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2.
J Bras Nefrol ; 42(2 suppl 1): 9-11, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877491

RESUMO

These recommendations were created after the publication of informative note 3/2020- CGGAP/DESF/SAPS/MS, of April 4, 2020, in which the Brazilian Ministry of Health recommended the use of a cloth mask by the population, in public places. Taking into account the necessary prioritization of the provision of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for patients with suspected or confirmed disease, as well as for healthcare professionals, the SBN is favorable concerning the wear of cloth masks by chronic kidney patients in dialysis, in public settings, except in the dialysis setting. The present recommendations have eleven items, related to this rationale, the procedures, indications, contraindications, as well as appropriate fabrics for the mask, and hygiene care to be adopted. These recommendations may change, at any time, in the light of new evidence.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Máscaras/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Diálise Renal , Têxteis , Brasil , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Nefrologia/normas , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Roupa de Proteção/normas , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Sociedades Médicas , Unidade Hospitalar de Urologia/normas
3.
S Afr Med J ; 110(8): 791-795, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intensive care unit (ICU)-related healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) are two to three times higher in lower-income countries than in higher-income ones. Hand cleansing and other hygiene measures have been documented as one of the most effective measures in combating the transmission of HCAIs. There is a paucity of data pertaining to hygiene practices in the ICU in developing countries. OBJECTIVES: To determine compliance with hygiene practices among healthcare workers in a tertiary hospital ICU. METHODS: Hygiene practices of healthcare workers in a tertiary academic hospital ICU in Johannesburg, South Africa, were discreetly observed over an 8-week period. Compliance with hand cleansing and other hygiene practices was documented and analysed. Retrospective consent was obtained, and subject confidentiality was maintained. RESULTS: A total of 745 hygiene opportunities were observed. Of the 156 opportunities where handwashing with soap and water was indicated (20.9%), compliance was noted in 89 cases (57.1%), while an alcohol-based hand rub was inappropriately used in 34 cases (21.8%) and no hand hygiene was performed in the remaining 33 cases (21.1%). Of the 589 opportunities where an alcohol-based hand-rub was indicated, it was used in 312 cases (53.0%). Compliance with the donning of disposable surgical gloves, disposable plastic aprons and being 'bare below the elbows' was noted in 114 (90.6%), 108 (71.1%) and 355 (47.7%) opportunities, respectively, where these were indicated. CONCLUSIONS: Overall compliance with hygiene measures among healthcare workers in the ICU was suboptimal in this study, but in keeping with general international trends. Regular retraining of staff, frequent reminders, peer oversight and regular audits may improve compliance.


Assuntos
Desinfecção das Mãos , Higienizadores de Mão/administração & dosagem , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Recursos Humanos em Hospital , Roupa de Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Auditoria Clínica , Estudos Transversais , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/normas , África do Sul , Centros de Atenção Terciária
4.
BMJ Open Qual ; 9(3)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978176

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Effective implementation of standard precautions specific to COVID-19 is a challenge for hospitals within the existing constraints of time and resources. AIM: To rapidly design and operationalise personal protective equipment (PPE) donning and doffing areas required for a COVID-19 care facility. METHODS: Literature review was done to identify all issues pertaining to donning and doffing in terms of Donabedian's structure, process and outcome. Training on donning and doffing was given to hospital staff. Donning and doffing mock drills were held. 5S was used as a tool to set up donning and doffing areas. Instances of donning and doffing were observed for protocol deviations and errors. Plan-do-study-act cycles were conducted every alternate day for 4 weeks. The initiative was reported using Standards for QUality Improvement Reporting Excellence (SQUIRE) guidelines. RESULTS: Best practices in donning and doffing were described. Our study recommends a minimum area of 16 m2 each for donning and doffing rooms. Verbally assisted doffing was found most useful than visual prompts. DISCUSSION: Challenges included sustaining the structure and process of donning and doffing, varied supplies of PPE which altered sequencing of donning and/or doffing, and training non-healthcare workers such as plumbers, electricians and drivers who were required during emergencies in the facility. CONCLUSION: Our study used evidence-based literature and quality improvement (QI) tools to design and operationalise donning and doffing areas with focus on people, task and environment. Our QI will enable healthcare facilities to rapidly prototype donning and doffing areas in a systematic way.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde/organização & administração , Controle de Infecções/normas , Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Roupa de Proteção/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória/normas , Adulto Jovem
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21424, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spine interventionists frequently employ fluoroscopy to guide injection procedures. The increase in fluoroscopically guided procedures in recent years has led to a growing concern about radiation exposure. A new method of covering the C-arm tube with a lead apron has been suggested to reduce radiation exposure. This study aimed to compare the radiation exposure when performing lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injections (TFESIs) using this new method to a control group. METHODS: A total of 200 patients who underwent lumbar TFESIs by a single physician were recruited. Patients were divided into 2 groups, the new method group (group A) and the control group (group C), and the amount of radiation exposure was compared. The dosimetry badge locations were marked as outside of apron, inside of apron, outside of thyroid collar, inside of thyroid collar, ring, and glasses. RESULTS: The cumulative dose equivalents of all the measurement sites were reduced in group A compared with group C, and the most reduced site was inside the thyroid collar. CONCLUSIONS: Covering the C-arm tube with a lead apron can be effective in reducing the cumulative radiation exposure when performing fluoroscopically guided TFESIs.


Assuntos
Fluoroscopia/efeitos adversos , Injeções Epidurais , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Médicos , Roupa de Proteção , Exposição à Radiação/prevenção & controle , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiografia Intervencionista/efeitos adversos
9.
Med Leg J ; 88(1_suppl): 47-49, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686980

RESUMO

In the context of Covid-19, personal protective equipment is much needed and often in short supply as a protection against the virus, but nobody until recently was discussing the downside of its prolonged use by its wearers. Increasing numbers of health care workers feel unwell using it and are overheating and some have fainted. Will it impair their professional performance? This article considers this aspect of PPE based upon the personal experience of a Forensic team at AIIMS Bhopal in India who wore it during autopsy work and proposed recommendations to minimise it.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Carga de Trabalho/normas , Temperatura Corporal , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índia , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/efeitos adversos , Roupa de Proteção/normas
10.
Med Leg J ; 88(1_suppl): 43-46, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716247

RESUMO

Use of appropriate personal protective equipment is essential for healthcare workers when dealing with patients who have tested positive or are suspected of having Covid-19. Personal protective equipment is uncomfortable at best. In hot countries (like India) or in a hot place of work, its wearers are at a high risk of heat-related illnesses. Once in personal protective equipment a healthcare worker can remain in it for at least 6 h at a stretch. In summer when it is hot and humid, personal protective equipment can cause wearer dehydration, heat exhaustion or heat fatigue. In a severe form, this can result in heat stroke and a collapse while on duty. Preventive measures are needed to protect healthcare workers. This review aims to highlight the efficacy and applicability of personal cooling garments.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/prevenção & controle , Temperatura Alta , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/estatística & dados numéricos , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Humanos , Índia , Roupa de Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Clima Tropical
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664534

RESUMO

Hybrid personal cooling systems (HPCS) incorporated with ventilation fans and phase change materials (PCMs) have shown its superior capability for mitigating workers' heat strain while performing heavy labor work in hot environments. In a previous study, the effects of thermal resistance of insulation pads, and latent heat and melting temperature of PCMs on the HPCS's thermal performance have been investigated. In addition to the aforementioned factors, environmental conditions, i.e., ambient temperature and relative humidity, also significantly affect the thermal performance of the HPCS. In this paper, a numerical parametric study was performed to investigate the effects of the environmental temperature and relative humidity (RH) on the thermal management of the HPCS. Five levels of air temperature under RH = 50% (i.e., 32, 34, 36, 38 and 40 °C) and four levels of environmental RH at two ambient temperatures of 36 and 40 °C were selected (i.e., RH = 30, 50, 70 and 90%) for the numerical analysis. Results show that high environmental temperatures could accelerate the PCM melting process and thereby weaken the cooling performance of HPCS. In the moderately hot environment (36 °C), HPCS presented good cooling performance with the maximum core temperature at around 37.5 °C during excise when the ambient RH ≤ 70%, whereas good cooling performance could be only seen under RH ≤ 50% in the extremely hot environment (40 °C). Thus, it may be concluded that the maximum environmental RH under which the HPCS exhibiting good cooling performance decreases with an increase in the environmental temperature.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Umidade , Temperatura , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Roupa de Proteção
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(23): e20525, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-526041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 period, there was a huge gap in the understanding of masks between east and west. At the same time, the mechanism of the mask and the effect after use, also appeared differences. The Objective of this Meta-analysis is to systematically evaluate the efficacy of masks for influenza in the community. METHODS: The Web of Science, PubMed, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE and Clinical Trials will be electronically searched to collect randomized controlled trials regarding the efficacy of masks for influenza in the community through Apr 2020. Two researchers independently screened and evaluated the obtained studies and extracted the outcome indexes. Revman 5.3 software will be used for the meta-analysis. RESULTS: The outbreak is continuing, and we need to be prepared for a long fight. If masks are effective, we need to promote their use as soon as possible. If masks are ineffective, strong evidence should be given. This is an urgent task and our team will finish it as soon as possible. CONCLUSION: Provide stronger evidence to solve the problem, should we wear masks or not right now.


Assuntos
Controle de Infecções/métodos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Máscaras , Roupa de Proteção , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa
13.
MEDICC Rev ; 22(2): 69-71, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-477563

RESUMO

Speaking remotely with US graduates of Havana's Latin American School of Medicine (ELAM), I found them at work on hospital floors, in ICUs and health centers across the United States, putting their professional and personal commitment to the test against COVID-19. Nowhere was that more evident than in New York City, the disease's epicenter, where one grad told me virtually every hospital has at least one MD from the Cuban school, which has provided free 6-year medical training for some 30,000 doctors since the school's founding in 1999. The student body comes primarily from low- and middle-income countries worldwide, but Cuba also provided 200 US students with scholarships. One of them is Dr Joaquín Morante (ELAM Class of 2012), who did his medical residency in internal medicine, followed by fellowships in pulmonary disease and critical care medicine. Triple-licensed in internal medicine, pulmonary and critical care medicine, he is now an attending physician on staff at Jacobi Medical Center in The Bronx, one of New York City's public hospitals, and considered a 'hot spot' due to its COVID-19 caseload. I spoke with him during a break at home in mid-April.Dr Joaquín Morante, ELAM Class of 2012: Pulmonologist, critical care attending physician at Jacobi Medical Center, New York City.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Médicos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Cuba , Administração Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Masculino , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Roupa de Proteção/provisão & distribução , Ventiladores Mecânicos/provisão & distribução
14.
MEDICC Rev ; 22(2): 47-52, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-477562

RESUMO

Dr Durán is a native of eastern San-tiago de Cuba and his early medical career began in this mountainous re-gion, where he also headed provin-cial prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS. He went on to become rector of the Medical University of Santiago de Cuba and provincial health direc-tor. Later in Havana, Dr Durán was director of medical education and vice minister at the Ministry of Public Health (MINSAP). Abroad, he served as advisor to Angola's Minister of Health, and on his return, as deputy director of Cuba's Pedro Kourí Tropical Medicine Institute (IPK). Dr Durán has been "battle-tested" over the years by his involvement in stemming dengue epidemics and other infectious dis-ease outbreaks, good preparation for his current position as National Direc-tor of Epidemiology. Today, his is the voice and the face on the 11:00 AM briefing carried daily by Cuban television, reporting the latest data on the un-folding COVID-19 pandemic globally, in the Americas and.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Cuba/epidemiologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Hospitalização , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Roupa de Proteção/provisão & distribução
15.
Infez Med ; 28(suppl 1): 111-117, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-596614

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is essential to avoid the COVID-19 spread to health care workers. Its use can be difficult, posing a high risk of contamination, mainly during doffing, then with the risk of becoming infected. METHODS: We conducted a prospective before-and-after design that used clinical simulation as a research methodology in a clinical simulation center of Colombia. A simulation-based educational intervention with two cases related to COVID-19 was proposed in the emergency room and the intensive care unit. We conducted A workshop for donning and doffing of personal protective equipment (PPE) and a debriefing after the first case. RESULTS: In the pre-test, 100% of participants failed donning and doffing PPE, 98.4% were contaminated, only one-person did not contaminate out of. The mean cognitive load was high (7.43±0.9 points). In the post-test, 100% were successful in donning the PPE and 94.8% in doffing; only 9.8% were contaminated. The mean of the cognitive load was low (4.1±1.4 points), and the performance was high (7.9±1.1). Of the total, 73.8% of participants reported overload in the doffing. The most difficulties were in gown/overall, and N95 mask removal. DISCUSSION: The PPE donning and doffing is critical and may be changed significantly by active training. In responding to the current COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, activities of training in donning and doffing PPE would provide a means of training personnel, reducing the cognitive load and maybe the risk of contamination and infection of health care workers.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Memória de Curto Prazo , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Treinamento por Simulação , Adulto , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Dispositivos de Proteção dos Olhos , Feminino , Luvas Protetoras , Higiene das Mãos , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Máscaras , Estudos Prospectivos , Roupa de Proteção , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(24): e20603, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-593909

RESUMO

In December 2019, a new coronavirus was found in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, and spread rapidly throughout the country, attracting global attention. On February 11, the World Health Organization (WHO) officially named the disease caused by 2019-nCoV coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). With the increasing number of cases, health care workers (HCWs) from all over China volunteered to work in Hubei Province. Because of the strong infectivity of COVID-19, HCWs need to wear personal protective equipment (PPE), such as N95 masks, latex gloves, and protective clothing. Due to the long-term use of PPE, many adverse skin reactions may occur. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to explore the adverse skin reactions among HCWs using PPE.Questionnaires were used for the research; a quantitative study was carried out to determine the incidence of adverse skin reactions among HCWs using PPE.A total of 61 valid questionnaires were collected. The most common adverse skin reactions among HCWs wearing N95 masks were nasal bridge scarring (68.9%) and facial itching (27.9%). The most common adverse skin reactions among HCWs wearing latex gloves were dry skin (55.7%), itching (31.2%), and rash (23.0%). The most common adverse skin reactions among HCWs wearing protective clothing were dry skin (36.1%) and itching (34.4%).When most HCWs wear PPE for a long period of time, they will experience adverse skin reactions. The incidence of adverse skin reactions to the N95 mask was 95.1%, that to latex gloves was 88.5%, and that to protective clothing was 60.7%.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Dermatopatias/etiologia , Dermatite de Contato/etiologia , Exantema/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras/efeitos adversos , Roupa de Proteção/efeitos adversos , Prurido/etiologia , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(23): e220, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-598890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The absence of effective antiviral medications and vaccines increased the focus on non-pharmaceutical preventive behaviors for mitigating against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. To examine the current status of non-pharmaceutical preventive behaviors practiced during the COVID-19 outbreak and factors affecting behavioral activities, we compared to the 2015 Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outbreak in Korea. METHODS: This was a serial cross-sectional population-based study in Korea with four surveys conducted on June 2 and 25, 2015 (MERS-CoV surveys), and February 4, and April 2, 2020 (COVID-19 surveys). Of 25,711 participants selected using random digit dialing numbers, 4,011 participants (aged ≥ 18 years) were successfully interviewed, for the 2020 COVID-19 (n = 2,002) and 2015 MERS-CoV (n = 2,009) epidemics were included. Participants were selected post-stratification by sex, age, and province. The total number of weighted cases in this survey equaled the total number of unweighted cases at the national level. We measured the levels of preventive behaviors (social distancing [avoiding physical contact with others]), and practicing transmission-reducing behaviors such as wearing face mask and handwashing. RESULTS: Between the surveys, respondents who reported practicing social distancing increased from 41.9%-58.2% (MERS-CoV) to 83.4%-92.3% (COVID-19). The response rate for the four surveys ranged between 13.7% and 17.7%. Practicing transmission-reducing behaviors (wearing face masks and handwashing) at least once during COVID-19 (78.8%, 80.2%) also increased compared to that during MERS-CoV (15.5%, 60.3%). The higher affective risk perception groups were more likely to practice transmission-reducing measures (adjusted odds ratio, 3.24-4.81; 95 confidence interval, 1.76-6.96) during both COVID-19 and MERS-CoV. CONCLUSION: The study findings suggest markedly increased proportions of non-pharmaceutical behavioral practices evenly across all subgroups during the two different novel virus outbreaks in Korea. Strategic interventions are needed to attempt based on preventive behavior works.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Roupa de Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Distância Social , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Primária/métodos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Infez Med ; 28(suppl 1): 111-117, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532947

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is essential to avoid the COVID-19 spread to health care workers. Its use can be difficult, posing a high risk of contamination, mainly during doffing, then with the risk of becoming infected. METHODS: We conducted a prospective before-and-after design that used clinical simulation as a research methodology in a clinical simulation center of Colombia. A simulation-based educational intervention with two cases related to COVID-19 was proposed in the emergency room and the intensive care unit. We conducted A workshop for donning and doffing of personal protective equipment (PPE) and a debriefing after the first case. RESULTS: In the pre-test, 100% of participants failed donning and doffing PPE, 98.4% were contaminated, only one-person did not contaminate out of. The mean cognitive load was high (7.43±0.9 points). In the post-test, 100% were successful in donning the PPE and 94.8% in doffing; only 9.8% were contaminated. The mean of the cognitive load was low (4.1±1.4 points), and the performance was high (7.9±1.1). Of the total, 73.8% of participants reported overload in the doffing. The most difficulties were in gown/overall, and N95 mask removal. DISCUSSION: The PPE donning and doffing is critical and may be changed significantly by active training. In responding to the current COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, activities of training in donning and doffing PPE would provide a means of training personnel, reducing the cognitive load and maybe the risk of contamination and infection of health care workers.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Memória de Curto Prazo , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Treinamento por Simulação , Adulto , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Dispositivos de Proteção dos Olhos , Feminino , Luvas Protetoras , Higiene das Mãos , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Máscaras , Estudos Prospectivos , Roupa de Proteção , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
19.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(23): e220, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32537955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The absence of effective antiviral medications and vaccines increased the focus on non-pharmaceutical preventive behaviors for mitigating against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. To examine the current status of non-pharmaceutical preventive behaviors practiced during the COVID-19 outbreak and factors affecting behavioral activities, we compared to the 2015 Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outbreak in Korea. METHODS: This was a serial cross-sectional population-based study in Korea with four surveys conducted on June 2 and 25, 2015 (MERS-CoV surveys), and February 4, and April 2, 2020 (COVID-19 surveys). Of 25,711 participants selected using random digit dialing numbers, 4,011 participants (aged ≥ 18 years) were successfully interviewed, for the 2020 COVID-19 (n = 2,002) and 2015 MERS-CoV (n = 2,009) epidemics were included. Participants were selected post-stratification by sex, age, and province. The total number of weighted cases in this survey equaled the total number of unweighted cases at the national level. We measured the levels of preventive behaviors (social distancing [avoiding physical contact with others]), and practicing transmission-reducing behaviors such as wearing face mask and handwashing. RESULTS: Between the surveys, respondents who reported practicing social distancing increased from 41.9%-58.2% (MERS-CoV) to 83.4%-92.3% (COVID-19). The response rate for the four surveys ranged between 13.7% and 17.7%. Practicing transmission-reducing behaviors (wearing face masks and handwashing) at least once during COVID-19 (78.8%, 80.2%) also increased compared to that during MERS-CoV (15.5%, 60.3%). The higher affective risk perception groups were more likely to practice transmission-reducing measures (adjusted odds ratio, 3.24-4.81; 95 confidence interval, 1.76-6.96) during both COVID-19 and MERS-CoV. CONCLUSION: The study findings suggest markedly increased proportions of non-pharmaceutical behavioral practices evenly across all subgroups during the two different novel virus outbreaks in Korea. Strategic interventions are needed to attempt based on preventive behavior works.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Roupa de Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Primária/métodos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(23): e20525, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 period, there was a huge gap in the understanding of masks between east and west. At the same time, the mechanism of the mask and the effect after use, also appeared differences. The Objective of this Meta-analysis is to systematically evaluate the efficacy of masks for influenza in the community. METHODS: The Web of Science, PubMed, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE and Clinical Trials will be electronically searched to collect randomized controlled trials regarding the efficacy of masks for influenza in the community through Apr 2020. Two researchers independently screened and evaluated the obtained studies and extracted the outcome indexes. Revman 5.3 software will be used for the meta-analysis. RESULTS: The outbreak is continuing, and we need to be prepared for a long fight. If masks are effective, we need to promote their use as soon as possible. If masks are ineffective, strong evidence should be given. This is an urgent task and our team will finish it as soon as possible. CONCLUSION: Provide stronger evidence to solve the problem, should we wear masks or not right now.


Assuntos
Controle de Infecções/métodos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Máscaras , Roupa de Proteção , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa
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