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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33291393

RESUMO

In this research, we investigated whether soundscapes' animateness and the framing of environments affect participants' assessment of the surroundings and their predicted recreation time. In an online study, we showed the participants six stimuli, each consisting of an animate or inanimate soundscape recording and of a verbal label of a natural or urban environment. We asked them to (a) imagine visiting the presented locations while mentally fatigued, in company or alone; (b) to visualize spending time there while engaged in recreational activities; and (c) to assess the environment and the predicted recreation time. We found that environments with animate soundscapes were rated as having a higher degree of naturalness and were favored in the urban condition. Environments with inanimate soundscapes, meanwhile, were preferred in the natural condition. Furthermore, natural-framed soundscapes were evaluated as having a higher degree of naturalness and were preferred over urban-framed soundscapes. Social context did not affect the results; however, we discovered the indirect effect of natural labels on the recreation time through the naturalness of the environments, both for the environments with animate and inanimate soundscapes. Overall, our findings demonstrate the influence of soundscapes' animateness and framing on the settings' evaluations and on recreation time.


Assuntos
Ruído , Recreação , Ecossistema , Humanos , Parques Recreativos
2.
Sci Data ; 7(1): 440, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33335098

RESUMO

The Cocktail Party Effect refers to the ability of the human sense of hearing to extract a specific target sound source from a mixture of background noises in complex acoustic scenarios. The ease with which normal hearing people perform this challenging task is in stark contrast to the difficulties that hearing-impaired subjects face in these situations. To help patients with hearing aids and implants, scientists are trying to imitate this ability of human hearing, with modest success so far. To support the scientific community in its efforts, we provide the Bern Cocktail Party (BCP) dataset consisting of 55938 Cocktail Party scenarios recorded from 20 people and a head and torso simulator wearing cochlear implant audio processors. The data were collected in an acoustic chamber with 16 synchronized microphones placed at purposeful positions on the participants' heads. In addition to the multi-channel audio source and image recordings, the spatial coordinates of the microphone positions were digitized for each participant. Python scripts were provided to facilitate data processing.


Assuntos
Implantes Cocleares , Auxiliares de Audição , Audição , Ruído , Acústica , Humanos
4.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 148(6): 3385, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33379875

RESUMO

Forced expiratory (FE) noise is a powerful bioacoustic signal containing information on human lung biomechanics. FE noise is attributed to a broadband part and narrowband components-forced expiratory wheezes (FEWs). FE respiratory noise is composed by acoustic and hydrodynamic mechanisms. An origin of the most powerful mid-frequency FEWs (400-600 Hz) is associated with the 0th-3rd levels of bronchial tree in terms of Weibel [(2009). Swiss Med. Wkly. 139(27-28), 375-386], whereas high-frequency FEWs (above 600 Hz) are attributed to the 2nd-6th levels of bronchial tree. The laboratory prototype of the apparatus is developed, which includes the electret microphone sensor with stethoscope head, a laptop with external sound card, and specially developed software. An analysis of signals by the new method, including FE time in the range from 200 to 2000 Hz and band-pass durations and energies in the 200-Hz bands evaluation, is applied instead of FEWs direct measures. It is demonstrated experimentally that developed FE acoustic parameters correspond to basic indices of lung function evaluated by spirometry and body plethysmography and may be even more sensitive to some respiratory deviations. According to preliminary experimental results, the developed technique may be considered as a promising instrument for acoustic monitoring human lung function in extreme conditions, including diving and space flights. The developed technique eliminates the contact of the sensor with the human oral cavity, which is characteristic for spirometry and body plethysmography. It reduces the risk of respiratory cross-contamination, especially during outpatient and field examinations, and may be especially relevant in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Acústica/instrumentação , Expiração/fisiologia , Sons Respiratórios/diagnóstico , Humanos , Ruído
5.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 148(6): 3489, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33379907

RESUMO

Strict lockdown strategies to stop the spread of COVID-19 have caused a decrease in environmental noise levels and introduced new noise conditions in dwellings. The present study has investigated the impact of the forced lockdown in Turkey on noise annoyances due to traffic, neighbors, and personal dwellings, as well as the concern of being heard by neighbors, and overall dwelling satisfaction in an online questionnaire. The stress and anxiety levels of respondents were also investigated. The survey obtained 1053 respondents. Additionally, environmental noise levels were measured over 24-h at two locations and compared with results before the pandemic. The results clearly exhibit that environmental noise levels and annoyance due to the noise levels dropped significantly. The annoyance drop was larger in previously noisier environments than previously tranquil locations. Noise annoyance due to neighbor noise did not change significantly; however, noise annoyance due to one's own dwelling increased. The results also confirmed an overall increase in dwelling satisfactions indicating a correlation between dwelling satisfaction and lower environmental noise levels. Although the results confirmed that noise annoyance was positively correlated with stress and anxiety levels, the change of annoyance between before and during lockdown was shown to be independent from the stress and anxiety level.


Assuntos
Ruído , Quarentena/psicologia , Adulto , Ira , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Opinião Pública , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia
6.
Environ Pollut ; 267: 115478, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254599

RESUMO

Staotcysts, the mechanosensory organs common to many marine invertebrates, have shown sensitivity to aquatic noise. Previously, rock lobsters (Jasus edwardsii) from a remote site with little exposure to anthropogenic noise incurred persistent damage to the statocyst and righting reflex following exposure to seismic air gun signals. Here, J. edwardsii collected from a site subject to high levels of anthropogenic noise were exposed to an equivalent seismic air gun signal regime as the previous study of noise-naïve lobsters. Following exposure, both control and exposed treatments were found to have damage to the statocyst equivalent to that of noise-naïve lobsters following seismic exposure, which led to the conclusion that the damage was pre-existing and not exacerbated by seismic exposure. The source of the damage in the lobsters in this study could not be ascertained, but the soundscape comparisons of the collection sites showed that the noisy site had a 5-10 dB greater level of noise, equivalent to a 3-10 times greater intensity, in the 10-700 Hz range than was found at the remote collection site. In addition to the lack of further damage following seismic exposure, no disruption to the righting reflex was observed. Indeed, compared to the noise naïve lobsters, the lobsters here demonstrated an ability to cope with or adapt to the mechanosensory damage, indicating a need for better understanding of the ecological impacts of the damage caused by low frequency noise on marine organisms. More broadly, this study raises historical exposure to noise as a previously unrecognised but vitally important consideration for studies of aquatic noise.


Assuntos
Ruído , Palinuridae , Animais , Meio Ambiente , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Alimentos Marinhos
7.
Ear Hear ; 42(1): 20-28, 2020 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369590

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The impact of social distancing on communication and psychosocial variables among individuals with hearing impairment during COVID-19 pandemic. It was our concern that patients who already found themselves socially isolated (Wie et al. 2010) as a result of their hearing loss would be perhaps more susceptible to changes in their communication habits resulting in further social isolation, anxiety, and depression. We wanted to better understand how forced social isolation (as part of COVID-19 mitigation) effected a group of individuals with hearing impairment from an auditory ecology and psychosocial perspective. We hypothesized that the listening environments would be different as a result of social isolation when comparing subject's responses regarding activities and participation before COVID-19 and during the COVID-19 pandemic. This change would lead to an increase in experienced and perceived social isolation, anxiety, and depression. DESIGN: A total of 48 adults with at least 12 months of cochlear implant (CI) experience reported their listening contexts and experiences pre-COVID and during-COVID using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA; methodology collecting a respondent's self-reports in their natural environments) through a smartphone-based app, and six paper and pencil questionnaires. The Smartphone app and paper-pencil questionnaires address topics related to their listening environment, social isolation, depression, anxiety, lifestyle and demand, loneliness, and satisfaction with amplification. Data from these two-time points were compared to better understand the effects of social distancing on the CI recipients' communication abilities. RESULTS: EMA demonstrated that during-COVID CI recipients were more likely to stay home or be outdoors. CI recipients reported that they were less likely to stay indoors outside of their home relative to the pre-COVID condition. Social distancing also had a significant effect on the overall signal-to-noise ratio of the environments indicating that the listening environments had better signal-to-noise ratios. CI recipients also reported better speech understanding, less listening effort, less activity limitation due to hearing loss, less social isolation due to hearing loss, and less anxiety due to hearing loss. Retrospective questionnaires indicated that social distancing had a significant effect on the social network size, participant's personal image of themselves, and overall loneliness. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, EMA provided us with a glimpse of the effect that forced social isolation has had on the listening environments and psychosocial perspectives of a select number of CI listeners. CI participants in this study reported that they were spending more time at home in a quieter environments during-COVID. Contrary to our hypothesis, CI recipients overall felt less socially isolated and reported less anxiety resulting from their hearing difficulties during-COVID in comparison to pre-COVID. This, perhaps, implies that having a more controlled environment with fewer speakers provided a more relaxing listening experience.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Implante Coclear , Perda Auditiva/psicologia , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Percepção da Fala , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/psicologia , Implantes Cocleares , Surdez/fisiopatologia , Surdez/psicologia , Surdez/reabilitação , Depressão/psicologia , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Auxiliares de Audição , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva/reabilitação , Perda Auditiva Bilateral/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva Bilateral/psicologia , Perda Auditiva Bilateral/reabilitação , Perda Auditiva Unilateral/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva Unilateral/psicologia , Perda Auditiva Unilateral/reabilitação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ruído , Isolamento Social/psicologia
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(48): 1822-1826, 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270617

RESUMO

Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a substantial, often unrecognized, health problem. Various learning environments and activities in school settings are loud. Researchers have reported the prevalence of NIHL among U.S. adolescents ranging between 12.8% and 17.5%, suggesting that one in every six to eight middle and high school students (aged 12-19 years) has measurable hearing loss likely resulting from excessive noise exposure (1). Evidence suggests that even mild levels of hearing loss negatively affect auditory perception and cognitive skills.* CDC analyzed data from a sample of 817 youths aged 12-17 years who responded to the web-based YouthStyles survey in 2020. The survey measured the frequency of exposure to loud noise in school settings, the provision of hearing protection devices (HPDs) during exposure, and whether prevention techniques were part of their educational curriculum. Approximately three in four teenage students reported being exposed to loud sound at school, and nearly one half (46.5%) of respondents reported exposure to loud sounds at school on a regular basis. A majority of students (85.9%) reported that their school did not provide HPDs during classes or activities where they were exposed to loud sounds, and seven out of 10 reported they were never taught how to protect their hearing. Increasing youth's awareness about the adverse health effects of excessive noise exposure and simple preventive measures to reduce risk can help prevent or reduce NIHL. Health care providers and educators have resources and tools available to prevent NIHL among school-aged children. Increased efforts are needed to promote prevention.


Assuntos
Dispositivos de Proteção das Orelhas/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/prevenção & controle , Ruído , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
9.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 148(5): 3149, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33261413

RESUMO

During preventive and mandatory social isolation decreed by the Argentine National Government to contain the spread of COVID-19, the city of Buenos Aires has experienced a marked decrease in vehicular traffic. To study this new scenario, the Acoustic Impact Department of the Environmental Protection Agency carried out a series of uninterrupted urban noise measurements for one week in five measurement points. The results were compared with those obtained before quarantine and with the maximum permissible limits according to current legislation. Although considerable decreases in sound energy have been obtained, it was not possible to determine global values of noise level reduction since the results were of different magnitudes in each location and period.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Ruído , Quarentena , Argentina , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos
10.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 148(5): 3255, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33261418

RESUMO

Widespread transmission of a novel coronavirus, COVID-19, has caused major public health and economic problems around the world. Significant mitigation efforts have been implemented to reduce the spread of COVID-19 but the role of ambient noise and elevated vocal effort on airborne transmission have not been widely reported. Elevated vocal effort has been shown to increase emission of potentially infectious respiratory droplets, which can remain airborne for up to several hours. Multiple confirmed clusters of COVID-19 transmission were associated with settings where elevated vocal effort is generally required for communication, often due to high ambient noise levels, including crowded bars and restaurants, meat packing facilities, and long-stay nursing homes. Clusters of COVID-19 transmission have been frequently reported in each of these settings. Therefore, analysis of COVID-19 transmission clusters in different settings should consider whether higher ambient noise levels, which are associated with increased vocal effort, may be a contributing factor in those settings. Mitigation strategies that include reduction of ambient noise, softer speech practices, and the use of technology such as microphones and speakers to decrease vocal effort will likely reduce the risk of transmitting COVID-19 or other airborne pathogens.


Assuntos
/transmissão , Ruído , Acústica da Fala , Humanos
11.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(6): 774-780, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142602

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: Previous research has suggested that individuals with different blood groups show varied incidences of noise-induced hearing loss. The reduced otoacoustic emissions amplitudes indicate the higher possibilities of outer hair cell damage for noise exposure. Objective: The objective is to analyze the characteristics of otoacoustic emissions, including the occurrence of spontaneous otoacoustic emission and the amplitudes of distortion product otoacoustic emission at certain frequencies in full term neonates with different ABO blood groups. Methods: A total of 80 selected full-term female neonates who passed the initial newborn hearing screen were enrolled into the study, with equal number of participants in four ABO blood groups (Blood Group A, Blood Group B, Blood Group AB, Blood Group O). Measurements of spontaneous otoacoustic emission and distortion product otoacoustic emission were performed in both ears for all participants. Results: (1) The blood group O participants showed significantly fewer spontaneous otoacoustic emission occurrences than the other three blood groups (A = 70%, B = 80%, AB = 67%, O = 25%, p < 0.05). (2) The blood group O participants showed lower DPOAE amplitudes at 1257 Hz (M = 4.55 dB, SD = 8.36), 1587 Hz (M = 11.60 dB, SD = 6.57), 3174 Hz (M = 7.25 dB, SD = 5.99), 5042 Hz (M = 13.60, SD = 6.70) than participants with the other three blood groups in left ears (p < 0.05). In right ears, the blood group O participants showed reduced amplitudes at 1257 Hz (M = 6.55 dB, SD = 8.36), 1587 Hz (M = 13.60 dB, SD = 6.57), 3174 Hz (M = 7.65 dB, SD = 6.43), 5042 Hz (M = 13.65 dB, SD = 6.50) than participants from non-O blood groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Female individuals with blood group O have lower otoacoustic emissions values than individuals with the other three blood groups. We need to further investigate the possible relationships between ABO blood group and cochlear function, including the potential influences of noise damage on cochlear outer hair cells.


Resumo Introdução: Pesquisas anteriores sugeriram que indivíduos de diferentes grupos sanguíneos apresentam incidências distintas de perda auditiva induzida por ruído. As amplitudes reduzidas das emissões otoacústicas indicaram maiores ou menores possibilidades de danos às células ciliadas por exposição a ruídos. Objetivo: Analisar as características das emissões otoacústicas, inclusive a ocorrência de emissões otoacústicas espontâneas e as amplitudes de emissões otoacústicas por produto de distorção em determinadas frequências em neonatos a termo de diferentes grupos sanguíneos do sistema ABO. Método: Foram incluídos 80 neonatos a termo selecionados na triagem auditiva neonatal inicial para participar do estudo, com número igual de participantes de grupos sanguíneos do sistema ABO (grupo sanguíneo A, grupo sanguíneo B, grupo sanguíneo AB e grupo sanguíneo O). As emissões otoacústicas espontâneas e emissões otoacústicas por produto de distorção foram medidas em ambas as orelhas de todos os participantes. Resultados: (1) Os participantes do grupo sanguíneo O apresentaram ocorrências de emissões otoacústicas espontâneas significantemente menores do que os dos outros três grupos sanguíneos (A = 70%, B = 80%, AB = 67%, O = 25%, p < 0,05). (2) Os participantes do grupo sanguíneo O apresentaram amplitudes de emissões otoacústicas por produto de distorção mais baixas a 1257 Hz (M = 4,55 dB, DP = 8,36), 1587 Hz (M = 11,60 dB, DP = 6,57), 3174 Hz (M = 7,25 dB, DP = 5,99), 5042 Hz (M = 13,0, DP = 6,70) do que os participantes dos outros três grupos sanguíneos nas orelhas esquerdas (p < 0,05). Nas orelhas direitas, os participantes do grupo sanguíneo O apresentaram amplitudes reduzidas em 1257 Hz (M = 6,55 dB, DP = 8,36), 1587 Hz (M = 13,60 dB, DP = 6,57), 3174 Hz (M = 7,65 dB, DP = 6,43), 5042 Hz (M = 13,65 dB, DP = 6,50) em comparação aos participantes de grupos sanguíneos não O (p < 0,05). Conclusão: Os indivíduos do sexo feminino do grupo sanguíneo O apresentaram valores menores de emissões otoacústicas do que os indivíduos dos outros três grupos sanguíneos. É necessário continuar a investigar as possíveis relações entre o grupo sanguíneo ABO e a função coclear, inclusive as possíveis influências do dano por ruídos às células ciliadas externas da cóclea.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Emissões Otoacústicas Espontâneas , Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos , Células Ciliadas Auditivas Externas , Nascimento a Termo , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído , Ruído
12.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111664, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181939

RESUMO

Although down-the-hole (DTH) pile driving is increasingly used for in-water pile installation, the characteristics of underwater noise from DTH pile driving is largely undocumented and unstudied. This study presents a comprehensive analysis of the noise characteristics during DTH pile driving of two steel pipe piles in shallow waters off southeast Alaska. The results showed that single-strike sound exposure levels measured at 10 m were 147 and 145 dB re 1 µPa2s with a total of 21,742 and 38,631 hammer strikes, with cumulative sound exposure levels to install each pile at 192 and 191 dB re 1 µPa2s, respectively. Though noise levels from a single strike was lower than impact pile driving of a similar pile, the cumulative sound exposure levels are likely comparable due to the much higher striking rate.


Assuntos
Ruído , Som , Alaska , Ilhas , Espectrografia do Som
13.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 65, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129267

RESUMO

Occupational noise-induced hearing loss (ONIHL) is the most prevalent occupational disease in the world. The goal of this study was to review the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and preventive measures of ONIHL among workers and provide evidence for the implementation of control measures. Literature studies were identified from the MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Google Scholar using the search terms "noise-induced hearing loss" "prevalence", "pathogenesis", and "preventive measures". The articles reviewed in this report were limited from 2000 to 2020. Articles that were not published in the English language, manuscripts without an abstract, and opinion articles were excluded. After a preliminary screening, all of the articles were reviewed and synthesized to provide an overview of the current status of ONIHL among workers. The mechanism of ONIHL among workers is a complex interaction between environmental and host factors (both genetic and acquired factors). The outcomes of noise exposure are different among individual subjects. Clinical trials are currently underway to evaluate the treatment effect of antioxidants on ONIHL. Noise exposure may contribute to temporary or permanent threshold shifts; however, even temporary threshold shifts may predispose an individual to eventual permanent hearing loss. Noise prevention programs are an important preventive measure in reducing the morbidity of ONIHL among workers.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/prevenção & controle , Doenças Profissionais , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/epidemiologia , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ruído , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
14.
Vestn Otorinolaringol ; 85(5): 33-39, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140931

RESUMO

Research objective identification of the peculiarities of indicators of audiological examination, registration of somatosensory induced potentials (SSSP), level of constant potential (LCP) and neuropsychological testing in persons of flight composition (LLS) of civil aviation exposed to intra-cabin noise, depending on the degree of expression of professional neurosensory noise (ONIHL). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thresholds of acoustical sensitivity, levels of perception of shepotny, informal conversation, UPP, characteristic of SSVP, neuropsychological features at 45 patients with easy degree of PNST (LONIHL) and at 50 - with moderate degree of ONIHL (UONIHL) are studied. RESULTS: LCP in the left frontal (Fs), central dark (Pz) leads increased in persons with ONIHL, and the inter-peak interval of the N13-N20 characterizing the central conduct time increased. The FAB, unlike the LONIHL, is characterized by deterioration of cognitive activity in the form of easily pronounced decrease of visual memory functions, expressive speech, FAB scale value indicating priority dysfunction of frontal, dark-occipital lobes, subcortical cerebral structures. CONCLUSION: Neurofunctional markers in UONIHL are the reduction of the indicators of the interfamily relations on the frontal department, conceptual thinking, visual image memory, expressive speech, MMSE and FAB tests, the increase of LCP in the left temporal, central dark, occipital right central N13-N20, inter-peak N25.


Assuntos
Aviação , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído , Encéfalo , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/etiologia , Humanos , Ruído , Fala
15.
Biomed Instrum Technol ; 54(4): 251-257, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171501

RESUMO

Hospital noise is associated with adverse effects on patients and staff. Communication through overhead paging is a major contributor to hospital noise. Replacing overhead paging with smartphones through a clinical mobility platform has the potential to reduce transitory noises in the hospital setting, though this result has not been described. The current study evaluated the impact of replacing overhead paging with a smartphone-based clinical mobility platform on transitory noise levels in a labor and delivery unit. Transitory noises were defined as sound levels greater than 10 dB above baseline, as recorded by a sound level meter. Prior to smartphone implementation, 77% of all sound levels at or above 60 dB were generated by overhead paging. Overhead pages occurred at an average rate of 3.17 per hour. Following smartphone implementation, overhead pages were eliminated and transitory noises decreased by two-thirds (P < 0.001). The highest recorded sound level decreased from 76.54 to 57.34 dB following implementation. The percent of sounds that exceeded the thresholds recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency and International Noise Council decreased from 31.2% to 0.2% following implementation (P < 0.001). Replacement of overhead paging with a clinical mobility platform that utilized smartphones was associated with a significant reduction in transitory noise. Clinical mobility implementation, as part of a noise reduction strategy, may be effective in other inpatient settings.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Comunicação no Hospital , Smartphone , Hospitais , Humanos , Ruído
16.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0240689, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147280

RESUMO

With increased population and urban development, there are growing concerns regarding health impacts of environmental noise. We assessed the relationship between nighttime environmental noise and semen quality of men who visited for fertility evaluation. This is a retrospective cohort study of 1,972 male patient who had undertaken semen analysis between 2016-2018 at a single fertility center of Seoul, South Korea. We used environmental noise data of National Noise Information System (NNIS), Korea. Using semiannual nighttime noise measurement closest to the time of semen sampling, individual noise exposures at each patient's geocoded address were estimated with empirical Bayesian kriging method. We explored the association between environmental noise and semen quality indicators (volume, concentration, % of progressive motility, vitality, normal morphology, total motile sperm count, oligozoospermia, asthenozoospermia, and severe teratozoospermia) using multivariable regression and generalized additive models. Estimated exposure to nighttime environmental noise level in the study population was 58.3±2.2 Leq. Prevalence of oligozoospermia, asthenozoospermia, and severe teratozoospermia were 3.3%, 14.0%, and 10.1%. Highest quartile nighttime noise was associated with 3.5 times higher odds of oligozoospermia (95% CI: 1.18, 10.17) compared to lowest quartile. In men whose noise exposure is in 3rd quartile, odds ratio (OR) of severe teratozoospermia was 0.57 (95% CI: 0.33, 0.98). The OR for 4th quartile noise were toward null. In generalized additive model, the risk of oligozoospermia increases when the nighttime noise is 55 Leq dB or higher. Our study adds an evidence of potential impact of environmental noise on semen quality in men living in Seoul. Additional studies with more refined noise measurement will confirm the finding.


Assuntos
Fertilidade/fisiologia , Ruído , Análise do Sêmen/métodos , Sêmen/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Adulto , Astenozoospermia/diagnóstico , Astenozoospermia/epidemiologia , Astenozoospermia/fisiopatologia , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/diagnóstico , Infertilidade Masculina/epidemiologia , Infertilidade Masculina/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Oligospermia/diagnóstico , Oligospermia/epidemiologia , Oligospermia/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Sêmen/citologia , Seul/epidemiologia , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática/fisiologia
17.
Trends Hear ; 24: 2331216520952992, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073723

RESUMO

Time-efficient hearing tests are important in both clinical practice and research studies. This particularly applies to notched-noise tests, which are rarely done in clinical practice because of the time required. Auditory-filter shapes derived from notched-noise data may be useful for diagnosis of the cause of hearing loss and for fitting of hearing aids, especially if measured over a wide range of center frequencies. To reduce the testing time, we applied Bayesian active learning (BAL) to the notched-noise test, picking the most informative stimulus parameters for each trial based on nine Gaussian Processes. A total of 11 hearing-impaired subjects were tested. In 20 to 30 min, the test provided estimates of signal threshold as a continuous function of frequency from 500 to 4000 Hz for nine notch widths and for notches placed both symmetrically and asymmetrically around the signal frequency. The thresholds were found to be consistent with those obtained using a 2-up/1-down forced-choice procedure at a single center frequency. In particular, differences in threshold between the methods did not vary with notch width. An independent second run of the BAL test for one notch width showed that it is reliable. The data derived from the BAL test were used to estimate auditory-filter width and asymmetry and detection efficiency for center frequencies from 500 to 4000 Hz. The results agreed with expectations for cochlear hearing losses that were derived from the audiogram and a hearing model.


Assuntos
Mascaramento Perceptivo , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Limiar Auditivo , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Ruído/efeitos adversos
18.
Trends Hear ; 24: 2331216520960861, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073727

RESUMO

Effective hearing aid (HA) rehabilitation requires personalization of the HA fitting parameters, but in current clinical practice only the gain prescription is typically individualized. To optimize the fitting process, advanced HA settings such as noise reduction and microphone directionality can also be tailored to individual hearing deficits. In two earlier studies, an auditory test battery and a data-driven approach that allow classifying hearing-impaired listeners into four auditory profiles were developed. Because these profiles were found to be characterized by markedly different hearing abilities, it was hypothesized that more tailored HA fittings would lead to better outcomes for such listeners. Here, we explored potential interactions between the four auditory profiles and HA outcome as assessed with three different measures (speech recognition, overall quality, and noise annoyance) and six HA processing strategies with various noise reduction, directionality, and compression settings. Using virtual acoustics, a realistic speech-in-noise environment was simulated. The stimuli were generated using a HA simulator and presented to 49 habitual HA users who had previously been profiled. The four auditory profiles differed clearly in terms of their mean aided speech reception thresholds, thereby implying different needs in terms of signal-to-noise ratio improvement. However, no clear interactions with the tested HA processing strategies were found. Overall, these findings suggest that the auditory profiles can capture some of the individual differences in HA processing needs and that further research is required to identify suitable HA solutions for them.


Assuntos
Auxiliares de Audição , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial , Percepção da Fala , Limiar Auditivo , Audição , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/diagnóstico , Humanos , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Fala
19.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240537, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048988

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Taste and smell are important for occupational performance and quality of life. Previous studies suggested that the function of these senses might be influenced by ambient pressure and noise. This knowledge would be helpful for divers, submarine crews, or mine workers. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of noise and hyperbaric pressure on olfactory and gustatory functions. METHODS: This prospective controlled study included 16 healthy male divers. Inside a hyperbaric chamber, participants performed olfactory and gustatory function tests at sea level pressure and at 2 bar pressure. The olfaction threshold, and the discrimination and identification of odorants were measured with validated ´Sniffin sticks´. Taste identification and the gustation threshold scores were examined with validated filter paper strips. Tests were performed under two conditions: noise reduction (silence) and white noise stimulation presented at 70 dB sound pressure level. RESULTS: The results showed that normobaric and hyperbaric ambient pressures did not significantly affect olfactory or gustatory function. Moreover, noise had no relevant impact on taste or odor sensation. The odor identification score was not influenced in hyperbaric conditions, and the odor threshold score was not influenced by ambient noise or both barometric conditions. The only taste modality affected by hyperbaric conditions was the sensitivity to salty taste, but it was not significant. CONCLUSION: We concluded that hyperbaric and noisy environments have no influence on gustatory and olfactory function. From a practical point of view, the influence of pressure in moderate hyperbaric occupations should be negligible.


Assuntos
Ruído/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Pressão/efeitos adversos , Olfato/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Adulto , Atmosfera , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240752, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057396

RESUMO

In bimodal listening, cochlear implant (CI) users combine electric hearing (EH) in one ear and acoustic hearing (AH) in the other ear. In electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS), CI users combine EH and AH in the same ear. In quiet, integration of EH and AH has been shown to be better with EAS, but with greater sensitivity to tonotopic mismatch in EH. The goal of the present study was to evaluate how external noise might affect integration of AH and EH within or across ears. Recognition of monosyllabic words was measured for normal-hearing subjects listening to simulations of unimodal (AH or EH alone), EAS, and bimodal listening in quiet and in speech-shaped steady noise (10 dB, 0 dB signal-to-noise ratio). The input/output frequency range for AH was 0.1-0.6 kHz. EH was simulated using an 8-channel noise vocoder. The output frequency range was 1.2-8.0 kHz to simulate a shallow insertion depth. The input frequency range was either matched (1.2-8.0 kHz) or mismatched (0.6-8.0 kHz) to the output frequency range; the mismatched input range maximized the amount of speech information, while the matched input resulted in some speech information loss. In quiet, tonotopic mismatch differently affected EAS and bimodal performance. In noise, EAS and bimodal performance was similarly affected by tonotopic mismatch. The data suggest that tonotopic mismatch may differently affect integration of EH and AH in quiet and in noise.


Assuntos
Acústica , Implantes Cocleares , Orelha/fisiologia , Audição/fisiologia , Ruído , Estimulação Acústica , Adulto , Estimulação Elétrica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Estatística como Assunto , Vocabulário , Adulto Jovem
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