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4.
Int J Biometeorol ; 64(3): 485-499, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016640

RESUMO

Evaporative cooling is the critical heat dissipation mechanism for working individuals wearing thermal protective clothing in hot environments. However, until now, there is no knowledge on garment size design for evaporative cooling optimization, especially when the human body is in movements. In this study, to understand the dynamic effect of garment size on evaporative cooling, we performed experiments on a sweating thermal manikin with seven garment sizes and three walking speeds. The evaporative cooling of global and local manikin body with this wide range garment sizes was present. Results demonstrated that the effect of garment size on evaporative cooling depended on the walking speed. At lower walking speeds, the global evaporative cooling tended to decrease with greater garment size, while at higher walking speeds, the global evaporative cooling tended to increase with greater garment size. Similarly, according to effects of garment size on local evaporative cooling, body segments could be divided into three categories for evaporative cooling optimization. Further, we analyzed factors which influenced the positive effect of walking speed on the evaporative cooling. Results showed that, for most cases, the increase of evaporative cooling caused by walking showed positive linear relationship with the garment size. Further increase of walking speed led to a greater increase rate of evaporative heat loss for body segments with the small air gap. This study provides insights into clothing local characteristics of evaporative cooling with different garment sizes under dynamic conditions and may help clothing design to optimize the evaporative cooling of working individuals in hot environments.


Assuntos
Manequins , Caminhada , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Roupa de Proteção , Sudorese
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 714: 136819, 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986393

RESUMO

The problems of determining the protective properties of barrier materials used for the production of body surface protection products of an isolative type are very actual. These garments are expected to have long-term resistance against permeation of toxic substances. The paper deals with the study of the effect of organic solvent vapours on the changes in protective properties of selected anti-gas protective garments commonly used by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization armed forces. Permeation measurements of selected gases with integral permeameter were performed to verify their barrier properties, surface changes after exposure to selected solvents by using a 3D optical profilometer, permeation measurements for vapours of these solvents with differential permeameter, and experimental simulating the possible influence of barrier properties of garments within permeation of air. It has been shown that in the case of gases, the permeability of the studied materials increases with decreasing kinetic diameter of the penetrant molecule used. In the case of acetonitrile and isooctane vapours, permeability increased with increasing vapour concentration due to interactions between polymeric materials and molecules of organic compounds. The permeation measurements of pure vapours and air/vapour mixtures indicate that the level of interactions between the molecules of the penetrant and the material of the protective garment is not strong enough to degrade the material of the garment in such a way as to allow a greater penetration of the pollutants through it. The results of permeation experiments for gases and organic vapours showed very good barrier properties of studied chemical isolated garments.


Assuntos
Militares , Gases , Humanos , Permeabilidade , Roupa de Proteção , Solventes
6.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 846-851, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733865

RESUMO

Ectoparasitic stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans [L.]), horn flies (Haematobia irritans [L.]), and face flies (Musca autumnalis De Geer) negatively affect dry matter intake, milk production, and health of pastured dairy cows. These flies cause fly avoidance behaviors and are a major welfare concern for dairy producers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of mesh Shoofly Leggins (Stone Manufacturing & Supply, Kansas City, MO) on fly avoidance behaviors and numbers of flies attacking pastured dairy cows. In a crossover design, lactating dairy cows (n = 80) were randomly assigned to groups with and without leggings (Shoofly Leggins worn on all legs). All cows were managed in one group. Cows were observed for 2-wk periods, and then treatments were reversed in the next 2-wk interval. Counts of stable flies, horn flies, and face flies on all cows were recorded twice daily (once in morning per cow: 0930 to 1230 h; and once in the afternoon per cow: 1330 to 1630 h), 3 times per wk on Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday of each week during the study period. The total number of flies per cow was greater on cows with leggings than cows without leggings. The number of horn flies per cow was greater on cows in with leggings (26.4 flies/side) compared with cows without leggings (24.1 flies/side). Stable fly numbers were similar for cows with and without leggings (12.8 flies/leg). A random subset of 20 focal cows per group was observed during 5-min intervals to record frequencies of 4 behaviors: leg stomps, head tosses, skin twitches, and tail swishes. Counts of head tosses (2.6 vs. 3.1), skin twitches (20.9 vs. 19.6), and tail swishes (21.3 vs. 19.3) were similar for cows without leggings versus cows with leggings, respectively. However, foot stomps were 39% lower for cows with leggings compared with cows without leggings, and leg stomps were 26% higher in the afternoon than in the morning (2.9 vs. 2.4, respectively). A positive correlation was observed between stable and horn flies and all insect avoidance behaviors. Numbers of stable flies were 1.5 times greater in the afternoon than in the morning. The results of this study indicated that flies were associated with cow fly avoidance behaviors regardless of the use of leggings, but leggings effectively reduced foot stomps by 39%, so their use may provide some relief from stable fly injury to pastured dairy cows.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Muscidae , Roupa de Proteção/veterinária , Animais , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Comportamento Animal , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Estudos Cross-Over , Ectoparasitoses/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Lactação
7.
Diving Hyperb Med ; 49(4): 266-275, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828745

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the thermal protection provided by a 2-3 mm surfing wet suit during at least two hours of fin diving in shallow water with a temperature of 16-20°C. We examined the effect of wearing the suit while diving in cold water on cognitive performance, muscle strength, and hand motor function. METHODS: Subjects were six male well-trained rebreather divers, 19-23 years old, acclimatised to cold. They attended the laboratory on three separate occasions, when we conducted the experiment at one of three temperatures, 16, 18, and 20°C. Core temperature (gastrointestinal system), skin temperature, oxygen consumption, and cold perception were evaluated during the test. Before and immediately after the dives, subjects performed a series of cognitive, manual dexterity, and muscle strength tests. RESULTS: Core temperature decreased by 0.35-0.81°C over the two hours at all three water temperatures. No subject reached a core temperature below 35°C. The decrease in upper body skin temperature during the two hour dive ranged between 5.97 and 8.41°C (P < 0.05). Two hours diving in 16-20°C water resulted in a significant increase in the time taken to perform the task of unlinking and reassembling four shackles (∼30% longer, P < 0.05). No effect was found on the cognitive or muscle strength tests. CONCLUSIONS: A 2-3 mm wet suit provides adequate thermal protection in trained and cold-acclimatised young males engaged in active diving in shallow water with a temperature of 16°C and above.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Temperatura Baixa , Mergulho , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Roupa de Proteção , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Mergulho/fisiologia , Mãos/fisiologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio , Temperatura Ambiente , Água
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581620

RESUMO

Postal delivery workers have substantial sun exposure. In the United Kingdom (UK) a high proportion of workers possesses a sun sensitive skin type. This population is at elevated risk for skin cancer, yet uptake of sun safety practices is low. Studies are needed to identify the underlying factors that contribute to the uptake of occupational sun safety practices that may be targeted during behavior change interventions. This study integrated the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and the Transtheoretical Model's stages of change (SoC) as guiding frameworks to identify underlying beliefs that influence UK postal delivery workers' uptake of occupational sun safety practices. Thirty-four workers participated in semi-structured interviews that used the SoC to establish current receptiveness to and adoption of two sun safety practices (using sunscreen of at least sun protection factor (SPF) 30 on exposed skin and wearing a wide-brimmed hat when working outdoors in the summer). Beliefs underlying current practices were elicited in accordance with the TPB and stratified by the SoC. For sunscreen use and wearing a wide-brimmed hat, 64% and 3% of participants were in the action or maintenance SoC, respectively. Behavioral and control beliefs differed by SoC, with those in the earlier stages more likely than those in the latter stages to report negative attitudes to, and difficulty enacting, sun safety practices. Normative beliefs concerning the views of colleagues and employers towards sunscreen were relatively consistent across the SoC. This study highlights the need for tailored and targeted behavior change interventions. The SoC-stratified accounts of the influence of TPB components on behavior provide a basis for bespoke interventions that reflect inter-individual and inter-practice differences in their working mechanisms.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Roupa de Proteção , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos , Protetores Solares/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Serviços Postais , Reino Unido
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1344, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tick-borne infections are of emerging and increasing concern in the Scandinavian countries Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Only few studies have investigated protective practices against tick bites in the general population. The aim of this multi-country study was to assess the use of protective practices and the perception of the efficacy of them. METHODS: We surveyed the extent of using protective practices against tick bites, using the same questionnaire in three local languages. In addition, we surveyed perceptions of how good a protection the different practices provide. Altogether 783 individuals from Denmark, 789 from Norway and 1096 from Sweden participated in the study by completing an extensive online questionnaire in October 2016. RESULTS: Altogether 1011 respondents (37.9%) reported using at least three different protective practices either often or always when in areas where there are ticks, while 522 (19.6%) reported using none. Female gender was among the factors identified as positively associated with using several of the specific practices often or always when in areas where there are ticks. The gender-difference in extent of using protective practices against tick bites was particularly pronounced in Sweden. Based on a multivariable logistic regression model, being female, being from Sweden, and having experienced one or more tick bites were positively associated with using at least three different protective practices against tick bites either often or always when in areas where there are ticks (odds ratios 1.90, 1.87 and 1.88, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study, especially the observed differences by country and by gender, can be useful in targeting future information to the public. In particular, our results suggest that men across all ages should be considered a specific target group for this information.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Picadas de Carrapatos/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Repelentes de Insetos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Roupa de Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Autoexame/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Undersea Hyperb Med ; 46(4): 429-435, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509899

RESUMO

Introduction: It is vital to protect divers from the cold, particularly in Arctic conditions. The insulating gas layer within the drysuit is crucial for reducing heat loss. The technical diving community has long claimed the superiority of argon over air as an insulating gas. Although argon is widely used, previous studies have shown no significant differences between the two gases. Owing to its lower heat conductivity, argon should be a better thermal insulating gas than air. Methods: The study aimed to determine whether argon is beneficial for reducing heat loss in divers during development of military drysuit diving equipment in Arctic water temperatures. Four divers completed 14 dives, each lasting 45 minutes: seven dives used air insulation and seven used argon insulation. Rectal and eight skin temperatures were measured from which changes in calculated mean body temperature (MBT) were assessed. Results: There was a significant reduction in area weighted skin temperature over time (0-45 minute) on air dives (ΔTskin = -4.16°C, SE = 0.445, P ⟨ 0.001). On argon dives the reduction was significantly smaller compared to air dives (difference between groups = 2.26°C, SE = 0.358, P ⟨ 0.001). There were no significant changes in rectal temperatures, nor was a significant difference seen between groups. Conclusion: Compared to air, argon may be superior as a drysuit insulating gas in Arctic water temperatures for some divers. Argon used as insulating gas can make diving safer and may diminish the risks of fatal diving accidents and occupational hazard risks in professional diving.


Assuntos
Ar , Argônio , Mergulho , Roupa de Proteção , Temperatura Cutânea , Condutividade Térmica , Adulto , Regiões Árticas , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Temperatura Baixa , Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Finlândia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Militares , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 32(5): 645-652, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511702

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Individual protection against contamination is the kind of protection provided to persons in an environment contaminated with radioactive substances, and war toxic or biological agents, including the use of gas masks, and insulating or filtration skin protection agents. The aim of this work was to perform a comparative assessment of energy expenditure of chemical troop soldiers wearing L-2 insulating personal protective clothes (PPC) and FOO-1 filter-sorptive PPC during training in the training ground conditions. Surveys on the subjective assessment of comfort related to using the L-2 and FOO-1 PPC were carried out as well. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 29 men doing the same training tasks, wearing the L-2 PPC and FOO-1 filter-sorptive protective clothing with an MP-5 filter gas mask, underwent the examination. Measurements of energy expenditure values were done based on the frequency of heart contractions, recorded by the Polar Sport Tester 810 heart rate monitor. RESULTS: It was found that an average energy expenditure of soldiers, resulting from performing training tasks, was lower among the subjects wearing the FOO- 1 filter-sorptive PPC, compared to the energy load of the ones using the L-2 PPC. CONCLUSIONS: According to Christensen's classification of work severity, the average energy expenditure makes it possible to qualify works performed by soldiers using both types of PPC to moderate work. In the opinion of the examined soldiers serving in the chemical troops, the FOO-1 filter-sorptive PPC increases the sense of security while on a threatened ground. The FOO-1 filter-sorptive PPC is assessed by chemical troop soldiers as better because it hinders tasks fulfillment to a lesser extent. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2019;32(5):645-52.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético , Militares , Roupa de Proteção/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Polônia , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória
12.
Br J Community Nurs ; 24(Sup9): S12-S18, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479335

RESUMO

Skin tears commonly occur at the extremes of age and are associated with skin changes in ageing skin. They are considered to be acute wounds caused by mechanical forces, such as blunt trauma. While the true prevalence and incidence of skin tears is unknown, the available evidence suggests that these wounds occur in all healthcare settings. Importantly, skin tears are preventable with the implementation of a risk-reduction programme, which includes twice-daily skin moisturisation. Where these injuries do occur, it is important to categorise the extent of damage as well as to choose the most appropriate dressing to avoid adding any risks for further trauma.


Assuntos
Bandagens , Lacerações/prevenção & controle , Higiene da Pele , Pele/lesões , Cuidadores/educação , Humanos , Lacerações/enfermagem , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Roupa de Proteção
13.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1044, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sunburns during childhood are strongly associated with development of melanoma in later life. While parents play an important role in children's sun protection, insight in possible shifts in behavioral responsibility from parents towards their children and the possible effect of children's sex is important for targeting sun safety interventions throughout childhood and adolescence. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey study was conducted among a representative sample of Dutch parents (N = 1053) of children aged between 4 and 13 years old. Questionnaires measured both parental and children's own sun safety behavior during planned (e.g. going to the beach) and incidental (e.g. bycicling) sun exposure situations. Analyses of variance were used to test for age group differences and linear regression models were computed to detect behavioral shifts in executive behavior. RESULTS: Parents applied all sun safety behaviors (i.e. sunscreen use, wearing UV-protective clothing and seeking shade) more often on younger children, except for supportive behavior (facilitating children's own sun safety behavior), which remained relatively stable over the years. Older children and girls were more likely to execute sun safety behaviors themselves. A behavioral shift was found in wearing UV-protective clothing during planned situations among 11 year old children. For other behaviors, shifts were predicted after the age of 13. CONCLUSIONS: Older children execute sun safety behaviors more often than younger children, although they still largely depend on their parents' protection. Specific attention for boys in the primary school years, and for both boys and girls in the years adjacent to adolescence is warranted in skin cancer prevention interventions.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Roupa de Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Queimadura Solar/prevenção & controle , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/prevenção & controle , Países Baixos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle
14.
Int J Dermatol ; 58(10): 1148-1152, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested that the lower vitamin D levels in blacks is attributable to the effect of increased pigmentation in blocking cutaneous ultraviolet (UV)-mediated production of vitamin D. Albinos are devoid of melanin and should invariably have higher vitamin D levels when compared with their pigmented counterparts. However, strict photoprotection required in their medical management has been shown to reduce UV-dependent vitamin D production. Associations between low vitamin D and several diseases suggest that the pattern of vitamin D in the black African albino be investigated. OBJECTIVE: To compare the vitamin D levels between albinos and normal pigmented controls in Anambra State, Nigeria, and thus highlight the impact of skin pigmentation and sun protection practices on vitamin D levels. METHODOLOGY: This was a cross-sectional study of a consecutive series of albinos from the Albino Foundation, Anambra State. The vitamin D levels of 61 albinos and 58 matched pigmented controls were analyzed. The sun exposures of the participants were calculated using validated sun exposure questionnaires. RESULTS: The albinos had significantly higher vitamin D levels (median 95.9 [50.1-177.4] ng/ml) than the controls (78.2 [12.1-250] ng/ml). None of the albinos had low vitamin D levels. None of the sun protection practices had significant effects on vitamin D levels. CONCLUSION: This study contests the claim that black Africans including albinos have low vitamin D levels. Albinos living in South East Nigeria have significantly higher vitamin D levels than their pigmented counterparts.


Assuntos
Albinismo/sangue , Pigmentação da Pele , Pele/metabolismo , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Roupa de Proteção , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos , Protetores Solares/administração & dosagem , Clima Tropical , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Ergonomics ; 62(9): 1181-1192, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364962

RESUMO

The effect of load carriage on pulmonary function was investigated during a treadmill march of increasing intensity. 24 male infantry soldiers marched on six occasions wearing either: no load, 15 kg, 30 kg, 40 kg or 50 kg. Each loaded configuration included body armour which was worn as battle-fit or loose-fit (40 kg only). FVC and FEV1 were reduced by 6 to 15% with load. Maximal mouth pressures were reduced post load carriage by up to 11% (inspiratory) and 17% (expiratory). Increased ventilatory demands associated with carrying increased mass were met by increases in breathing frequency (from 3 to 26 breaths·min-1) with minimal changes to tidal volume. 72% of participants experienced expiratory flow limitation whilst wearing the heaviest load. Loosening the armour had minimal effects on pulmonary function. It was concluded that as mass and exercise intensity are increased, the degree of expiratory flow limitation also increases. Practitioner Summary: This study investigated the effect of soldier load carriage on pulmonary function, to inform the trade-off between protection and burden. Load carriage caused an inefficient breathing pattern, respiratory muscle fatigue and expiratory flow limitation during marching. These effects were exacerbated by increases in mass carried and march intensity.


Assuntos
Roupa de Proteção/efeitos adversos , Equipamentos Esportivos/efeitos adversos , Caminhada/fisiologia , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Militares , Fadiga Muscular , Ventilação Pulmonar , Músculos Respiratórios , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Sports Sci Med ; 18(3): 569-576, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427880

RESUMO

Female breasts are vulnerable to direct blows or frictional injuries during sport; however, little research has investigated breast injuries experienced by female athletes. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence, causes and perceived performance effects of breast injuries in elite female athletes across a wide range of sports. A custom-designed survey was distributed to female athletes aged over 18 years who were competing nationally or internationally in their chosen sport. The survey included questions about breast injuries sustained during training and competition and any perceived performance effects of these injuries. 504 elite female athletes from 46 different sports completed the survey. 36% of participants (n = 182) reported experiencing breast injuries and 21% (n = 37) perceived that their breast injury negatively affected their performance. Contact breast injuries were reported by significantly more athletes involved in contact or combat sports and by athletes with larger breasts or a higher body mass index. Frictional breast injuries were reported by significantly more older athletes or those with larger breasts. Less than 10% of participants who experienced breast injuries reported their injury to a coach or medical professional and only half used any prevention strategies. Athletes, coaches and medical professionals associated with women's sport need to be made aware of the occurrence and potential negative effects of breast injuries. It is critical to normalise conversations around breast health so that athletes can be encouraged to report and, when necessary, receive treatment for breast injuries. Further research is also required to better understand factors that affect breast injuries in sport in order to develop evidence-based breast injury prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Mama/lesões , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Traumatismos em Atletas/etiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Índice de Massa Corporal , Mama/anatomia & histologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Feminino , Fricção , Humanos , Percepção , Condicionamento Físico Humano/efeitos adversos , Roupa de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 53: e03508, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433023

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the structure and adherence to the standardized and specific precautionary measures of health professionals in the Intensive Care Unit of a teaching hospital in the Federal District of Brazil. METHOD: A descriptive, cross-sectional and prospective study. A structured questionnaire was used via observations which recorded the practices of professionals with Individual Protection Equipment and indications of precautions. The chi-square test was applied, and the p-value was calculated. RESULTS: A total of 52 professionals participated in the study, and 445 care procedures were observed in 36 audit sessions. The average adhesion rate for equipment use was 72.72%, with 94.91% for gloves, 91.43% for aprons, 80% for masks and 24.56% for safety glasses. When there was no indication and no personal protective equipment was used, the average rate was 68.01%, with 30.77% for gloves, 87.58% for aprons, 57.58% for masks, and 96.13% for safety glasses. Contact precautions were unnecessarily indicated for 35% of patients. CONCLUSION: Good adherence to using gloves, aprons and masks were observed, but there was poor adherence to using safety glasses and unnecessary use of masks and admission contact precautions.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/normas , Roupa de Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Brasil , Cuidados Críticos/normas , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Auditoria Médica , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295887

RESUMO

It is important to find criteria for preventive measures and appropriate assistive devices to reduce pedestrian injuries and increase walking in winter. Reducing the rate of falls on icy surfaces and improving people's ability to safely cross a street in winter conditions by achieving an adequate walking speed, for example, need to be considered. This study explores pedestrian perceptions of fall risk, balance, and footfall transitions while using different designs for anti-slip devices on ice and snow-covered ice and relates these to measures of gait speed and friction. Trials were performed with nine pedestrians testing 19 anti-slip devices on ice and ice covered with snow. Laboratory tests of the dynamic coefficient of friction (DCOF) on plain ice were also performed. The findings suggest that there was conformity in the participants' perceptions of good balance and low fall risk for one-fifth of the devices (three whole-foot designs and one design with built-in spikes). We also found that gait speed on icy pedestrian crossings is related to perceived fall-risk and balance control, but not to DCOF of the anti-slip devices.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Gelo , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Roupa de Proteção , Estações do Ano , Sapatos , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Fricção , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pedestres , Percepção , Risco , Neve , Caminhada/lesões
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277315

RESUMO

Sun protective behaviors and physical activity have the potential to reduce cancer risk. Walking is the most common type of physical activity in the United States, but it is unclear whether sun protective behaviors differ by categories of walking, such as leisure versus transportation walking. We examined whether sun protective behaviors varied by category or duration of walking in the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (N = 26,632), age ≥ 18 years. We used logistic regression to estimate sunscreen use, sun avoidance, and sun protective clothing use by four categories of walking (no reported walking, transportation only, leisure only, or walking for both) and separately for walking duration for the general population and sun-sensitive individuals. Prevalence of sunscreen use varied across walking categories and the odds of use were higher with longer walking duration for transportation and leisure compared to those who reported no walking. Sun avoidance varied across walking categories and the odds of avoidance were lower with longer duration leisure but not transportation walking. Sun protective clothing varied across walking categories and the odds of use were higher for longer duration transportation, but not leisure walking. Data on the concurrence of walking and sun protection is needed to further understand the relationship between these health behaviors. By examining leisure and transportation walking, we found variations in sun protective behaviors that may provide important insight into strategies to increase sun protection while promoting physical activity.


Assuntos
Exposição à Radiação/prevenção & controle , Caminhada , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Exercício , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Roupa de Proteção , Luz Solar , Protetores Solares/administração & dosagem , Transportes , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Appl Ergon ; 80: 146-151, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280798

RESUMO

Police working in active duty have a high prevalence of musculoskeletal pain, with lower back pain being the most frequently reported. As a part of uniform regulations, Swedish police are mandated to wear body armour and duty belts at all times during work. This study aimed to investigate the effect of different load carriage designs on invehicle sitting pressure and self-rated discomfort among police. Results showed less discomfort when wearing the alternate load carriage system incorporating a load-bearing vest and thigh holster compared to the standard load carriage system consisting of a duty belt. Pressures in the lower back were reduced when wearing the load-bearing vest whereas pressures in the upper back region increased. Relocating appointments away from the waist has the potential to improve sitting positions and the ergonomic situation for police when driving fleet vehicles.


Assuntos
Desenho de Equipamento/efeitos adversos , Ergonomia , Dor Musculoesquelética/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Roupa de Proteção , Adulto , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polícia/psicologia , Postura , Pressão , Suécia , Coxa da Perna , Tronco , Suporte de Carga , Adulto Jovem
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