUSIONS: Surveillance should be incorporated into advocacy strategies to encourage the introduction of vaccines, with countries benefiting from data from, support for, and coordination of international disease surveillance networks.


Assuntos
Infecções Pneumocócicas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/administração & dosagem , Vigilância da População , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Conjugadas/imunologia , Humanos , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/uso terapêutico , Rotavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Conjugadas/uso terapêutico
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(36)2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475219

RESUMO

Group A rotaviruses cause severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, with P[II] genogroup rotaviruses (RVs) responsible for >90% of global cases. RVs have diverse host ranges in different human and animal populations determined by host histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) receptor polymorphism, but details governing diversity, host ranges, and species barriers remain elusive. In this study, crystal structures of complexes of the major P[II] genogroup P[4] and P[8] genotype RV VP8* receptor-binding domains together with Lewis epitope-containing LNDFH I glycans in combination with VP8* receptor-glycan ligand affinity measurements based on NMR titration experiments revealed the structural basis for RV genotype-specific switching between ßß and ßα HBGA receptor-binding sites that determine RV host ranges. The data support the hypothesis that P[II] RV evolution progressed from animals to humans under the selection of type 1 HBGAs guided by stepwise host synthesis of type 1 ABH and Lewis HBGAs. The results help explain disease burden, species barriers, epidemiology, and limited efficacy of current RV vaccines in developing countries. The structural data has the potential to impact the design of future vaccine strategies against RV gastroenteritis.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos/imunologia , Evolução Molecular , Rotavirus/genética , Cristalografia por Raios X , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/genética , Humanos , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular/métodos , Conformação Proteica , Rotavirus/química , Rotavirus/imunologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
13.
14.
PLoS Med ; 18(8): e1003720, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutritional status may play a role in infant immune development. To identify potential boosters of immunogenicity in low-income countries where oral vaccine efficacy is low, we tested the effect of prenatal nutritional supplementation on immune response to 3 doses of a live oral rotavirus vaccine. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We nested a cluster randomized trial within a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized efficacy trial to assess the effect of 3 prenatal nutritional supplements (lipid-based nutrient supplement [LNS], multiple micronutrient supplement [MMS], or iron-folic acid [IFA]) on infant immune response (n = 53 villages and 1,525 infants with valid serology results: 794 in the vaccine group and 731 in the placebo group). From September 2015 to February 2017, participating women received prenatal nutrient supplement during pregnancy. Eligible infants were then randomized to receive 3 doses of an oral rotavirus vaccine or placebo at 6-8 weeks of age (mean age: 6.3 weeks, 50% female). Infant sera (pre-Dose 1 and 28 days post-Dose 3) were analyzed for anti-rotavirus immunoglobulin A (IgA) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The primary immunogenicity end point, seroconversion defined as ≥3-fold increase in IgA, was compared in vaccinated infants among the 3 supplement groups and between vaccine/placebo groups using mixed model analysis of variance procedures. Seroconversion did not differ by supplementation group (41.1% (94/229) with LNS vs. 39.1% (102/261) with multiple micronutrients (MMN) vs. 38.8% (118/304) with IFA, p = 0.91). Overall, 39.6% (n = 314/794) of infants who received vaccine seroconverted, compared to 29.0% (n = 212/731) of infants who received placebo (relative risk [RR]: 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18, 1.57, p < 0.001). This study was conducted in a high rotavirus transmission setting. Study limitations include the absence of an immune correlate of protection for rotavirus vaccines, with the implications of using serum anti-rotavirus IgA for the assessment of immunogenicity and efficacy in low-income countries unclear. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed no effect of the type of prenatal nutrient supplementation on immune response in this setting. Immune response varied depending on previous exposure to rotavirus, suggesting that alternative delivery modalities and schedules may be considered to improve vaccine performance in high transmission settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02145000.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Lipídeos/administração & dosagem , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Rotavirus/imunologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Níger , Gravidez , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Pré-Natal , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem
15.
J Infect Dis ; 224(12 Suppl 2): S792-S800, 2021 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374426

RESUMO

Rotavirus is a major cause of severe pediatric diarrhea worldwide. In 2006, 2 live, oral rotavirus vaccines, Rotarix and RotaTeq, were licensed for use in infants and were rapidly adopted in many high- and middle-income settings where efficacy had been demonstrated in clinical trials. Following completion of successful trials in low-income settings, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended rotavirus vaccination for all infants globally in 2009. In 2018, 2 new rotavirus vaccines, Rotasiil and Rotavac, were prequalified by WHO, expanding global availability. As of March 2021, rotavirus vaccines have been introduced nationally in 106 countries. Since, Rotavirus vaccines have demonstrated effectiveness against severe disease and mortality, even among age groups in eligible for vaccination. Cross-genotypic protection has been demonstrated, and the favorable benefit-risk profile of these vaccines continues to be confirmed. Ongoing research seeks to better understand reasons for the geographic disparities in effectiveness observed, in order to optimize vaccine strategies worldwide.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Rotavirus/imunologia , Administração Oral , Criança , Diarreia , Humanos , Lactente , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Vacinação , Vacinas Atenuadas
16.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198720

RESUMO

Histo-blood group antigens, which are present on gut epithelial surfaces, function as receptors or attachment factors and mediate susceptibility to rotavirus infection. The major determinant for susceptibility is a functional FUT2 enzyme which mediates the presence of α-1,2 fucosylated blood group antigens in mucosa and secretions, yielding the secretor-positive phenotype. Secretors are more susceptible to infection with predominant rotavirus genotypes, as well as to the commonly used live rotavirus vaccines. Difference in susceptibility to the vaccines is one proposed factor for the varying degree of efficacy observed between countries. Besides infection susceptibility, secretor status has been found to modulate rotavirus specific antibody levels in adults, as well as composition of breastmilk in mothers and microbiota of the infant, which are other proposed factors affecting rotavirus vaccine take. Here, the known and possible effects of secretor status in both infant and mother on rotavirus vaccine take are reviewed and discussed.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos/genética , Feminino , Fucosiltransferases/genética , Fucosiltransferases/imunologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Mães , Fenótipo , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/imunologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem
17.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205050

RESUMO

Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) has a significant disease burden on society. Noroviruses, rotaviruses, and astroviruses are important viral causes of AGE but are relatively understudied enteric pathogens. Recent developments in novel biomimetic human models of enteric disease are opening new possibilities for studying human-specific host-microbe interactions. Human intestinal enteroids (HIE), which are epithelium-only intestinal organoids derived from stem cells isolated from human intestinal biopsy tissues, have been successfully used to culture representative norovirus, rotavirus, and astrovirus strains. Previous studies investigated host-virus interactions at the intestinal epithelial interface by individually profiling the epithelial transcriptional response to a member of each virus family by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Despite differences in the tissue origin, enteric virus used, and hours post infection at which RNA was collected in each data set, the uniform analysis of publicly available datasets identified a conserved epithelial response to virus infection focused around "type I interferon production" and interferon-stimulated genes. Additionally, transcriptional changes specific to only one or two of the enteric viruses were also identified. This study can guide future explorations into common and unique aspects of the host response to virus infections in the human intestinal epithelium and demonstrates the promise of comparative RNA-seq analysis, even if performed under different experimental conditions, to discover universal and virus-specific genes and pathways responsible for antiviral host defense.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Gastroenterite/virologia , Mucosa Intestinal/virologia , Intestinos/citologia , Organoides/citologia , Organoides/virologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Intestinos/imunologia , Intestinos/virologia , Norovirus/genética , Norovirus/imunologia , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/imunologia , Replicação Viral
18.
PLoS Med ; 18(7): e1003655, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus vaccination is recommended in all countries to reduce the burden of diarrhea-related morbidity and mortality in children. In resource-limited settings, rotavirus vaccination in the national immunization program has important cost implications, and evidence for protection beyond the first year of life and against the evolving variety of rotavirus strains is important. We assessed the extended and strain-specific vaccine efficacy of a heat-stable, affordable oral rotavirus vaccine (Rotasiil, Serum Institute of India, Pune, India) against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (SRVGE) among healthy infants in Niger. METHODS AND FINDINGS: From August 2014 to November 2015, infants were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive 3 doses of Rotasiil or placebo at approximately 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age. Episodes of gastroenteritis were assessed through active and passive surveillance and graded using the Vesikari score. The primary endpoint was vaccine efficacy of 3 doses of vaccine versus placebo against a first episode of laboratory-confirmed SRVGE (Vesikari score ≥ 11) from 28 days after dose 3, as previously reported. At the time of the primary analysis, median age was 9.8 months. In the present paper, analyses of extended efficacy were undertaken for 3 periods (28 days after dose 3 to 1 year of age, 1 to 2 years of age, and the combined period 28 days after dose 3 to 2 years of age) and by individual rotavirus G type. Among the 3,508 infants included in the per-protocol efficacy analysis (mean age at first dose 6.5 weeks; 49% male), the vaccine provided significant protection against SRVGE through the first year of life (3.96 and 9.98 cases per 100 person-years for vaccine and placebo, respectively; vaccine efficacy 60.3%, 95% CI 43.6% to 72.1%) and over the entire efficacy follow-up period up to 2 years of age (2.13 and 4.69 cases per 100 person-years for vaccine and placebo, respectively; vaccine efficacy 54.7%, 95% CI 38.1% to 66.8%), but the difference was not statistically significant in the second year of life. Up to 2 years of age, rotavirus vaccination prevented 2.56 episodes of SRVGE per 100 child-years. Estimates of efficacy against SRVGE by individual rotavirus genotype were consistent with the overall protective efficacy. Study limitations include limited generalizability to settings with administration of oral polio virus due to low concomitant administration, limited power to assess vaccine efficacy in the second year of life owing to a low number of events among older children, potential bias due to censoring of placebo children at the time of study vaccine receipt, and suboptimal adapted severity scoring based on the Vesikari score, which was designed for use in settings with high parental literacy. CONCLUSIONS: Rotasiil provided protection against SRVGE in infants through an extended follow-up period of approximately 2 years. Protection was significant in the first year of life, when the disease burden and risk of death are highest, and against a changing pattern of rotavirus strains during the 2-year efficacy period. Rotavirus vaccines that are safe, effective, and protective against multiple strains represent the best hope for preventing the severe consequences of rotavirus infection, especially in resource-limited settings, where access to care may be limited. Studies such as this provide valuable information for the planning of national immunization programs and future vaccine development. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02145000.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Gastroenterite/virologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Rotavirus/imunologia , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Lactente , Masculino , Níger , Placebos , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia
19.
J Med Virol ; 93(11): 6210-6219, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260071

RESUMO

To investigate the role of miR-4301 in rotavirus (RV)-infected Caco-2 cells. In this experiment, RNAs of RV-infected Caco-2 cells were extracted, and the high-throughput second-generation sequencing was performed to detect the expression profiles of host microRNAs (miRNAs). Synthetic miRNA mimics and inhibitors were examined (quantitative polymerase chain reaction [qPCR], crystalline violet, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy) to evaluate the effect on RV replication. Target genes of miR-4301 were predicted by software analysis. The expression of target genes was evaluated by qPCR and Western blot after transfected with miRNA inhibitor/mimic, and crystalline violet and qPCR were used to detect the downregulation effects of target genes on RV replication. By transfecting miRNA inhibitors/mimics and detecting downstream target genes, the mechanism of miRNA affecting RV replication was analyzed. There were 78 known miRNAs with significant differential expression, including 39 upregulated miRNAs and 39 downregulated miRNAs. The results showed that miR-4301 exerted a key role in enhancing RV replication. PPP1R3D protein which can inhibit RV replication was predicted as the target gene of miR-4301 by software analysis. While upregulating miR-4301 by RV, the expression of PPP1R3D and glycogen synthase (GS) is suppressed. For the first time, the effect of miR-4301 on RV infection, and its influence on GS was investigated. Specifically, RV inhibits host cell glycogen synthesis to utilize the host intracellular glucose for promoting its own replication.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/imunologia , Proteína Fosfatase 1/metabolismo , Infecções por Rotavirus/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/imunologia , Rotavirus/imunologia , Replicação Viral/imunologia , Células CACO-2 , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteína Fosfatase 1/genética , Rotavirus/genética
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