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1.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 201: 104993, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022564

RESUMO

Research on children's evaluations of parental discipline or parental responses to peer conflicts has focused on parents' responses to hypothetical or actual child behavior. These parent behaviors are typically depicted as fair, reasonable, and appropriate, but what if they are not? In daily life, parents do sometimes act unfairly, or children evaluate parents' responses as such. This study examined 90 4.5- to 10-year-old U.S. middle-class children's (Mage = 7.42 years, SD = 1.70) evaluations of four scenarios describing hypothetical mothers' unfair responses to peer conflicts (unjustified stealing; intentional harm; accidental harm; ambiguous harm). Across ages, children overwhelmingly judged mothers' directives, particularly regarding a straightforwardly immoral demand (unjustified stealing), as wrong and very unfair, based primarily on moral justifications or coordinated justifications involving recognition of different competing moral (or moral and nonmoral) concerns. With age, children increasingly viewed directives to retaliate for intended harm as more fair and those regarding ambiguous harm as more unfair; justifications recognizing different concerns also increased with age, although more for retaliation for accidental and intended harm than for other situations. Children largely endorsed disobedience and attributed negative emotions to actors who were described as complying. Thus, children prioritized moral concerns over obedience to authority when mothers asserted authority unfairly, although their responses showed variability with age and the situational context.


Assuntos
Julgamento , Princípios Morais , Mães/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Roubo/psicologia , Estados Unidos
2.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 201: 104994, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038705

RESUMO

This study investigates the influence of moral ingroup versus outgroup behavior on 5- and 6-year-olds' and 8- and 9-year-olds' own moral behavior (N = 296). After minimal group assignment, children in Experiment 1 observed adult ingroup or outgroup members engaging in prosocial sharing or antisocial stealing before they themselves had the opportunity to privately donate stickers or take away stickers from others. Older children shared more than younger children, and prosocial models elicited higher sharing. Surprisingly, group membership had no effect. Experiment 2 investigated the same question using peer models. Children in the younger age group were significantly influenced by ingroup behavior, whereas older children were not affected by group membership. Additional measures reveal interesting insights into how moral ingroup and outgroup behavior affects intergroup attitudes, evaluations, and choices.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil , Princípios Morais , Grupo Associado , Comportamento Social , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção Social , Roubo/psicologia
3.
J Genet Psychol ; 182(1): 47-59, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33210580

RESUMO

In this study, 232 (89 11- to 12-year-olds, 71 13- to 14-year-olds; 72 15- to 16-year-olds) students recruited from grades 6th-11th in an urban public high school participated in a study of eyewitness identification. The focus of this study was on the effects of age, gender and moral orientation on decisional bias and, as a secondary outcome, on accuracy (using signal detection analysis).The primary purpose of this and previous studies in this series is to uncover implicit moral decision-making in decisional bias. In this study the perpetrator, the bystanders and the foil were all females. Prior to completing the eyewitness identification task, participants were given instructions that emphasized either (a) fairness and crime prevention, or (b) neither. These instructions had no discernible effect on accuracy but, as in past studies, younger participants (below the age of 13) had lower decisional criteria, resulting in a higher rate of false alarms/positives. Further, those who judged the transgression as worse had a lower decisional criterion, indicating more false alarms. Females were more accurate than the males in identifying the female perpetrator and scored significantly higher on how bad they would feel if they were the victim than did the males.


Assuntos
Rememoração Mental , Princípios Morais , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Caracteres Sexuais , Roubo/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
4.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 24(1): 11-16, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337262

RESUMO

A host of studies have examined the impact of playing violent video games on aggressive behavior. However, longitudinal research is rare, and existing studies have allowed little room for individual variability in the trajectories of violent video game play. The current study used a person-centered approach to examine trajectories, predictors, and outcomes of violent video game play over a 10-year period. Three groups of individuals emerged: high initial violence (4 percent), moderate (23 percent), and low increasers (73 percent). High initial violence and moderate groups showed a curvilinear pattern of violent video game play across time, whereas low increasers group increased slightly in violent video game play across time. The high initial violence and moderate groups were more likely to be male, and those in the high initial violence group were more likely to be depressed at the initial wave. There was no difference in prosocial behavior at the final time point across all the three groups, but individuals in the moderate group displayed the highest levels of aggressive behavior at the final wave. Implications of the results are discussed.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Roubo/psicologia , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Adolescente , Altruísmo , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237906, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: To our knowledge, no case-control study has investigated the relationships between stealing, clinical implications, and psychiatric diagnosis among child and adolescent psychiatric patients with or without a history of stealing. Thus, the associations between child and adolescent psychiatric disorders and a history of stealing remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationships between stealing, clinical implications, and psychiatric diagnosis among child and adolescent psychiatric patients with or without a history of stealing. METHODS: In this retrospective case-control study, the proportions of clinical implications among child and adolescent psychiatric patients with and without a history of stealing were compared. Data regarding age, sex, primary diagnosis, junior high school student or not, both father and mother are the caregivers or not, family history, abuse history, school refusal, depressive state, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms were retrieved from medical records. Participants consisted of Japanese junior high school students and younger patients (maximum age, 15 years) at the first consultation. All patients were examined and diagnosed by psychiatrists according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, or the Fifth Edition. Stealing was reported by the patients or caregivers to the psychiatrist, or the psychiatrist had inquired about a history of stealing at the first consultation. RESULTS: Among 1972 patients who consulted the clinic, at the first consultation, 56 (2.84%) had a history of stealing (cases), and 1916 (97.16%) did not (controls). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the proportions of males, junior high school students, abuse history, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and conduct disorder were significantly higher, and the proportions of adjustment disorders and school refusal were significantly lower in cases than in controls. The multivariate adjusted odds ratio increased further when the two factors were considered together, such as ASD with abuse history and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with abuse history. CONCLUSIONS: Children with a history of stealing were more likely to be diagnosed with ASD or ADHD with abuse history. Child and adolescent psychiatric outpatients with a history of stealing were more likely to be older and male. Our study should be understood without prejudice because this study is reporting associations, not causality. Therefore, a prospective study to investigate causality among ADHD, ASD, abuse history, and stealing is needed. If ADHD and ASD with abuse history can be correlated to a history of stealing, interventions can be more effective by understanding the mechanisms underlying these connections.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Roubo/psicologia , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada
6.
Compr Psychiatry ; 96: 152133, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707311

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In Japan, the rate of recidivism among thieves is high, some of which may be caused by kleptomania. The purpose of this study was to translate the Kleptomania Symptom Assessment Scale (K-SAS) into Japanese and validate its psychometric properties in a Japanese sample. A second purpose of the study was to evaluate the validity of K-SAS to discriminate between individuals with kleptomania and shoplifters not affected by the disorder. METHODS: The original K-SAS was translated by researchers. The back-translation of the scale into English was conducted by a professional translator who was fluent in both languages. The items on the Japanese version of K-SAS were deemed appropriate for the Japanese context after being reviewed by a forensic psychiatry specialist. The sample included 22 kleptomania patients, 26 shoplifters, and 47 healthy adults. We tested the scale properties and validity to discriminate between the three groups. RESULTS: The Japanese version of the K-SAS showed adequate reliability and validity. Individuals affected by kleptomania had significantly higher scores than shoplifters and healthy adults. Furthermore, the K-SAS score of kleptomania was not correlated with typical antisocial tendencies. Moreover, the K-SAS score for kleptomania was not correlated with psychometric scales related to obsessive-compulsive disorder and borderline personality disorder. CONCLUSIONS: The Japanese version of the K-SAS is a useful assessment tool for distinguishing between individuals with kleptomania and shoplifters not affected by the disorder in Japan.


Assuntos
Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/diagnóstico , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Roubo/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/psicologia , Feminino , Psiquiatria Legal , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Avaliação de Sintomas , Traduções , Adulto Jovem
7.
Science ; 365(6448): 70-73, 2019 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221770

RESUMO

Civic honesty is essential to social capital and economic development but is often in conflict with material self-interest. We examine the trade-off between honesty and self-interest using field experiments in 355 cities spanning 40 countries around the globe. In these experiments, we turned in more than 17,000 lost wallets containing varying amounts of money at public and private institutions and measured whether recipients contacted the owners to return the wallets. In virtually all countries, citizens were more likely to return wallets that contained more money. Neither nonexperts nor professional economists were able to predict this result. Additional data suggest that our main findings can be explained by a combination of altruistic concerns and an aversion to viewing oneself as a thief, both of which increase with the material benefits of dishonesty.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Roubo/psicologia , Humanos
8.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 63(13): 2338-2355, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043101

RESUMO

Despite the damaging effects of shoplifting on individuals, the current literature offers little guidance for changing shoplifting behavior. One limitation in this area of research has been the failure to use empirically and theoretically sound methodologies to identify individuals' diverse characteristics and motivations. The present study addressed these limitations by developing an empirically and theoretically supported typology of the varied individuals who shoplift. Participants included 202 community individuals who reported repeated shoplifting and provided information about their shoplifting behavior, motivations, mental health, ethical attitudes, personal histories, and life circumstances. Cluster analyses revealed that the sample could be divided into six discrete groups. These clusters comprise a typology of shoplifting, including Loss-Reactive (28% of the sample), Impulsive (20%), Depressed (18%), Hobbyist (18%), Addictive-Compulsive (9%), and Economically Disadvantaged (7%) types. Each type comprises a unique pattern of shoplifting with unique needs. This research establishes a promising foundation for treating the diverse individuals who shoplift.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/classificação , Comportamento Impulsivo/classificação , Autoimagem , Roubo/classificação , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Comportamento Compulsivo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Comportamento Social/psicologia , Roubo/psicologia
9.
Psychogeriatrics ; 19(6): 605-608, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883996

RESUMO

We experienced a case involving a 67-year-old man with Alzheimer's disease who exhibited criminal behaviour. Although his behaviour improved after admission to a long-term care facility, he was not able to return to his home because he was suspected of theft. At 62 years of age, he developed slowly progressive memory loss and had difficulty managing money. He was diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease and began taking galantamine. He was placed in police custody after he had tried to take another person's fuel tank early one morning. However, he was not charged with theft because he did not remember his actions. Because it was difficult for his sister to constantly monitor him, he was admitted to a long-term care facility. He displayed high emotional insecurity and continually asked when he could return home. His physical function was good, enabling him to perform various activities alone, but he experienced the delusion of theft during these activities. He appealed the decision prohibiting him from going home. However, the staff suggested that he would exhibit problematic behaviours at home, and it was decided that he should not live at home. After living at the long-term care facility for 3 years, he died of acute cardiac infarction. When a person goes to jail for committing a crime, that person can return to society after completing a jail term. That was not the case with this man with Alzheimer's disease. As such, guidelines and standards to evaluate the criminal responsibility of dementia patients need to be established.


Assuntos
Crime , Delusões/psicologia , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/psicologia , Roubo/psicologia , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer , Humanos , Masculino
10.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(2): 721-728, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30229359

RESUMO

Challenging behaviors involving food are common for individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and often lead to obesity and other chronic health conditions. Efforts to decrease these behaviors, such as isolation during meals and strict monitoring of food consumption, can be stigmatizing. To decrease the food stealing of a 7 year-old girl with PWS, therapists conducted a latency-based functional analysis in a clinic setting before implementing a function-based intervention to facilitate her inclusion at the family dinner table. Intervention components entailed differential reinforcement procedures which incorporated a token board and schedule thinning. The intervention successfully generalized to the home setting and across food preferences and implementers.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/reabilitação , Reforço Psicológico , Roubo/prevenção & controle , Criança , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/psicologia , Roubo/psicologia
11.
Eat Weight Disord ; 23(6): 761-768, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30221324

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Shoplifting, prevalent in patients diagnosed with bulimia nervosa (BN), is a serious behavioral problem in eating disorder (ED) patients. However, little is known about its overall presence, etiology, and consequences. This study aimed to determine whether shoplifting occurs before or after the onset of ED and to investigate the prevalence and correlates of shoplifting in ED patients. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 284 treatment-seeking female patients aged 13-45 with EDs [171 anorexia nervosa (AN); 113 BN]. Shoplifting, impulsive behaviors (self-injury, suicide attempt, sexual promiscuity, alcohol, and illicit drug use), depression, self-esteem, and clinical features of EDs were assessed with an interview. RESULTS: Lifetime shoplifting prevalence was 28.5% (81/284) with 70.4% (57/81) occurring before ED onset. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that depression [odds ratio (OR), 2.63; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.24-5.60], alcohol abuse (OR, 3.91; 95% CI 1.34-11.38), illicit substance use (OR, 14.42; 95% CI, 1.65-125.86), and self-esteem (OR, 0.90; 95% CI; 0.82-0.99) were associated with lifetime shoplifting, while illness duration, BN, and ED symptom severity were not. CONCLUSIONS: Shoplifting is common in ED patients and precedes ED onset in most patients with a shoplifting history, although the causal relationship between shoplifting and EDs remains inconclusive. Shoplifting may be associated with impulsive behaviors (e.g., alcohol and illicit drug use), depression, and low self-esteem, but not with ED severity. Future research should focus on the unrecognized role of shoplifting as a marker to identify patients at risk of impulsive behaviors and consider treatment options. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level V, observational cross-sectional descriptive study.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Autoimagem , Roubo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Roubo/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Psychiatry Res ; 267: 461-466, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29980125

RESUMO

Identifying pathways through which environmental risk factors influence PTSD is important for understanding PTSD etiology. Here, we hypothesized that the physical proximity to threat influences PTSD risk by increasing ASD following trauma. One hundred six bank employees who had experienced a bank robbery participated in the study. A longitudinal design assessing ASD at day 2 and PTSD at day 30 was used to test the hypothesis. Participants also indicated their location in the bank at the time of the robbery. ASD was identified in 40 (38%) and PTSD in 16 (15%) of the robbery victims. Distance to the robber had a strong effect on ASD (OR 3.51, 95% CI 1.94-6.34) and a somewhat lesser effect on PTSD (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.04-4.46), indicating that the effect of proximity to threat on PTSD 1 month following trauma could be mediated by its effect on ASD 2 days following trauma. Using structural equation modeling, we confirmed that the effect of distance on PTSD was fully mediated by ASD. These findings suggest that proximity to threat may increase PTSD risk by enhancing the acute stress response following trauma.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático Agudo/etiologia , Roubo/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático Agudo/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Psychiatr Pol ; 52(1): 81-92, 2018 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29704416

RESUMO

First descriptions of kleptomania as a mental disorder date back to the nineteenth century. For the first time, kleptomania as an accompanying symptom rather than a formal diagnosis was included in the classification of psychiatric disorders of the American Psychiatric Association DSM-I in 1952. It was included in the International Classification of Diseases ICD-10 and classified under "habit and impulse disorders". Kleptomania is a serious disorder, as numerous thefts are impulsively carried out, carrying the risk of detection and consequently criminal liability. In Poland, we lack epidemiological data, however, it is estimated that 5% of those who commit theft are affected by kleptomania. People suffering from this disorder often do not seek a medical opinion so reviewing such cases is challenging for expert psychiatrists. The authors have proposed the term "kleptomania spectrum" for defining cases in which patients have an intense urge to steal, experienced a sense of tension from such an action, and relief following it, however, the criterion of theft of a superfluous object, without a profitable motive for themselves or others is not met.


Assuntos
Conflito Psicológico , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/classificação , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/diagnóstico , Roubo/classificação , Criminosos , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/psicologia , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/terapia , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo/classificação , Roubo/psicologia
14.
Compr Psychiatry ; 80: 186-191, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29127886

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Kleptomania is characterized by strong urges to steal and is one of only a few psychiatric disorders defined by illegal behaviors, but the clinical characteristics of individuals with kleptomania who have faced legal consequences due to their behavior are poorly understood. METHOD: From 2001 to 2012, we recruited 107 adult participants with DSM-IV kleptomania. Participants with a history of shoplifting-related arrest (N=82) were compared with those who had no such history (N=25) on demographics, clinical features, and a self-report measure of impulsivity. RESULTS: Participants whose shoplifting had resulted in arrest had higher self-rated impulsivity on a weak trend level (Eysenck Impulsiveness Questionnaire), with large to very large effect size (Cohen's d=1.12). Group comparisons showed no significant differences in terms of overall functioning (d=0.60), time spent stealing (d=0.73), frequency of stealing behavior (d=0.33), psychiatric comorbidity, or severity of kleptomania symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Legal problems in kleptomania may be associated with generalized deficits in inhibitory control independent of kleptomania symptom severity. These findings emphasize the need for treatment to improve functional status in individuals with kleptomania and reduce the social and economic costs associated with reoffending.


Assuntos
Criminosos/psicologia , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/psicologia , Comportamento Impulsivo , Roubo/psicologia , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/diagnóstico , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Roubo/legislação & jurisprudência
15.
Eat Weight Disord ; 23(6): 753-759, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28455682

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore the characteristics of eating disorders related to shoplifting behavior and identify the risk and protective factors related to shoplifting among patients with eating disorders. METHODS: Eighty females with eating disorders were recruited from an eating disorders clinic. They were asked to complete anonymous self-report questionnaires on demographic characteristics, shoplifting behavior, psychological characteristics and eating disorder symptomology. We investigated differences in clinical characteristics between those with and without shoplifting history or a current drive to shoplift. RESULTS: The response rate was 92.5%. Of the respondents, 37.8% reported a history of shoplifting and 16.2% a current drive for shoplifting. The patients with shoplifting history had lower socioeconomic status (SES), higher impulsivity and higher symptom severity of eating disorders compared with those without this history. The patients with a current drive for shoplifting had more depressive symptoms, more severe anxiety, more obsessional traits, and higher symptom severity of eating disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Severity of illness and SES seem to have a serious impact on shoplifting behavior among eating disordered patients. These findings may suggest risk and protective factors related to shoplifting among eating disordered patients.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Roubo/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Roubo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Int J Public Health ; 62(9): 1051-1058, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28932872

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate specific challenges to Hong Kong's capacity for effective disaster response, we assessed perceived barriers to evacuation and citizens' self-efficacy. METHODS: Global positioning system software was used to determine random sampling locations across Hong Kong, weighted by population density. The resulting sample of 1023 participants (46.5% female, mean age 40.74 years) were invited to complete questionnaires on emergency preparedness, barriers to evacuation and self-efficacy. Latent profile analysis and multinomial logistic regression were used to identify self-efficacy profiles and predictors of profile membership. RESULTS: Only 11% of the sample reported feeling prepared to respond to a disaster. If asked to evacuate in an emergency, 41.9% of the sample cited significant issues that would preclude them from doing so. Self-efficacy was negatively associated with barriers to disaster response so that participants reporting higher levels of self-efficacy cited fewer perceived barriers to evacuation. CONCLUSIONS: Hong Kong has established effective strategies for emergency response, but concerns regarding evacuation and mobilisation remain. The findings indicate that improving self-efficacy for disaster response has potential to increase evacuation readiness.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Abrigo de Emergência , Autoeficácia , Adulto , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Limitação da Mobilidade , Roubo/psicologia
17.
Int J Eat Disord ; 50(9): 1095-1103, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28791709

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We examined epidemiological associations between anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) and risks of committing theft and other crimes in a nationwide female population. METHOD: Females born in Sweden during 1979-1998 (N = 957,106) were followed from age 15 for up to 20 years using information on clinically diagnosed AN and BN (exposures), convictions of theft and other crimes (outcomes), psychiatric comorbidities, and familial relatedness from Swedish national registers. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) of criminality in exposed versus unexposed females using Cox proportional hazards regressions and explored how comorbidities and unmeasured familial factors explained the associations. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of convictions of theft (primarily petty theft) and other crimes was higher in exposed females (AN: 11.60% theft, 7.39% other convictions; BN: 17.97% theft, 13.17% other convictions) than in unexposed females (∼5% theft, ∼6% other convictions). The significantly increased risk of being convicted of theft in exposed females (AN: HR = 2.51, 95% confidence interval = [2.29, 2.74], BN: 4.31 [3.68, 5.05]) was partially explained by comorbidities; unmeasured familial factors partially explained the association with convictions of theft in BN but not in AN. Females with BN had a doubled risk of convictions of other crimes, which was partially explained by comorbidities. DISCUSSION: Individuals with eating disorders had increased risk for convictions of theft and potentially other crimes. Results underscore the importance of regular forensic screening and encourage research on mechanisms underlying the relation between crime and eating disorder psychopathology and efforts to determine how best to address such relation in treatment.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/complicações , Bulimia Nervosa/complicações , Crime/psicologia , Roubo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Bulimia Nervosa/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cuad. med. forense ; 23(1/2): 54-65, ene.-jun. 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-175456

RESUMO

El arrebato, como circunstancia atenuante de responsabilidad penal recogida en la legislación española, se corresponde psicopatológicamente con la emoción de ira. Identificamos en este artículo los elementos comunes jurídicos y psicopatológicos de ambos conceptos (presencia de estímulos, provocación de reacciones emocionales, desencadenamiento de conductas). Estudiamos la ira como constructo psicológico y psiquiátrico (reacciones vivenciales anormales) y tratamos de establecer los criterios para el diagnóstico médico-legal de las conductas derivadas de la ira: estudio de los estímulos, de la personalidad del sujeto, de su biografía y de sus circunstancias actuales, análisis de las emociones provocadas y de los comportamientos delictivos presentados, y repercusiones en las esferas cognitiva y volitiva. La observación global de todos estos elementos facilitará un diagnostico psiquiátrico-forense que permita al juzgador la eventual aplicación del atenuante de arrebato


An outburst, as an extenuating circumstance of criminal liability under Spanish law, psychopathologically corresponds to the emotion of anger. In this article, we identify the common legal and psychopathological elements of both concepts (presence of stimuli, provocation of emotional reactions, trigger of conduct). We study anger as a psychological and psychiatric construct (abnormal existential reactions) and try to establish criteria for the medical and legal diagnosis of anger-derived conduct. Study of stimuli, of the subject's personality, their biography and current circumstances, analysis of the emotions provoked, and of the offensive behaviour in question and repercussions on the cognitive and volitional spheres. The global observation of all these elements will enable a psychiatric and forensic diagnosis that allows the court to apply the mitigating circumstances of fit of rage as required


Assuntos
Humanos , Psiquiatria Legal/legislação & jurisprudência , Ira , Emoções Manifestas , Crime , Roubo/legislação & jurisprudência , Roubo/psicologia , Emoções
19.
Psychiatr Prax ; 44(3): 172-174, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28399600

RESUMO

We report the case of a 48-year-old female whom we examined for legal culpability. The proband was taking the dopamine agonist pramipexole as a treatment for Parkinson's disease. In temporal association, she had committed numerous shoplifting offences.While pathological gambling, excessive shopping and hypersexuality have often been described as adverse effects of dopamine agonists, there are only few reports about impulsive stealing in this context.We discuss the synergy of the pharmacological effects with familial, biographic and social factors, suggesting a bio-psycho-social etiology.


Assuntos
Antiparkinsonianos/efeitos adversos , Benzotiazóis/efeitos adversos , Benzotiazóis/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/psicologia , Prova Pericial/legislação & jurisprudência , Competência Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Parkinson/psicologia , Roubo/legislação & jurisprudência , Roubo/psicologia , Antiparkinsonianos/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Levodopa/efeitos adversos , Levodopa/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pramipexol , Fatores de Risco
20.
Trauma Violence Abuse ; 18(2): 119-133, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26206795

RESUMO

Homicide offender typologies developed based on crime scene behaviors have practical utility for scholarly and criminal investigative endeavors. Hence, there has been an increasing interest to develop empirical and testable offender typologies. Specifically, the present study offers a review of the instrumental/expressive offender dichotomy, which is developed primarily based on the analysis of (nonsexual) homicide crime scene behaviors. The validity of the instrumental/expressive dichotomy of homicide offenders have been supported by various studies that sampled population from different countries. In addition, the extant literature indicates that the instrumental and expressive categories could further be expressed in different subthemes or dimensions. Implications for practice in the aspect of suspect prioritization as well as for research are discussed.


Assuntos
Criminosos/psicologia , Homicídio/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Polícia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Roubo/psicologia , Estudos de Validação como Assunto
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