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1.
GM Crops Food ; 12(1): 36-46, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835603

RESUMO

Consumer preference for the mandatory labeling of genetically modified (GM) foods promotes public support for the implementation of GM food policies. This study analyzes consumers' preference for the traceability of GM soybean oil. Survey data were collected through a self-administered survey covering 804 randomly sampled urban residents in the eastern, central and western regions of China. Using a logit model, this analysis examines the impacts of influential factors on consumers' preference for traceability. The results show that about 56.5% of the respondents have a positive preference for the traceability of GM soybean oil. Factors increasing the preference for traceability include a better perception of the attributes of nutrition benefit and potential health risk, perceived inadequacy of simple mandatory labels, more attention paid to food labels, and distrust in the agencies overseeing GM food safety. Enhancing consumers' perceptions of GM-related attributes and awareness of food labels will help improve the mandatory labeling management of GM foods.


Assuntos
Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados , Óleo de Soja , China , Comportamento do Consumidor , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
PLoS Med ; 17(7): e1003221, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In October 2019, Mexico approved a law to establish that nonalcoholic beverages and packaged foods that exceed a threshold for added calories, sugars, fats, trans fat, or sodium should have an "excess of" warning label. We aimed to estimate the expected reduction in the obesity prevalence and obesity costs in Mexico by introducing warning labels, over 5 years, among adults under 60 years of age. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Baseline intakes of beverages and snacks were obtained from the 2016 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey. The expected impact of labels on caloric intake was obtained from an experimental study, with a 10.5% caloric reduction for beverages and 3.0% caloric reduction for snacks. The caloric reduction was introduced into a dynamic model to estimate weight change. The model output was then used to estimate the expected changes in the prevalence of obesity and overweight. To predict obesity costs, we used the Health Ministry report of the impact of overweight and obesity in Mexico 1999-2023. We estimated a mean caloric reduction of 36.8 kcal/day/person (23.2 kcal/day from beverages and 13.6 kcal/day from snacks). Five years after implementation, this caloric reduction could reduce 1.68 kg and 4.98 percentage points (pp) in obesity (14.7%, with respect to baseline), which translates into a reduction of 1.3 million cases of obesity and a reduction of US$1.8 billion in direct and indirect costs. Our estimate is based on experimental evidence derived from warning labels as proposed in Canada, which include a single label and less restrictive limits to sugar, sodium, and saturated fats. Our estimates depend on various assumptions, such as the transportability of effect estimates from the experimental study to the Mexican population and that other factors that could influence weight and food and beverage consumption remain unchanged. Our results will need to be corroborated by future observational studies through the analysis of changes in sales, consumption, and body weight. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we estimated that warning labels may effectively reduce obesity and obesity-related costs. Mexico is following Chile, Peru, and Uruguay in implementing warning labels to processed foods, but other countries could benefit from this intervention.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Ingestão de Alimentos , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Embalagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Obesidade/economia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Lanches
3.
PLoS Med ; 17(7): e1003220, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In June 2016, the first phase of the Chilean Food Labelling and Advertising Law that mandated front-of-package warning labels and marketing restrictions for unhealthy foods and beverages was implemented. We assess foods and beverages reformulation after this initial implementation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A data set with the 2015 to 2017 nutritional information was developed collecting the information at 2 time periods: preimplementation (T0: January-February 2015 or 2016; n = 4,055) and postimplementation (T1: January-February 2017; n = 3,025). Quartiles of energy and nutrients of concern (total sugars, saturated fats, and sodium, per 100 g/100 mL) and the proportion of products with energy and nutrients exceeding the cutoffs of the law (i.e., products "high in") were compared pre- and postimplementation of the law in cross-sectional samples of products with sales >1% of their specific food or beverage groups, according to the Euromonitor International Database; a longitudinal subsample (i.e., products collected in both the pre- and postimplementation periods, n = 1,915) was also analyzed. Chi-squared, McNemar tests, and quantile regressions (simple and multilevel) were used for comparing T0 and T1. Cross-sectional analysis showed a significant decrease (T0 versus T1) in the proportion of product with any "high in" (from 51% [95% confidence interval (CI) 49-52] to 44% [95% CI 42-45]), mostly in food and beverage groups in which regulatory cutoffs were below the 75th percentile of the nutrient or energy distribution. Most frequent reductions were in the proportion of "high in" sugars products (in beverages, milks and milk-based drinks, breakfast cereals, sweet baked products, and sweet and savory spreads; from 80% [95% CI 73-86] to 60% [95% CI 51-69]) and in "high in sodium" products (in savory spreads, cheeses, ready-to-eat meals, soups, and sausages; from 74% [95% CI 69-78] to 27% [95% CI 20-35]). Conversely, the proportion of products "high in" saturated fats only decreased in savory spreads (p < 0.01), and the proportion of "high in" energy products significantly decreased among breakfast cereals and savory spreads (both p < 0.01). Quantile analyses showed that most of the changes took place close to the cutoff values, with only few exceptions of overall left shifts in distribution. Longitudinal analyses showed similar results. However, it is important to note that the nonexperimental nature of this study does not allow to imply causality of these findings. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that, after initial implementation of the Chilean Law of Food Labelling and Advertising, there was a significant decrease in the amount of sugars and sodium in several groups of packaged foods and beverages. Further studies should clarify how food reformulation will impact dietary quality of the population.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Nutrientes , Publicidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Chile , Estudos Transversais , Laticínios , Ingestão de Energia , Fast Foods , Embalagem de Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo , Estudos Prospectivos , Açúcares
4.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232656, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379786

RESUMO

The Food and Drug Administration's menu labeling rule requires chain restaurants to prominently display calories, while leaving other nutritional information (e.g., fat, sodium, sugar) to the request of consumers. We use rich micronutrient data from 257 large chain brands and 24,076 menu items to examine whether calories are correlated with widely used "nutrient profile" scores that measure healthfulness based on nutrient density. We show that calories are indeed statistically significant predictors of nutrient density. However, as a substantive matter, the correlation is highly attenuated (partial R2 < 0.01). Our findings (a) suggest that the promise of calorie labeling to improve nutrient intake quality at restaurants is limited and (b) clarify the basis for transparency of nutrient composition beyond calories to promote healthy menu choices.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo , Rotulagem de Produtos , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Micronutrientes , Restaurantes , Estados Unidos
6.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 650, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Canada's food supply is abundant in less healthy products, increasing Canadians' risk of obesity and non-communicable diseases. Food companies strongly influence the food supply; however, no studies have examined differences in the healthfulness of products offered by various companies in Canada. This study aimed to compare the nutritional quality of products offered by the top packaged food and beverage companies in Canada. METHODS: Twenty-two top packaged food and beverage manufacturing companies were selected, representing > 50% of the Canadian market share in 2018. Nutritional information for products (n = 8277) was sourced from the University of Toronto Food Label Information Program 2017 database. Descriptive analyses examined the nutritional quality of products based on: 1) the Health Star Rating (HSR) system; 2) calories, sodium, saturated fat and total sugars per 100 g (or mL) and per reference amounts (RAs) defined by Health Canada; and 3) "high in" thresholds for sodium, saturated fat and total sugars proposed by Health Canada for pending front-of-package labelling regulations. Kruskal-Wallis tests compared HSRs of products between companies. RESULTS: Mean HSRs of companies' total product offerings ranged from 1.9 to 3.6 (out of 5.0). Differences in HSRs of products between companies were significant overall and for 19 of 22 food categories (P < 0.05), particularly for fats/oils and beverages. Calories, sodium, saturated fat and total sugars contents varied widely between companies for several food categories, and depending on whether they were examined per 100 g (or mL) or RA. Additionally, 66.4% of all products exceeded ≥1 of Health Canada's "high in" thresholds for sodium (31.7%), saturated fat (28.3%) and/or sugars (28.4%). The proportion of products offered by a company that exceeded at least one of these thresholds ranged from 38.5 to 97.5%. CONCLUSIONS: The nutritional quality of products offered by leading packaged food and beverage manufacturers in Canada differs significantly overall and by food category, with many products considered less healthy according to multiple nutrient profiling methods. Variation within food categories illustrates the need and potential for companies to improve the healthfulness of their products. Identifying companies that offer less healthy products compared with others in Canada may help prompt reformulation.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Fast Foods/análise , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Bebidas/provisão & distribução , Canadá , Fast Foods/provisão & distribução , Rotulagem de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo
7.
PLoS Med ; 17(5): e1003120, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Policymakers worldwide are considering requiring warnings for sugary drinks. A growing number of experimental studies have examined sugary drink warnings' impacts, but no research to our knowledge has synthesized this literature. To inform ongoing policy debates, this study aimed to identify the effects of sugary drink warnings compared with control conditions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We systematically searched 7 databases on June 21, 2019, and October 25, 2019. We also searched reference lists of relevant articles. Two investigators independently screened titles, abstracts, and full texts to identify peer-reviewed articles that used an experimental protocol to examine the effects of sugary drink warnings compared to a control condition. Two investigators independently extracted study characteristics and effect sizes from all relevant full-text articles. We meta-analyzed any outcome assessed in at least 2 studies, combining effect sizes using random effects meta-analytic procedures. Twenty-three experiments with data on 16,241 individuals (mean proportion female, 58%) were included in the meta-analysis. Most studies took place in Latin America (35%) or the US or Canada (46%); 32% included children. Relative to control conditions, sugary drink warnings caused stronger negative emotional reactions (d = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.25, 1.13; p = 0.002) and elicited more thinking about the health effects of sugary drinks (d = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.29, 1.01; p < 0.001). Sugary drink warnings also led to lower healthfulness perceptions (d = -0.22; 95% CI: -0.27, -0.17; p < 0.001) and stronger disease likelihood perceptions (d = 0.15; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.24; p = 0.001). Moreover, sugary drink warnings reduced both hypothetical (d = -0.32; 95% CI: -0.44, -0.21; p < 0.001) and actual consumption and purchasing behavior (d = -0.17; 95% CI: -0.30, -0.04; p = 0.012). Statistically significant effects were not observed for perceptions of added sugar or positive sugary drink attitudes (p's > 0.10). Moderation analyses revealed that health warnings (e.g., "Beverages with added sugar contribute to obesity") led to greater reductions in hypothetical sugary drink purchases than did nutrient warnings (e.g., "High in sugar"; d = -0.35 versus -0.18; Qb = 4.04; p = 0.04). Limitations of this study include that we did not review grey literature and that we were unable to conduct moderation analyses for several prespecified moderators due to an insufficient number of studies. CONCLUSIONS: This international body of experimental literature supports sugary drink warnings as a population-level strategy for changing behavior, as well as emotions, perceptions, and intentions. PROTOCOL REGISTRY: PROSPERO ID 146405.


Assuntos
Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Comportamento do Consumidor , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Obesidade/etiologia , Canadá , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
8.
Acta Med Port ; 33(4): 246-251, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238238

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nutrition has been underrepresented in the curriculum of many medical schools and therefore physicians do not feel adequately prepared to provide dietary counselling. The aim of the present study is to determine the impact of a Nutrition and Metabolism curricular unit on nutrition attitudes, knowledge and confidence on future clinical practice of medical students. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All the students enrolled in the curricular unit (2017/2018) were invited to complete a questionnaire assessing their nutritional knowledge and eating habits at the beginning and at the end of the semester (n = 310). RESULTS: Initially, students reported good eating habits and nutrition knowledge. These aspects improved at the end of the study. Moreover, students reported that they felt more confident to do dietary counselling after intervention. DISCUSSION: Most medical students answered affirmatively to all questions related with good habits or eating behaviours, and the acquisition of knowledge had an impact in specific attitudes. After the Nutrition and Metabolism classes the students felt able to provide dietary counselling in different clinical settings, but none of the students felt extremely confident about their competencies for dietary counselling. This can be due to the fact that the students involved were in the first year of the integrated master's degree in medicine, which is a preclinical year, and thus distant from the medical reality and from contact with patients. CONCLUSION: Nutrition education can have a positive impact on attitudes and eating behaviours, knowledge and in the perception of competencies for dietary counselling.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Ciências da Nutrição/educação , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Competência Clínica , Aconselhamento/educação , Currículo , Feminino , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Portugal , Autoimagem , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231176, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298291

RESUMO

Cultured meat, in particular beef, is an emerging food technology potentially challenged by issues of consumer acceptance. To understand drivers of consumer acceptance as well as sensory perception of cultured meat, we investigated the effect of information content on participants' acceptance of cultured meat in a tasting context. Hundred ninety-three citizens from the Netherlands participated, divided across three age and sex-matched groups which each received information on either societal benefits, personal benefits or information on the quality and taste of cultured meat. They filled out a questionnaire and tasted two pieces of hamburger, labeled 'conventional' or 'cultured', although both pieces were in fact conventional. Sensory analysis of both hamburgers was performed. We observed that provision of information and the tasting experience increased acceptance of cultured meat and that information on personal benefits of cultured meat increased acceptance more than information on quality and taste but not than societal benefits of cultured meat. Previous awareness of cultured meat was the best predictor of its acceptance. In contrast to previous studies, sex and social economic status were not associated with different acceptance rates. Surprisingly, 58% of the respondents were willing to pay a premium for cultured meat of, on average, 37% above the price of regular meat. All participants tasted the 'cultured' hamburger and evaluated its taste to be better than the conventional one in spite of the absence of an objective difference. This is the first acceptance study of cultured meat where participants were offered to eat and evaluate meat that was labeled 'cultured'. We conclude that having positive information importantly improves acceptance and willingness to taste and that the specific content of the information is of subordinate importance. Awareness of cultured meat is the best predictor of acceptance.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Carne Vermelha , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Bovinos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Fatores Sexuais , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Paladar , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos/métodos
11.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 61(2): 63-71, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32336711

RESUMO

This paper deals with proficiency testing schemes for food nutrition analysis in Japan. In schemes in 2017 and 2018, 65 and 73 organizations participated, respectively, and more than 70% of the participants were public organizations responsible for a nutrition-labeling compliance test. The food matrices were pork and chicken sausages, and analytes were protein, fat, ash, moisture, carbohydrate, energy, sodium, salt equivalent, calcium (2018 only), and iron (2018 only). The organizations reporting inadequate laboratory values in one or more nutrients for mandatory declaration (energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, or salt equivalent) were 11 and 15% of all organizations and 9 and 13% of public organizations in the 2017 and 2018 schemes, respectively. The approximate relative standard deviations for proficiency assessment (RSDr) were as follows: protein, 2%; fat, 3%; ash, 2%; moisture, 0.5%; carbohydrate, 9%; energy, 1%; sodium (salt equivalent), 4%; calcium, 7%; and iron, 7%. Notably, the large RSDr value for carbohydrate may cause inconsistency among laboratories in compliance tests for foods containing several grams or less of carbohydrate per 100 grams.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/normas , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Ensaio de Proficiência Laboratorial , Japão , Laboratórios
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138334

RESUMO

Food labelled with a "best before" date has a long shelf life. This study aimed to examine the respondents' knowledge and understanding regarding the labelling on food products, as well as to assess the microbiological, physico-chemical and the sensory quality of selected durable food products on and after the date specified by the manufacturer. Two methods were used-a survey and laboratory tests. It was found that the majority of respondents have difficulty distinguishing and understanding the terms on the label and that a significant proportion of the respondents consume food products after the "best before" date. Laboratory tests of milk, pasta, mayonnaise and jam confirmed the microbiological safety of the products even six months after the "best before" date. Other features (texture, colour and sensory quality) slightly changed after one month for milk and mayonnaise (the colour had become more yellow) and after three months for pasta (its hardness had decreased) and jam (it had become browner). The possibilityof extending the "best before" dates of selected durable foods could be considered, which could allow such products to legally be handed over to public benefit organisations, thereby reducing food wastage.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Adulto , Feminino , Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51931

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Identificar los argumentos de la industria alimentaria en contra del etiquetado frontal de advertencias nutricionales en Uruguay. Métodos. Se realizó un análisis de contenido de los comentarios de la industria alimentaria recibidos durante la consulta pública implementada durante el proceso de diseño del decreto que reglamenta la inclusión de rotulación nutricional frontal basada en advertencias en Uruguay mediante una codificación inductiva. Resultados. La mayoría de los comentarios manifestaron la preocupación por la elevada prevalencia de obesidad y enfermedades no transmisibles en el país y destacaron el compromiso con la implementación de acciones que contribuyan a combatir esta problemática de salud. Sin embargo, 81% de los comentarios planteó desacuerdo con la propuesta de decreto elevada a consulta pública y realizó críticas generales sobre su validez. El contenido de los comentarios se relacionó con siete dimensiones: falta de justificación de la medida, violación de compromisos internacionales, críticas al sistema de advertencias, discriminación a alimentos industrializados envasados, críticas al modelo de perfil de nutrientes, otras críticas a aspectos específicos del proyecto de decreto y efectos económicos negativos. En cada dimensión se discute la pertinencia y consistencia técnica y normativa de los contenidos vertidos por los representantes de la industria. Conclusiones. Bajo un aparente acuerdo con la necesidad de adoptar medidas, se evidenció, sin embargo, una fuerte oposición a la política y en particular al sistema de advertencias por parte de la industria alimentaria. Los resultados del análisis aportan insumos para facilitar el proceso de implementación de regulaciones similares en otros países.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To identify the food industry’s arguments against front-of-package nutrition labels in Uruguay. Methods. Content analysis and inductive coding were applied to the comments made by the food industry during the public consultation on the draft decree regulating the inclusion of front-of-package nutrition labels (warnings) in Uruguay. Results. Most of the comments expressed concern about the high prevalence of obesity and noncommunicable diseases in the country and emphasized a commitment to implementing actions to help combat these health problems. However, 81% of the comments disagreed with the draft decree presented for public consultation; these included general criticisms of its validity. The content of the comments related to seven areas: lack of rationale for the measure; violation of international commitments; criticisms of the warning system; discrimination against industrialized packaged food; criticisms of the nutrient profile model; other criticisms of aspects specific to the draft decree; and adverse economic effects. For each area, there is discussion of the technical and normative relevance and consistency of the content presented by the industry representatives. Conclusions. Despite apparent agreement about the need to adopt measures, it is clear that the food industry is strongly opposed to the policy and, in particular, to the warning system. The results of this analysis may help to facilitate the process of implementing similar regulations in other countries.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Identificar os argumentos da indústria alimentícia contra a rotulagem frontal de advertência nutricional no Uruguai. Métodos. Realizou-se uma análise do conteúdo dos comentários de representantes da indústria alimentícia obtidos em uma consulta pública conduzida no Uruguai durante o processo de elaboração do decreto para regulamentar a inclusão de rotulagem frontal de advertência nutricional com uso de códigos indutivos. Resultados. Os comentários, na sua maioria, revelaram preocupação com a alta prevalência de obesidade e doenças crônicas não transmissíveis no país e destacaram o compromisso com a implementação de ações para combater estes problemas de saúde. No entanto, verificou-se que, em 81% dos comentários, os participantes discordavam da proposta do decreto apresentada na consulta pública e teceram críticas gerais quanto à sua validade. Observaram-se sete dimensões distintas no conteúdo dos comentários: falta de justificação da medida, descumprimento de compromissos internacionais, críticas ao sistema de advertência, discriminação de alimentos industrializados em embalagens, críticas ao modelo de perfil nutricional, outras críticas relativas a aspectos específicos do projeto do decreto e repercussão econômica negativa. Para cada dimensão, foram discutidas a relevância e a coerência técnica e normativa do conteúdo dos comentários feitos pelos representantes da indústria. Conclusões. Apesar de uma suposta concordância quanto à necessidade de adotar medidas, observou-se uma firme oposição da indústria alimentícia à política e, em particular, ao sistema de advertência nutricional propostos. Os resultados desta análise servem para facilitar o processo de implementação de regulamentações semelhantes em outros países.


Assuntos
Rotulagem Nutricional , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Política Pública , Programas e Políticas de Nutrição e Alimentação , Informação Nutricional , Uruguai , Rotulagem Nutricional , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Política Pública , Programas e Políticas de Nutrição e Alimentação , Informação Nutricional , Rotulagem Nutricional , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Programas e Políticas de Nutrição e Alimentação , Informação Nutricional , Uruguai
14.
Buenos Aires; OPS; 2020-03-02. (OPS/ARG/20-0001).
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-51904

RESUMO

[Introducción]. Durante el año, el país obtuvo importantes logros en los avances hacia la Salud Universal, basada en una estrategia de atención primaria. Son significativos los pasos dados para fortalecer capacidades en el primer nivel de atención para personas mayores, así como para personas afectados por hipertensión, el uso problemático de sustancias psicoactivas y trastornos mentales. Hubo un impulso importante en la iniciativa para eliminar la transmisión de madre a hijo de VIH, sífilis, Chagas y hepatitis B, y avances transformativos y modernizados en el sistema de información sanitaria para poder medir el acceso a los servicios de salud y su calidad. La certificación de la eliminación de la malaria otorgada por la OMS constituye un hito para Argentina en salud pública. Asimismo, la evaluación externa al país en la aplicación del Reglamento Sanitario Internacional significa un avance importante y un ejemplo para otros países de la región. El Diagnóstico de la Situación sobre Clima y Salud en la Argentina y el desarrollo de un capítulo de salud en el Plan Nacional de Adaptación al Cambio Climático representan otros logros para manejar riesgos alineados con estándares internacionales. Además, Argentina cooperó con el Caribe para fortalecer capacidades en la lucha contra la resistencia antimicrobiana. Los progresos también son significativos en el análisis sobre el gasto de Argentina en salud y en agua y saneamiento, utilizando instrumentos internacionales que ayudan a transparentar estos desembolsos y mejorar en eficiencia e impacto. Otro logro inédito fue el desarrollo y consenso alcanzado para una Agenda Nacional de Investigación en Salud, así como la promoción en el ámbito legislativo del sistema de advertencias sanitarias en el frente de los envases de productos alimenticios para la prevención de la obesidad, una epidemia que afecta de manera alarmante al país


Assuntos
Doenças Negligenciadas , Malária , Doença de Chagas , Resistência a Inseticidas , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Tuberculose , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Mudança Climática , Água Potável , Violência de Gênero , Vigilância em Saúde do Trabalhador , Masculinidade , Gastos em Saúde , Gestão do Conhecimento para a Pesquisa em Saúde , Regulamento Sanitário Internacional , Argentina
15.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 312, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several front-of-pack (FOP) labels identify healthier options by comparing foods within product categories. Alternative approaches label healthier options by comparing across categories. Which approach is superior remains unknown. The objective of this study was to test the effect of a within-category versus across-category FOP lower calorie label on 1) the percentage of labeled products purchased, 2) several measures of calories purchased (total, per dollar and per serving), and 3) total spending. We also tested the moderating effects of hunger and mood on purchasing patterns. METHODS: Using an online grocery store, we conducted a 3 × 3 crossover trial involving actual purchases with 146 participants randomly exposed to: 1) no labeling control; 2) within-category lower calorie labels, and; 3) across-category lower calorie labels. We labeled the 20% of products with the lowest calories per serving within or across categories. Purchases were compared using a fixed effects regression on first-differenced outcomes. RESULTS: Relative to the control condition, there was a 3 percentage point increase (p = 0.01) in labelled products purchased in the within-category arm and a non-significant decrease of 1 percentage point (p = 0.711) in the across-category arm. There was no significant difference in the proportion of labeled products purchased between the two labelling conditions. Neither strategy resulted in reductions in any measure of calories purchased or in total spending. When limited to beverages, there was a 398 cal reduction (p = 0.01) in the within-category arm and a 438 cal reduction (p < 0.01) in the across-category arm versus the control. Mood and hunger did not modify the effects for either strategy. CONCLUSIONS: Results provide evidence that both labelling strategies have the potential to influence food purchasing patterns. However, we cannot definitely state that one labelling approach is superior or even that an increase in the proportion of labelled products purchased will lead to a reduction in calories purchased. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The American Economic Association's registry for randomized controlled trials, RCT ID: AEARCTR-0002325; Prospectively Registered October 06, 2017. In compliance with ICMJE policy, the trial was also registered on Clinicaltrials.gov, RCT ID: [NCT04165447]. Retrospectively Registered 11 November 2019.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Energia , Rotulagem de Alimentos/métodos , Adulto , Afeto , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Fome , Masculino
16.
Demetra (Rio J.) ; 15(1): e39689, jan.- mar.2020. ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1097203

RESUMO

Inúmeros benefícios são atribuídos aos alimentos integrais, especialmente pela concentração de fibras nesses produtos. Sabe-se que biscoitos integrais compõem a dieta dos consumidores, sendo a rotulagem o principal meio de comunicação entre indústria produtora e consumidores, e que não existe legislação específica para essa categoria de alimentos. Assim, este trabalho objetivou verificar se as informações e/ou discursos nutricionais presentes nos rótulos de biscoitos integrais estão de acordo com a legislação geral de rotulagem, e também averiguar a percepção dos consumidores frente às alegações, bem como sua preferência e consumo desses produtos. O estudo foi realizado em três supermercados da cidade de Videira-SC e contemplou duas etapas: análise de rótulos por meio de check-list e aplicação de questionário com consumidores. Os resultados evidenciaram inadequações, destacando-se a utilização de informações não previstas em lei, que podem induzir o consumidor a erros. Quanto à percepção dos consumidores, estes majoritariamente acreditam que para um alimento ser considerado integral, deve conter no mínimo 50% dessa fonte de ingrediente, e os associam a benefícios à saúde. Verifica-se a necessidade de desenvolver ações que promovam educação nutricional, bem como rigidez, cumprimento das leis vigentes e novos planejamentos de normas técnicas específicas para alimentos integrais, a fim de estabelecer critérios quanto à determinação desse grupo de alimentos. (AU)


Countless benefits are attributed to whole grain foods, especially due to the concentration of dietary fiber in these products. It is widely known that whole grain cookies are part of the consumers' diet, that food labeling is the primary means of communication between producers and consumers, and that a relevant legislation for this class of food is required. Thus, the present study aimed to verify whether nutrition claims and/or terms displayed on the labels of whole grain cookies are in compliance with the applicable labeling legislation, and also to ascertain consumer's perception on these claims as well as their preference for and consumption of these products. The study was carried out in three supermarkets in the city of Videira-SC, split into two stages: label analysis through a checklist and administration of a questionnaire to consumers. Results showed non-compliances, especially the use of terms not foreseen by the law, which could mislead consumers. Regarding the perception of consumers, they mostly believe that a product may contain at least 50% of whole grains to be called a whole grain food, and associate them with health benefits. It is necessary to develop and promote nutrition education actions as well as constitutional rigidity and compliance with the applicable legislation, and new and relevant technical standards for whole grain foods in order to improve requirements for this class of food. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Educação Alimentar e Nutricional , Comportamento Alimentar , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Defesa do Consumidor , Alimentos Industrializados , Legislação sobre Alimentos
17.
Demetra (Rio J.) ; 15(1): 45847, jan.- mar.2020. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1096028

RESUMO

A rotulagem de alimentos é importante para a comunicação entre produtores e consumidores. No entanto, para ajudar os consumidores a ter maior autonomia em suas escolhas alimentares, é importante interpretar corretamente a rotulagem dos alimentos. Assim, esta pesquisa avaliou o conhecimento e o uso das informações nutricionais apresentadas nos rótulos dos alimentos. Pesquisa quantitativa, exploratória e transversal, realizada em 2018 em uma universidade pública no Brasil, com 415 consumidores com 18 anos ou mais. Para avaliar o conhecimento, aplicouse questionário estruturado com pontuação de 0 a 24. Os dados foram analisados por meio de análise descritiva, correlação de Spearman e teste de Kruskal-Wallis e Mann Whitney. Participaram indivíduos com idade de 21,02 ± 2,89 anos, dos quais 58,31% eram do sexo feminino. Muitos consumidores liam frequentemente os rótulos dos alimentos (56,39%). A pontuação média de conhecimento foi de 14,99 ± 4,12. A média do escore de conhecimento foi afetada pela idade (p = 0,039) e renda (p = 0,020). Os participantes que utilizaram alegações nutricionais como critério de compra (p = 0,004) obtiveram maiores pontuações. Os maiores problemas na interpretação dos rótulos nutricionais estavam relacionados às reivindicações obrigatórias de nutrientes e aos termos "zero gordura trans (0%)", "alimento funcional", "diet" e "light". Considerando que a regulamentação dos rótulos de alimentos está em processo de revisão no Brasil, torna-se importante pesquisar seu uso e conhecimento por consumidores adultos jovens. Isso contribuirá para a discussão da revisão da legislação, além de ajudar os profissionais a orientarem os consumidores na interpretação dos rótulos. (AU)


Food labelling is important to communication between food producers and consumers. For consumers to have greater autonomy in terms of their food choices, it is important to facilitate a correct interpretation about what is on a food label. This paper assessed consumers' knowledge and use of nutritional information on food labels. Cross-sectional exploratory quantitative, "blind" research carried out in 2018 in a public university in Brazil, with 415 consumers aged 18 years or older. A structured questionnaire with a score ranging from 0 to 24 was applied. Descriptive analysis, Spearman correlation coefficient, the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann Whitney test were employed. Participants were individuals aged 21.02 ± 2.89 years, of which 58.31% were female. Many consumers reported they read food labels frequently (56.39%). The mean score was 14.99 ± 4.12. The knowledge score mean was affected by age (p =0.039) and income (p = 0.020). Participants who used nutritional claims as a criterion for purchase (p = 0.004) had higher scores. The biggest issues in interpreting nutritional labels were related to mandatory nutrient claims and the terms "trans-fat free (0%)", "functional food", "diet" and "light". Food label regulation is a process currently under review in Brazil, so research on the use and knowledge of nutritional information on food labels by young adult consumers becomes important. It will contribute to the discussion of the revision of legislation, as well as helping professionals guide consumers in the interpretation of labels. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Rotulagem Nutricional , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Conhecimento , Informação Nutricional
18.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 294, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing in the world. Healthy food choice and adequate physical activity are key factors in preventing NCDs. Food labeling is a strategy that can inform consumers to choose healthier foods at the point of purchase. In this study, we intend to examine the status of existing labels and to clarify their strengths and weaknesses. Then, for the first time in Iran, we will design a type of physical activity equivalent calorie label and will test it on some food groups of packaged products including dairy products, sweetened beverages, cakes, and biscuits. METHODS: This study will be conducted in two phases. In phase 1, nutrition fact labels and traffic light labels will be assessed through focus group discussions and interviews among different groups of mothers, industrialists and nutrition and food industry specialists as to determine strengths and weaknesses of the current labels on packaged products. Then, the initial layout of the physical activity calorie equivalent label will be drawn with respect to the viewpoints received from mothers. Thereafter, we will include the scientific opinions to it for creating the first draft of our new label. In phase 2, a total of 500 mothers of students 6-12 years old randomly assigned to five groups. The study groups will be as follows: (1) without nutrition label group, (2) current traffic light label group, (3) current traffic light label group in which, a brochure will be used to inform mothers, (4) physical activity calorie equivalent label group, and (5) physical activity calorie equivalent label group in which a brochure will be used to inform mothers. Some samples of dairy products, beverages, cakes, and biscuits will be presented. ANOVA and multiple linear regressions will be used to examine the association between the label type and the main consequence (energy of the selected products) and secondary outcome (time). DISCUSSION: The effect of the new food labels will be evaluated based on the differences between the calories of selected food groups. TRIAL REGISTERATION: Iranian Registery of Clinical Trials [IRCT]20,181,002,041,201 N1.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Rotulagem de Alimentos/métodos , Preferências Alimentares , Mães/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Ingestão de Energia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
PLoS Med ; 17(2): e1003015, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chile's Law of Food Labeling and Advertising, implemented in 2016, was the first national regulation to jointly mandate front-of-package warning labels, restrict child-directed marketing, and ban sales in schools of all foods and beverages containing added sugars, sodium, or saturated fats that exceed set nutrient or calorie thresholds. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of this package of policies on household beverage purchases. METHOD AND FINDINGS: In this observational study, monthly longitudinal data on packaged beverage purchases were collected from urban-dwelling households (n = 2,383) participating in the Kantar WordPanel Chile Survey from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2017. Beverage purchases were linked to nutritional information at the product level, reviewed by a team of nutritionists, and categorized as "high-in" or "not high-in" according to whether they contained high levels of nutrients of concern (i.e., sugars, sodium, saturated fat, or energy) according to Chilean nutrient thresholds and were thus subject to the law's warning label, marketing restriction, and school sales ban policies. The majority of high-in beverages were categorized as such because of high sugar content. We used fixed-effects models to compare the observed volume as well as calorie and sugar content of postregulation beverage purchases to a counterfactual based on preregulation trends, overall and by household-head educational attainment. Of households included in the study, 37% of household heads had low education (less than high school), 40% had medium education (graduated high school), and 23% had high education (graduated college), with the sample becoming more educated over the study period. Compared to the counterfactual, the volume of high-in beverage purchases decreased 22.8 mL/capita/day, postregulation (95% confidence interval [CI] -22.9 to -22.7; p < 0.001), or 23.7% (95% CI -23.8% to -23.7%). High-educated and low-educated households showed similar absolute reductions in high-in beverage purchases (approximately 27 mL/capita/day; p < 0.001), but for high-educated households this amounted to a larger relative decline (-28.7%, 95% CI -28.8% to -28.6%) compared to low-educated households (-21.5%, 95% CI -21.6% to -21.4%), likely because of the high-educated households' lower level of high-in beverage purchases in the preregulation period. Calories from high-in beverage purchases decreased 11.9 kcal/capita/day (95% CI -12.0 to -11.9; p < 0.001) or 27.5% (95% CI -27.6% to -27.5%). Calories purchased from beverages classified as "not high-in" increased 5.7 kcal/capita/day (95% CI 5.7-5.7; p < 0.001), or 10.8% (10.8%-10.8%). Calories from total beverage purchases decreased 7.4 kcal/capita/day (95% CI -7.4 to -7.3; p < 0.001), or 7.5% (95% CI -7.6% to -7.5%). A key limitation of this study is the inability to assess causality because of its observational nature. We also cannot determine whether observed changes in purchases are due to reformulation or consumer behavioral change, nor can we parse out the effects of the labeling, marketing, and school sales ban policies. CONCLUSIONS: Purchases of high-in beverages significantly declined following implementation of Chile's Law of Food Labeling and Advertising; these reductions were larger than those observed from single, standalone policies, including sugar-sweetened-beverage taxes previously implemented in Latin America. Future research should evaluate the effects of Chile's policies on purchases of high-in foods, dietary intake, and long-term purchasing changes.


Assuntos
Publicidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Chile , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , México , Classe Social , Impostos/legislação & jurisprudência
20.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 17(1): 22, 2020 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food labelling is a common intervention to improve diets, where the back-of-pack Nutrition Information Panel (or Nutrition Facts table (NFt)) provides comprehensive nutrition information on food packages. However, many consumers find it difficult and time-consuming to identify healthier foods using the NFt. As a result, different interpretative nutrition rating systems (INRS) may enable healthier food choices and it is essential that consumers have the tools to allow for easily accessible nutrition information. The objective of this study was to examine consumers' perceptions of different (INRS) for delivery of nutrition information using different versions of a smartphone app, FoodFlip©. METHODS: This study was part of a larger randomized controlled trial examining consumer perceptions of different INRS on food products. A nationally representative commercial sample of 2008 Canadians were randomized to one of four INRS intervention groups: 1) traffic light, 2) health star rating, 3) 'high-in' warning labels or 4) no INRS (NFt only; control) and asked to scan or enter 20 products into FoodFlip© from a list of food products provided to them with varying levels of healthfulness. After completing the app task, participants were asked a series of 7-point Likert-scale and open-ended questions to provide opinions on the usability and functionality of the app. RESULTS: Of the survey sample of 1997 participants, 95% (n = 1907) completed the app task, with similar number of participants in each treatment group. The mean age was 40 ± 12 years with no differences in sociodemographic characteristics between treatment groups. The health star rating ranked significantly lower in comparison to the other treatment groups in terms of usefulness (OR, 95% CI -0.67, 0.52-0.85), believability (0.59, 0.46-0.75), and understanding (0.55, 0.44-0.71) (p < 0.001). The health star rating (1.20, 0.94-1.53) and control (NFt) (1,1,1) ranked significantly lower than the traffic light or the 'high-in' warning labels for their ability to compare the healthfulness of products (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated Canadian consumers' preference for a nutrient-specific system (i.e. traffic light or 'high-in' warning labels). The app, which was liked by majority of the participants for its functionality and usability, has the potential to support healthy dietary decision making and may also encourage reformulation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03290118 (Clinicaltrials.gov).


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/métodos , Rotulagem de Alimentos/métodos , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Aplicativos Móveis , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Smartphone
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