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1.
Codas ; 31(4): e20180093, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483039

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Measure the sound pressure levels in classrooms of a university as well to verify the self-perception of noise in the educational environment and its influence on the activities carried out by students and professors. METHODS: The study was carried out with students and professors who answered a questionnaire regarding self-perception of noise in the classroom, as well as the presence of auditory and non-auditory complaints. Measurement of sound pressure levels was performed in ten classrooms of Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais. The points for measuring the sound pressure level inside the classrooms were selected according to the literature and legislation: three distinct points, totaling nine measurements in each room. RESULTS: Participated in this study students and professors from the Institute of Biological and Health Sciences. The classrooms of the morning shift had the highest noise measurement. Classrooms at lunch time had the lowest average noise. The first floor has the highest average noise, being classified as the noisiest floor. Noise is perceived by both students and professors as an interfering factor in the activities performed inside the classrooms, however, professors have a greater perception of noise interference in their activities than students. CONCLUSION: Noise is present in all classrooms with values higher than those recommended by national legislation. This noise is perceived by students and professors and negatively interferes in the teaching-learning activities.


Assuntos
Docentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Acústica da Fala , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ruído Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
2.
Neuron ; 103(1): 8-20, 2019 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271756

RESUMO

Tinnitus, sound perception in the absence of physical stimuli, occurs in 15% of the population and is the top-reported disability for soldiers after combat. Noise overexposure is a major factor associated with tinnitus but does not always lead to tinnitus. Furthermore, people with normal audiograms can get tinnitus. In animal models, equivalent cochlear damage occurs in animals with and without behavioral evidence of tinnitus. But cochlear-nerve-recipient neurons in the brainstem demonstrate distinct, synchronized spontaneous firing patterns only in animals that develop tinnitus, driving activity in central brain regions and ultimately giving rise to phantom perception. Examining tinnitus-specific changes in single-cell populations enables us to begin to distinguish neural changes due to tinnitus from those that are due to hearing loss.


Assuntos
Ruído/efeitos adversos , Zumbido/fisiopatologia , Animais , Cóclea/inervação , Cóclea/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Zumbido/etiologia
3.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 877, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study uses bibliometric analysis to describe the state of research about the association of NO2, PM2.5 and noise exposures - three traffic-related pollutants - with cardiometabolic disorders. METHODS: We retrieved references published 1994-2017 from Scopus and classified references with respect to exposure, health outcome and study design using index keywords. Temporal trend, top cited references, used index keywords and the number of hypothesis testing and non-hypothesis testing study design for each group were identified. RESULTS: Results show PM2.5 is the most frequently studied exposure (47%), followed by both NO2 and PM2.5 exposure (29%). Only 3% of references considered multiple exposures between NO2 and/or PM2.5 and noise, and these were published after 2008. While we observed a growing trend in studies with NO2 and/or PM2.5 and noise and diabetes in the last decade, there is a diminishing trend in studies with noise and diabetes. Different patterns of study designs were found through H/NH ratio, the number of references classified as having a hypothesis (H)-testing design relative to the number of references classified as having a non-hypothesis (NH)-testing design. Studies with NO2 and/or PM2.5 exposure are more likely to have a H-testing design, while those with noise exposure are more likely to have a NH-testing design, such as cross-sectional study design. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude with three themes about research trends. First, the study of simultaneous exposures to multiple pollutants is a current trend, and likely to continue. Second, the association between traffic-related pollutants and diabetes and metabolic symptoms is an area for growth in research. Third, the transition to the use of H-testing study designs to explore associations between noise and cardiometabolic outcomes may be supported by improved understanding of the mechanism of action, and/or improvements to the accuracy and precision of air pollution and noise exposure assessments for environmental health research.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade , Bibliometria , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos
4.
JAMA ; 322(4): 336-347, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334794

RESUMO

Importance: United States government personnel experienced potential exposures to uncharacterized directional phenomena while serving in Havana, Cuba, from late 2016 through May 2018. The underlying neuroanatomical findings have not been described. Objective: To examine potential differences in brain tissue volume, microstructure, and functional connectivity in government personnel compared with individuals not exposed to directional phenomena. Design, Setting, and Participants: Forty government personnel (patients) who were potentially exposed and experienced neurological symptoms underwent evaluation at a US academic medical center from August 21, 2017, to June 8, 2018, including advanced structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging analytics. Findings were compared with imaging findings of 48 demographically similar healthy controls. Exposures: Potential exposure to uncharacterized directional phenomena of unknown etiology, manifesting as pressure, vibration, or sound. Main Outcomes and Measures: Potential imaging-based differences between patients and controls with regard to (1) white matter and gray matter total and regional brain volumes, (2) cerebellar tissue microstructure metrics (eg, mean diffusivity), and (3) functional connectivity in the visuospatial, auditory, and executive control subnetworks. Results: Imaging studies were completed for 40 patients (mean age, 40.4 years; 23 [57.5%] men; imaging performed a median of 188 [range, 4-403] days after initial exposure) and 48 controls (mean age, 37.6 years; 33 [68.8%] men). Mean whole brain white matter volume was significantly smaller in patients compared with controls (patients: 542.22 cm3; controls: 569.61 cm3; difference, -27.39 [95% CI, -37.93 to -16.84] cm3; P < .001), with no significant difference in the whole brain gray matter volume (patients: 698.55 cm3; controls: 691.83 cm3; difference, 6.72 [95% CI, -4.83 to 18.27] cm3; P = .25). Among patients compared with controls, there were significantly greater ventral diencephalon and cerebellar gray matter volumes and significantly smaller frontal, occipital, and parietal lobe white matter volumes; significantly lower mean diffusivity in the inferior vermis of the cerebellum (patients: 7.71 × 10-4 mm2/s; controls: 8.98 × 10-4 mm2/s; difference, -1.27 × 10-4 [95% CI, -1.93 × 10-4 to -6.17 × 10-5] mm2/s; P < .001); and significantly lower mean functional connectivity in the auditory subnetwork (patients: 0.45; controls: 0.61; difference, -0.16 [95% CI, -0.26 to -0.05]; P = .003) and visuospatial subnetwork (patients: 0.30; controls: 0.40; difference, -0.10 [95% CI, -0.16 to -0.04]; P = .002) but not in the executive control subnetwork (patients: 0.24; controls: 0.25; difference: -0.016 [95% CI, -0.04 to 0.01]; P = .23). Conclusions and Relevance: Among US government personnel in Havana, Cuba, with potential exposure to directional phenomena, compared with healthy controls, advanced brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed significant differences in whole brain white matter volume, regional gray and white matter volumes, cerebellar tissue microstructural integrity, and functional connectivity in the auditory and visuospatial subnetworks but not in the executive control subnetwork. The clinical importance of these differences is uncertain and may require further study.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Empregados do Governo , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cuba , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/anatomia & histologia , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Tamanho do Órgão , Valores de Referência , Estados Unidos , Substância Branca/anatomia & histologia , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
5.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 675, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Animal data suggest that jet fuels such as JP-8 are associated with hearing deficits when combined with noise and that the effect is more pronounced than with noise exposure alone. Some studies suggest peripheral dysfunction while others suggest central auditory dysfunction. Human data are limited in this regard. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible chronic adverse effects of JP-8 combined with noise exposure on the peripheral and central auditory systems in humans. METHODS: Fifty-seven participants who were current personnel from the Royal Australian Air Force were selected. Based on their levels of exposure to jet fuels, participants were divided into three exposure groups (low, moderate, high). Groups were also categorised based on their noise exposure levels (low, moderate, high). All participants were evaluated by tympanometry, pure-tone audiometry (1-12 kHz), distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), auditory brainstem response (ABR), words-in-noise, compressed speech, dichotic digit test, pitch pattern sequence test, duration pattern sequence test and adaptive test of temporal resolution. All auditory tests were carried out after the participants were away from the Air Force base for a minimum of two weeks, thus two weeks without jet fuel and noise exposure. RESULTS: Jet fuel exposure was significantly associated with hearing thresholds at 4 and 8 kHz; average hearing thresholds across frequencies in the better ear; DPOAEs at 2.8, 4 and 6 kHz; ABR wave V latency in the right ear; compressed speech and words-in-noise. Further analyses revealed that participants with low exposure level to jet fuels showed significantly better results for the aforementioned procedures than participants with moderate and high exposure levels. All results were controlled for the covariates of age and noise exposure levels. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that jet fuel exposure, when combined with noise exposure, has an adverse effect on audibility in humans. Taking all the test results into consideration, jet fuel exposure combined with noise exposure specifically seems to affect the peripheral hearing system in humans.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva/epidemiologia , Hidrocarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Testes Auditivos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
6.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 142: 31-42, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232309

RESUMO

Several dolphin species occur close inshore and in harbours, where underwater noise generated by pile-driving used in wharf construction may constitute an important impact. Such impacts are likely to be greatest on species such as the endangered Hector's dolphin (Cephalorhynchus hectori), which has small home ranges and uses this habitat type routinely. Using automated echolocation detectors in Lyttelton Harbour (New Zealand), we studied the distribution of Hector's dolphins using a gradient sampling design over 92 days within which pile-driving occurred on 46 days. During piling operations, dolphin positive minutes per day decreased at the detector closest to the piling but increased at the mid-harbour detector. Finer-grained analyses showed that close to the piling operation, detections decreased with increasing sound exposure level, that longer piling events were associated with longer reductions in detections, and that effects were long-lasting - detection rates took up to 83 h to return to pre-piling levels.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Animais , Ecolocação , Nova Zelândia , Instalações de Transporte
7.
Anaesthesia ; 74(8): 1018-1025, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066046

RESUMO

Excessive noise in hospitals adversely affects patients' sleep and recovery, causes stress and fatigue in staff and hampers communication. The World Health Organization suggests sound levels should be limited to 35 decibels. This is probably unachievable in intensive care units, but some reduction from current levels should be possible. A preliminary step would be to identify principal sources of noise. As part of a larger project investigating techniques to reduce environmental noise, we installed a microphone array system in one with four beds in an adult general intensive care unit. This continuously measured locations and sound pressure levels of noise sources. This report summarises results recorded over one year. Data were collected between 7 April 2017 and 16 April 2018 inclusive. Data for a whole day were available for 248 days. The sound location system revealed that the majority of loud sounds originated from extremely limited areas, very close to patients' ears. This proximity maximises the adverse effects of high environmental noise levels for patients. Some of this was likely to be appropriate communication between the patient, their caring staff and visitors. However, a significant proportion of loud sounds may originate from equipment alarms which are sited at the bedside. A redesign of the intensive care unit environment to move alarm sounds away from the bed-side might significantly reduce the environmental noise burden to patients.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Ruído , Humanos , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Som
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 678: 399-408, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077918

RESUMO

Aim This explorative study aimed to investigate the association of residential greenness, traffic noise, and air pollution with birth outcomes in several Alpine areas with unique topography. METHODS: We used data from two cross-sectional studies (UIT, n = 573 and BBT, n = 518) in the Tyrol Region (Austria/Italy). Only mothers who had lived in their current residence during the whole pregnancy were included. They completed a questionnaire, and medical records were used to draw data on birth weight, low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth, and small for gestational age (SGA). Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in the year of birth was assigned at the residential address as a measure of greenness. Road/railway traffic noise (Ldn) and air pollution (NO2) were calculated about 10 years after birth and used as surrogates for exposure levels during pregnancy. RESULTS: In the UIT survey, higher NDVI500-m was consistently associated with lower odds for LBW and SGA, while an increase of Ldn was associated with higher odds for LBW. Other effect estimates were in the expected direction albeit non-significant. In the BBT survey, most findings were inconclusive (for NDVI) or present only in subgroups (for Ldn and NO2). CONCLUSION: This study provides inconclusive evidence that the surrounding environment might be associated with birth outcomes in mountainous areas. Given the disparate associations across the study areas, further research in larger representative samples is warranted.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Veículos Automotores , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Altitude , Estudos Transversais , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
9.
Behav Processes ; 164: 4-9, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951813

RESUMO

Proximity to humans is a primary stressor for wildlife, especially in urban habitats where frequent disturbance may occur. Several bat species often roost in buildings but while the effects of disturbance inside the roost are well documented, little is known about those occurring in the proximity of roosts. We tested the effects of anthropogenic stressors on bats by monitoring reactions to disturbance in a colony of greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum). We assessed disturbance by recording and quantifying the presence of people, domestic cats and noise sources near the roost. Disturbance outside the roost caused the disruption of roosting clusters; when cats entered the roost, bats decreased indoor flight activity. Emergence timing was delayed when people were close to the roost exit, and the delay increased along with the number of people. The occurrence of a cat increased the degree of group clustering during emergence. Cats entered the roost especially when young bats were present, and bat remains occurred in 30% of the cat scats we examined. We show that the occurence of human activities near roosts and free-ranging domestic cats are important albeit overlooked sources of disturbance.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Gatos , Quirópteros/psicologia , Comportamento de Nidação , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Animais , Cidades , Humanos , Ruído/efeitos adversos
11.
HNO ; 67(6): 406-416, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963221

RESUMO

Due to demographic change and altered recreational behavior, a rapid increase in hearing deficits is expected in the next 20-30 years. Consequently, the risk of age-related loss of speech discrimination, tinnitus, hyperacusis, or-as recently shown-dementia, will also increase. There are increasing indications that the loss of specific hearing fibers in humans and animals is involved in various hearing disorders. This fiber loss can be caused by cochlear synaptopathy or deafferentation and does not necessarily lead to clinically measurable threshold changes. Animal experiments have shown that reduced auditory nerve activity due to acoustic trauma or aging can be centrally compensated by disproportionately elevated and faster auditory brainstem responses (ABR). The analysis of the suprathreshold amplitudes of auditory evoked brain stem potentials and their latency in combination with non-invasive imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging can help to identify the central compensatory ability of subjects and to assign defined hearing deficits.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/diagnóstico , Ruído , Animais , Limiar Auditivo , Cóclea/fisiopatologia , Nervo Coclear , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos do Tronco Encefálico , Humanos , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Zumbido
12.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 141: 493-500, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955760

RESUMO

Anthropogenic noise can have a negative effect on the physiology and survival of marine fishes. Most research has focused on later life-stages, and few studies have investigated the effects of human-induced noise on embryogenesis. The current study investigated whether playback of motorboat noise affected the embryogenesis of the coral reef damselfishes, Amphiprion melanopus and Acanthochromis polyacanthus. Embryos reared under the playback of boat noise had faster heart rates compared to the ambient reef controls. The effects of noise on morphological development differed between species and the fundamental interrelationships between early life history characteristics changed dramatically under boat noise for Ac. polyacanthus. Noise treatments did not alter the survival rates of embryos under laboratory conditions. Although species specific, our findings suggest that anthropogenic noise causes physiological responses in fishes during embryogenesis and these changes have direct impacts on their development and these alterations may have carry-over effects to later life stages.


Assuntos
Ruído/efeitos adversos , Perciformes/embriologia , Navios , Animais , Beneficência , Recifes de Corais , Gema de Ovo/fisiologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Larva , Perciformes/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
Histochem Cell Biol ; 151(6): 461-474, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963236

RESUMO

Cochlear hair cells are essential for the mechanotransduction of hearing. Sensorineural hearing loss can be irreversible because hair cells have a minimal ability to repair or regenerate themselves once damaged. In order to develop therapeutic interventions to prevent hair cell loss, it is necessary to understand the signaling pathway operating in cochlear hair cells and its alteration upon damage. Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) regulates intracellular signal transduction through phosphorylation of lipidic second messenger diacylglycerol. We have previously reported characteristic expression and localization patterns of DGKs in various organs under pathophysiological conditions. Nevertheless, little is known about morphological and functional aspects of this enzyme family in the cochlea. First RT-PCR analysis reveals predominant mRNA expression of DGKα, DGKε and DGKζ. Immunohistochemical analysis shows that DGKζ localizes to the nuclei of inner hair cells (IHCs), outer hair cells (OHCs), supporting cells and spiral ganglion neurons in guinea pig cochlea under normal conditions. It is well known that loud noise exposure induces cochlear damage, thereby resulting in hair cell loss. In particular, OHCs are highly vulnerable to noise exposure than IHCs. We found that after 1 week of noise exposure DGKζ translocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in damage-sensitive OHCs and gradually disappears thereafter. In sharp contrast, DGKζ remains to the nucleus in damage-resistant IHCs. These results suggest that DGKζ cytoplasmic translocation is well correlated with cellular damage under noise-exposure stress conditions and is involved in delayed cell death in cochlear outer hair cells.


Assuntos
Cóclea/enzimologia , Diacilglicerol Quinase/análise , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Estresse Fisiológico , Animais , Cóclea/citologia , Cóclea/metabolismo , Diacilglicerol Quinase/metabolismo , Cobaias
14.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(3): 37004, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noise from wind turbines (WTs) is reported as more annoying than traffic noise at similar levels, raising concerns as to whether WT noise (WTN) increases risk for cardiovascular disease, as observed for traffic noise. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate whether long-term exposure to WTN increases risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. METHODS: We identified all Danish dwellings within a radius 20 times the height of the closest WT and 25% of the dwellings within [Formula: see text] the height of the closest WT. Using data on WT type and simulated hourly wind at each WT, we estimated hourly outdoor and low frequency (LF) indoor WTN for each dwelling and derived 1-y and 5-y running nighttime averages. We used hospital and mortality registries to identify all incident cases of MI ([Formula: see text]) and stroke ([Formula: see text]) among all adults age 25-85 y ([Formula: see text]), who lived in one of these dwellings for [Formula: see text] over the period 1982-2013. We used Poisson regression to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) adjusted for individual- and area-level covariates. RESULTS: IRRs for MI in association with 5-y nighttime outdoor WTN [Formula: see text] (vs. [Formula: see text]) dB(A) and indoor LF WTN [Formula: see text] (vs. [Formula: see text]) dB(A) were 1.21 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.91, 1.62; 47 exposed cases] and 1.29 (95% CI: 0.73, 2.28; 12 exposed cases), respectively. IRRs for intermediate categories of outdoor WTN [24-30, 30-36, and [Formula: see text] vs. [Formula: see text]] were slightly above the null and of similar size: 1.08 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.12), 1.07 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.12), and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.93, 1.22), respectively. For stroke, IRRs for the second and third outdoor exposure groups were similar to those for MI, but near or below the null for higher exposures. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find convincing evidence of associations between WTN and MI or stroke. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3340.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
15.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(3): 37005, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noise from wind turbines (WTs) is associated with annoyance and, potentially, sleep disturbances. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to investigate whether long-term WT noise (WTN) exposure is associated with the redemption of prescriptions for sleep medication and antidepressants. METHODS: For all Danish dwellings within a radius of [Formula: see text] heights and for 25% of randomly selected dwellings within a radius of [Formula: see text] heights, we estimated nighttime outdoor and low-frequency (LF) indoor WTN, using information on WT type and simulated hourly wind. During follow-up from 1996 to 2013, 68,696 adults redeemed sleep medication and 82,373 redeemed antidepressants, from eligible populations of 583,968 and 584,891, respectively. We used Poisson regression with adjustment for individual and area-level covariates. RESULTS: Five-year mean outdoor nighttime WTN of [Formula: see text] was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) = 1.14 [95% confidence interval (CI]: 0.98, 1.33) for sleep medication and HR = 1.17 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.35) for antidepressants (compared with exposure to WTN of [Formula: see text]). We found no overall association with indoor nighttime LF WTN. In age-stratified analyses, the association with outdoor nighttime WTN was strongest among persons [Formula: see text] of age, with HRs (95% CIs) for the highest exposure group ([Formula: see text]) of 1.68 (1.27, 2.21) for sleep medication and 1.23 (0.90, 1.69) for antidepressants. For indoor nighttime LF WTN, the HRs (95% CIs) among persons [Formula: see text] of age exposed to [Formula: see text] were 1.37 (0.81, 2.31) for sleep medication and 1.34 (0.80, 2.22) for antidepressants. CONCLUSIONS: We observed high levels of outdoor WTN to be associated with redemption of sleep medication and antidepressants among the elderly, suggesting that WTN may potentially be associated with sleep and mental health. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3909.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Medicamentos Indutores do Sono/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30836690

RESUMO

Panel studies are an efficient means to assess short-term effects of air pollution and other time-varying environmental exposures. Repeated examinations of volunteers allow for an in-depth analysis of physiological responses supporting the biological interpretation of environmental impacts. Twenty-four healthy students walked for 1 h at a minimum of four separate occasions under each of the following four settings: along a busy road, along a busy road wearing ear plugs, in a park, and in a park but exposed to traffic noise (65 dB) through headphones. Particle mass (PM2.5, PM1), particle number, and noise levels were measured throughout each walk. Lung function and exhaled nitrogen oxide (NO) were measured before, immediately after, 1 h after, and approximately 24 h after each walk. Blood pressure and heart rate variability were measured every 15 min during each walk. Recorded air pollution levels were found to correlate with reduced lung function. The effects were clearly significant for end-expiratory flows and remained visible up to 24 h after exposure. While immediate increases in airway resistance could be interpreted as protective (muscular) responses to particulate air pollution, the persisting effects indicate an induced inflammatory reaction. Noise levels reduced systolic blood pressure and heart rate variability. Maybe due to the small sample size, no effects were visible per specific setting (road vs. park).


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiologia , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Material Particulado/análise , Caminhada , Adulto Jovem
17.
Environ Pollut ; 247: 1143-1157, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30823343

RESUMO

Effective measures for protecting and preserving the marine environment require an understanding of the potential impact of anthropogenic sound on marine life. A crucial component is a proper assessment of the anthropogenic soundscape: which sounds are present where, when and how strong? We provide an extensive case study modelling the spatial, temporal and spectral distribution of sound radiated by several anthropogenic sources (ships, seismic airguns, explosives) and a naturally occurring one (wind) in the Dutch North Sea. We present the results as a series of sound maps covering the whole of the Dutch North Sea, showing the spatial and temporal distribution of the energy from these sources. Averaged over a two year period, shipping is responsible for the largest amount of acoustic energy (∼1800 J), followed by seismic surveys (∼300 J), explosions (∼20 J) and wind (∼20 J) in the frequency band between 100 Hz and 100 kHz. Our study shows that anthropogenic sources are responsible for 100 times more acoustic energy (averaged over 2 years) in the Dutch North Sea than naturally occurring sound from wind. The potential impact of these sounds on aquatic animals depends not only on these temporally averaged and spatially integrated broadband energies, but also on the source-specific spatial, spectral and temporal variation. Shipping is dominant in the southern part and along the coast in the north, throughout the years and across the spectrum. Seismic surveys are relatively local and spatially and temporally dependent on exploration activities in any particular year, and spectrally shifted to low frequencies relative to the other sources. Explosions in the southern part contribute wide-extent high energy bursts across the spectrum. Relating modelled sound fields to the temporal and spatial distribution of animal species may provide a powerful tool for understanding the potential impact of anthropogenic sound on marine life.


Assuntos
Acústica , Organismos Aquáticos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Água do Mar , Animais , Mar do Norte , Navios , Vento
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897765

RESUMO

Environmental noise is an important public health problem, being among the top environmental risks to health. The burden of noise exposure seems to be unequally distributed in societies. Up to now there is fragmentary evidence regarding which social groups are most affected. The aim of this review was to systematically assess published evidence on social inequalities in environmental noise exposure in the WHO European Region, taking different sociodemographic and socioeconomic dimensions as well as subjective and objective measures of environmental noise exposure into account. Articles published in English in a peer reviewed journal between 2010 and 2017 were included in the review. Eight studies were finally included in the review, four of them analysed aggregated data and four analysed individual data. Though results of social inequalities in noise exposures were mixed between and within studies, there was a trend that studies using indicators of material deprivation and deprivation indices showed higher environmental noise exposures in groups with lower socioeconomic position. More research on the social distribution of environmental noise exposure on a small spatial scale is needed, taking into account aspects of vulnerability and procedural justice.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
19.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211914, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785901

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Positive psychotic experiences are associated with increased rate of white noise speech illusions in patients and their relatives. However, findings have been conflicting to what degree speech illusions are associated with subclinical expression of psychosis in the general population. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between speech illusions and positive psychotic experiences in a general population sample. In addition, the hypothesis that speech illusions are on the pathway from known risk factors for psychosis (childhood adversity and recent life events) to subthreshold expression of psychosis, was examined. METHODS: In a follow-up design (baseline and 6 months) the association between the number of white noise speech illusions and self-reported psychotic experiences, assessed with the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE), was investigated in a general population sample (n = 112). In addition, associations between speech illusions and childhood adversity and life events, using the Childhood Experiences of Care and Abuse questionnaire and the Social Readjustment Rating Scale, were investigated. RESULTS: No association was found between the CAPE positive scale and the number of white noise speech illusions. The CAPE positive scale was significantly associated with childhood adversity between 12 and 16 years (B = 0.980 p = 0.001) and life events (B = 0.488 p = 0.044). The number of speech illusions showed no association with either life events or childhood adversity. CONCLUSION: In the nonclinical population, the pathway from risk factors to expression of subclinical psychotic experiences does not involve white noise speech illusions as an intermediate outcome.


Assuntos
Ilusões/psicologia , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Psicóticos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Psicóticos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Fatores de Risco
20.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(2): 27002, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30775931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Living in areas with higher levels of surrounding greenness and access to urban green areas have been associated with beneficial health outcomes. Some studies suggested a beneficial influence on mortality, but the evidence is still controversial. OBJECTIVES: We used longitudinal data from a large cohort to estimate associations of two measures of residential greenness exposure with cause-specific mortality and stroke incidence. METHODS: We studied a population-based cohort of 1,263,721 residents in Rome aged [Formula: see text], followed from 2001 to 2013. As greenness exposure, we utilized the leaf area index (LAI), which expresses the tree canopy as the leaf area per unit ground surface area, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) within 300- and [Formula: see text] buffers around home addresses. We estimated the association between the two measures of residential greenness and the outcomes using Cox models, after controlling for relevant individual covariates and contextual characteristics, and explored potential mediation by air pollution [fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]] and road traffic noise. RESULTS: We observed 198,704 deaths from nonaccidental causes, 81,269 from cardiovascular diseases [CVDs; 29,654 from ischemic heart disease (IHD)], 18,090 from cerebrovascular diseases, and 29,033 incident cases of stroke. Residential greenness, expressed as interquartile range (IQR) increase in LAI within [Formula: see text], was inversely associated with stroke incidence {hazard ratio (HR) 0.977 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.961, 0.994]} and mortality for nonaccidental [HR 0.988 (95% CI: 0.981, 0.994)], cardiovascular [HR 0.984 (95% CI: 0.974, 0.994)] and cerebrovascular diseases [HR 0.964 (95% CI: 0.943, 0.985)]. Similar results were obtained using NDVI with 300- or [Formula: see text] buffers. CONCLUSIONS: Living in greener areas was associated with better health outcomes in our study, which could be partly due to reduced exposure to environmental hazards. Further research is required to understand the underlying mechanisms. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2854.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Itália , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Veículos Automotores , Isquemia Miocárdica/induzido quimicamente , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Roma , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/induzido quimicamente
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