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1.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 5700-5704, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019269

RESUMO

Passive health monitoring has been introduced as a solution for continuous diagnosis and tracking of subjects' condition with minimal effort. This is partially achieved by the technology of passive audio recording although it poses major audio privacy issues for subjects. Existing methods are limited to controlled recording environments and their prediction is significantly influenced by background noises. Meanwhile, they are too compute-intensive to be continuously running on smart phones. In this paper, we implement an efficient and robust audio privacy preserving method that profiles the background audio to focus only on audio activities detected during recording for performance improvement, and to adapt to the noise for more accurate speech segmentation. We analyze the performance of our method using audio data collected by a smart watch in lab noisy settings. Our obfuscation results show a low false positive rate of 20% with a 92% true positive rate by adapting to the recording noise level. We also reduced model memory footprint and execution time of the method on a smart phone by 75% and 62% to enable continuous speech obfuscation.


Assuntos
Meios de Comunicação , Smartphone , Percepção da Fala , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Fala
2.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1376, 2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hearing loss and tinnitus are global concerns that can be reduced through hearing protection behaviors (e.g., earplug use). Little is known about the effectiveness of interventions to increase hearing protection use in recreational domains. For the first time we review systematically the effectiveness of such interventions. METHODS: Systematic searches of nine databases, as well as grey literature and hand-searching, were conducted. Any study design was included if it assessed quantitatively a purposeful attempt to increase hearing protection in recreational settings. Studies were excluded if they assessed noise exposure from occupational sources and headphones/earphones, as these have been reviewed elsewhere. PROSPERO protocol: CRD42018098573. RESULTS: Eight studies were retrieved following the screening of 1908 articles. Two pretest-posttest studies detected a small to medium effect (d ≥ 0·3 ≤ 0·5), one a small effect (d ~ =0·2) and two no real effect. Three posttest experimental studies detected small to medium effects (d ≥ 0·3 ≤ 0·5). Studies were rated as "poor quality" and 17 out of a possible 93 behavior change techniques were coded, with the majority targeting the intervention function 'education'. CONCLUSIONS: Hearing loss and tinnitus due to recreational noise exposure are major public health concerns yet very few studies have examined preventive interventions. The present systematic review sets the agenda for the future development and testing of evidence-based interventions designed to prevent future hearing loss and tinnitus caused by noise in recreational settings, by recommending systematic approaches to intervention design, and implementation of intervention functions beyond education, such as incentivization, enablement and modeling.


Assuntos
Dispositivos de Proteção das Orelhas , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/prevenção & controle , Audição , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Recreação , Zumbido/prevenção & controle , Humanos
3.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28(3): 193-197, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997474

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine subjective sensitivity to noise of the citizens of Nis and its impact on their non-auditory health effects. METHODS: This study was designed as a cross-sectional questionnaire survey among 908 adult residents of Nis, Serbia, of whom 387 were men (42.6%) and 521 women (57.4%). Streets with day Leq ≥ 55 dB(A) and night Leq ≥ 45 dB(A) were regarded as noisy and those with day Leq ≤ 55 dB(A) and night Leq ≤ 45 dB(A) were regarded as quiet, in accordance with WHO recommendations. Noise sensitivity was measured with the Weinstein's Noise Sensitivity Scale. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the impact of noise sensitivity on non-auditory health effects. RESULTS: The study showed that the values of the Weinstein's Noise Sensitivity Scale were significantly higher for those surveyed in the noisy zone. Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant impact of noise sensitivity on night-sleep duration (p = 0.04), subjective assessment of sleep quality (p < 0.01) and daily rest disruption (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Based on the study results, it can be confirmed that noise sensitivity has an important role in causing non-auditory health effects among adults.


Assuntos
Limiar Auditivo , Nível de Saúde , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sérvia , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Codas ; 32(4): e20190047, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756855

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To verify the speech perception in subjects with ear malformation and unilateral hearing loss, fitted with two types of amplification as follows: conventional hearing aids and softband (band with vibrator bone). METHOD: The study included fifteen subjects of both sexes who presented congenital malformation of the middle or outer ear, diagnosed with unilateral conductive or mixed hearing loss, moderate to severe hearing loss, age range between 15 to 25 years and, prescription from a specialist doctor for hearing device fitting. We performed the speech perception assessment without amplification after the hearing aid and softband fitting, with the hearing aid linked to the bone vibrator (conventional) and the softband (band with the bone vibrator). The subjects were evaluated using the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT), in silence and in noise. RESULTS: Seven subjects with unilateral ear malformation were evaluated, 57.1 % had impairment in the right ear and 42.9 % in the left ear. Regarding the type and the level of hearing loss, 71 % of all subjects included in the sample presented moderate conductive hearing loss. The assessment of speech perception was performed during silence, frontal noise, lateral noise and, during three specifics situations: no amplification, with conventional hearing aid and with the softband. The results with the amplification devices were positive in all evaluated conditions. CONCLUSION: Evaluated subjects presented improvement in speech perception, in silence, frontal noise and lateral noise situations, regardless of the type of amplification; however, the difference was not statistically significant.


Assuntos
Auxiliares de Audição , Perda Auditiva Unilateral/reabilitação , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Perda Auditiva Condutiva , Perda Auditiva Unilateral/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236723, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735626

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of tinnitus among adolescents, and the factors known or hypothesized to be associated with tinnitus. Based on random sampling of school types and regions, a nationwide hearing survey of the first-year middle and high school students of South Korea was performed. The subjects underwent an otologic examination followed by pure tone audiometry up to 8 kHz. Questionnaires about the factors associated with hearing and tinnitus were completed by the students and their parents. Among the 1,593 subjects who completed the questionnaire and underwent pure tone audiometry, the prevalence of tinnitus was 46.0% and that of severe tinnitus was 9.1%. Tinnitus was associated with age, female gender, history of ear infection and sinusitis, leisure noise exposure due to karaoke and local-area-network gaming, alcohol consumption, and cigarette smoking. Noticeable hearing loss was not detected but participants with tinnitus complained of difficulty with sound localization, hearing in noise, and verbal working memory and were more susceptible to fatigue. The subjects with tinnitus also suffered more physical and mental health problems than did those without tinnitus. Thus, protection of the ears from noise and appropriate counseling should be considered for adolescents with tinnitus.


Assuntos
Zumbido , Adolescente , Audiometria de Tons Puros , Limiar Auditivo , Comorbidade , Feminino , Audição , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Música , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Localização de Som , Inquéritos e Questionários , Zumbido/diagnóstico , Zumbido/epidemiologia , Zumbido/etiologia
6.
Life Sci ; 259: 118254, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800833

RESUMO

The biological and renal effects made by simultaneous and non-simultaneous exposure to toluene and noise were investigated. Twenty-four New Zealand white rabbits were exposed to 100 dB of white noise and 1000 ppm of toluene vapor for two weeks. The examined biochemical factors were urea, uric acid, creatinine, glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, and albumin serum levels, measured on different days after the end of the exposure. Moreover, glutathione peroxidase activity (GPX), malondialdehyde dismutase activity (MDA), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) parameters were measured in the kidney tissue. The hematoxylin and eosin staining method was used for histopathological experiments. Overall, the noise increased albumin, uric acid, creatinine, and glucose levels, but it decreased urea, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. Toluene decreased albumin, uric acid, and urea levels, while it increased creatinine, triglyceride, cholesterol, and glucose levels. Simultaneous exposure to noise and toluene decreased albumin, uric acid, cholesterol, and urea levels, whereas it increased creatinine, glucose, and triglyceride levels. GPX, MDA, and SOD levels increased by simultaneous and non-simultaneous exposure to noise and toluene. Furthermore, massive tubular degeneration, tubular cell vacuolization, glomerular disorganization, congestion, glomerular cell shrinkage, and unclear brush border were detected in the kidney tissue.


Assuntos
Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Tolueno/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Catalase/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Creatinina/metabolismo , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Nefropatias/patologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Coelhos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Tolueno/metabolismo , Tolueno/farmacologia , Ureia/metabolismo , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236271, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726318

RESUMO

Behavioral development in domestic dogs has been investigated for predicting suitability for service dog work or for matching with the "right" families as well as for identifying predispositions to behavioral problems. Findings from the scientific literature seem to confirm that conducting behavioral tests at 7 weeks of age is too early to reliably predict the temperament and personality of a dog. However, this period for domestic dogs is sensitive for early life learning and conditions during this time could have important consequences in adulthood. The aims of this study were to evaluate inter-rater reliability of a simple standardized test and to investigate which factors influence the behavioral reaction of puppies. 105 seven-week old puppies were exposed to five subtests: social attraction, following, retrieving, sudden appearance, noise. During each task, the behaviour of each pup was scored on a 3-5 point scale that reflected the suitability of the pup's reaction to the task. Scores were evaluated for a single subtest and for two aggregate indicators (i.e. response to a person: social attraction subtest and following subtest and response to object and noise: retrieving subtest, sudden appearance subtest and noise subtest). Three assessors independently scored the dogs' reactions for each task. Inter-rater reliability of the three assessors were analyzed with Fleiss' Kappa and Kendall's coefficient, which showed a high inter-rater reliability in 4 of 5 tasks. The ordered logistic regression was carried out to obtain a proportional odds model that was used to model the relationship between sex, litter size, stimulating environment, parity of mother, adequate maternal behavior and high scores. Litter size and maternal parity were associated with test performance in response to a person. The variance of effect of litter was high in response to object and noise. Taken together, our results suggest that using this scoring system there is sufficient inter-rater reliability in the test and litter size and mother experience influences task performances related to dog-human interaction.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Animais , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental/normas , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Social
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235287, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667931

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Noise in the neonatal intensive care unit can be detrimental to the health of the hospitalized infant. Means of reducing that noise include staff training, warning lights, and ear coverings, all of which have had limited success. Single family rooms, while an improvement, also expose the hospitalized infant to the same device alarms and mechanical noises found in open bay units. METHODS: We evaluated a non-contact incubator-based active noise control device (Neoasis™, Invictus Medical, San Antonio, Texas) in a simulated neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) setting to determine whether it could effectively reduce the noise exposure of infants within an incubator. In the NICU simulation center, we generated a series of clinically appropriate sound sequences with bedside medical devices such as a patient monitor and fluid infusion devices, hospital air handling systems, and device mechanical sounds. A microphone-equipped infant mannequin was oriented within an incubator. Measurements were made with the microphones with the Neoasis™ deactivated and activated. RESULTS: The active noise control device decreased sound pressure levels for certain alarm sounds by as much as 14.4 dB (a 5.2-fold reduction in sound pressure) at the alarm tone's primary frequency. Frequencies below the 2 kHz octave band were more effectively attenuated than frequencies at or above the 2 kHz octave band. Background noise levels below 40 dBA were essentially not impacted by the active noise control device. CONCLUSIONS: The active noise control device further reduces noise inside infant incubators. Device safety and potential health benefits of the quieter environment should be verified in a clinical setting.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Incubadoras para Lactentes , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/fisiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Segurança de Equipamentos , Humanos , Saúde do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Manequins , Texas
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235742, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702032

RESUMO

An increasing number of studies have shown that anthropogenic noise can negatively affect aspects of the anti-predator behaviour of reef fishes, potentially affecting fitness and survival. However, it has been suggested that effects could differ among noise sources. The present study compared two common sources of anthropogenic noise and investigated its effects on behavioural traits critical for fish survival. In a tank-based experiment we examined the effects of noise from 4-stroke motorboats and ships (bulk carriers > 50,000 tonnes) on the routine swimming and escape response of a coral reef fish, the whitetail damselfish (Pomacentrus chrysurus). Both 4-stroke boat and ship noise playbacks affected the fast-start response and routine swimming of whitetail damselfish, however the magnitude of the effects differed. Fish exposed to ship noise moved shorter distances and responded more slowly (higher response latency) to the startle stimulus compared to individuals under the 4-stroke noise treatment. Our study suggests that 4-stroke and ship noise can affect activity and escape response of individuals to a simulated predation threat, potentially compromising their anti-predator behaviour.


Assuntos
Recifes de Corais , Peixes/fisiologia , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Navios , Natação , Animais , Comportamento Predatório
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236251, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692754

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of kaempferol and zinc gluconate on neurobehavioural and oxidative stress changes in Wistar rats exposed to noise. Thirty (30) rats were randomly divided into five groups: Groups I and II were administered with deionized water (DW); Group III, kaempferol (K); Group IV, zinc gluconate (Zn); Group V, kaempferol + zinc gluconate. Groups II, III, IV, and V were subjected to noise stress (N) induced by exposing rats to 100 dB (4 h/day) for 15 days, from day 33 to day 48 after starting the drug treatments. Neuromuscular coordination, motor coordination, motor strength, sensorimotor reflex, and learning and memory, were evaluated using standard laboratory methods. Levels of nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were evaluated in the hippocampus. Exposure of rats to noise, induced significant neurobehavioural deficits and oxidative stress while the combined administration of kaempferol and zinc gluconate significantly (P < 0.05) improved open-field performance, motor coordination, motor strength, sensorimotor reflex, and learning and memory. Co-administration of kaempferol and zinc gluconate ameliorated noise-induced oxidative stress as demonstrated by the significantly increased activities of GPx, catalase, and SOD, and decreased levels of NO and MDA (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 respectively), compared to the DW + N group. Our results suggest that oxidative stress, evidenced by increased NO and MDA concentration and decreased activities of GPx, catalase and SOD, were involved in the molecular mechanism underlying neurobehavioural impairment in Wistar rats, exposed to noise stress. Single treatment of kaempferol exerted a more potent mitigative effect than zinc gluconate, while their combination produced an improved outcome.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/patologia , Gluconatos/farmacologia , Quempferóis/farmacologia , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Junção Neuromuscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Junção Neuromuscular/fisiopatologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar , Reflexo/efeitos dos fármacos , Zinco/farmacologia
11.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 847, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noise exposure and associated hearing loss affects an estimated 2 million farm youth who are exposed as farm residents, farm family workers, hired workers, children of migrant or seasonal workers, and farm visitors. Risk factors for farm youth include frequent exposure to high farm noise; farm work from an early age, and exposure to high recreational noise (e.g., firearms, ATVs, and personal listening devices). METHODS: This study compared the effectiveness of two interventions and control. The programs included a community-based interactive youth educational program alone (Group A), a community-based interactive youth educational program followed by an Internet-based booster (Group B), and a no-interaction control (Group C). The study used a cluster randomized control design, with equal allocation ratio to each cluster, without blinding. Inclusion criteria included enrollment in grade 4, parental consent, English speaking, and attending a community-based educational event included in the cluster sampling. A total of 1979 youth were enrolled at 36 sites distributed across the 3 study arms in the following distribution: N = 662 in 13 sites (Group A), N = 680 in 12 sites (Group B), and N = 637 in 11 sites (Group C). RESULTS: Comparison with pre-intervention data showed no difference in intent to use hearing conservation strategies in experimental groups. However, knowledge and attitudes toward hearing conservation were improved in the groups receiving the Internet-based booster. Participants reported frequent exposure to sources of hazardous noise (e.g., loud sporting events, firecrackers, personal listening devices). CONCLUSIONS: It is feasible and acceptable to incorporate hearing health education into an already existing system designed to deliver health and safety educational programming to farm and rural youth. The program was adopted by the partner agency for dissemination to up to 100,000 youth annually. Results of this study inform future intervention studies, interventions aimed at farm youth, and interventions to increase use of hearing conservation strategies, as well as offer a base for developing programs for non-English speaking children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov registration CT02472821. Date of trial registration: 06/09/2015 (retrospectively registered).


Assuntos
Dispositivos de Proteção das Orelhas/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Criança , Análise por Conglomerados , Fazendas , Feminino , Audição , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Fatores de Risco , População Rural
12.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 41(4): 102507, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354479

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine if high-powered air hand dryers produce sufficient noise to warrant concern over acoustic trauma as determined by federally established standards. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational field data collection SETTING: Urban and suburban community SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Using a NIOSH developed and calibrated soundmeter app, powered hand dryers were measured throughout two metropolitan areas. Ear level measurements were performed while drying wet hands. Recorded variables included average LAeq, Time-Weighted Average, Max and Peak Levels, Noise Dose, and Projected Dose according to NIOSH and OSHA standards, and all three major weighting networks (A, C, and Z). RESULTS: Fifty-four trials were performed at 27 locations. Average dryer run time was 28.9 s (range 14-45 s). Average LAeq (dBA), average maximum level (dBA), and average TWA (dBA) were 90.46 ± 5.32, 94.86 ± 5.73, 59.90 ± 6.80, respectively. The noise generated exceeded published manufacturer specifications. However, even with estimated cumulative daily exposure, the noise generated by these dryers did not exceed federal safety standards. CONCLUSIONS: Air-powered hand dryers produce noise output at a level that many would find subjectively uncomfortable with some brands/models consistently producing noise in excess of 90 dBA. Nonetheless, these dryers do not produce sound exceeding NIOSH standards for noise exposure.


Assuntos
Eletrônica/instrumentação , Exposição Ambiental/normas , Desinfecção das Mãos/instrumentação , Mãos , Ruído/efeitos adversos , United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration/normas , Humanos , National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S./normas , Estados Unidos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0229058, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469874

RESUMO

A wide range of anthropogenic structures exist in the marine environment with the extent of these set to increase as the global offshore renewable energy industry grows. Many of these pose acute risks to marine wildlife; for example, tidal energy generators have the potential to injure or kill seals and small cetaceans through collisions with moving turbine parts. Information on fine scale behaviour of animals close to operational turbines is required to understand the likely impact of these new technologies. There are inherent challenges associated with measuring the underwater movements of marine animals which have, so far, limited data collection. Here, we describe the development and application of a system for monitoring the three-dimensional movements of cetaceans in the immediate vicinity of a subsea structure. The system comprises twelve hydrophones and software for the detection and localisation of vocal marine mammals. We present data demonstrating the systems practical performance during a deployment on an operational tidal turbine between October 2017 and October 2019. Three-dimensional locations of cetaceans were derived from the passive acoustic data using time of arrival differences on each hydrophone. Localisation accuracy was assessed with an artificial sound source at known locations and a refined method of error estimation is presented. Calibration trials show that the system can accurately localise sounds to 2m accuracy within 20m of the turbine but that localisations become highly inaccurate at distances greater than 35m. The system is currently being used to provide data on rates of encounters between cetaceans and the turbine and to provide high resolution tracking data for animals close to the turbine. These data can be used to inform stakeholders and regulators on the likely impact of tidal turbines on cetaceans.


Assuntos
Acústica/instrumentação , Organismos Aquáticos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Caniformia , Cetáceos/fisiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Biologia Marinha , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Energia Renovável/efeitos adversos , Som , Ondas de Maré
14.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(13): e81, 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was performed to identify acute tinnitus and evaluate the efficacy of steroids for noise-induced acute tinnitus by measuring the gap-prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle (GPIAS) value in an animal model. METHODS: Nineteen rats (the noise group [n = 7] and the noise + dexamethasone [DEX] group [n = 12]) were exposed to narrow-band noise centered at 16 kHz from a sound generator for 4 hours. The noise + DEX group received intraperitoneal steroid administration daily for 5 days (1.5 mg/kg/day) after completing noise exposure. Auditory brainstem response and GPIAS value were measured just prior to, and 1 day after noise exposure and on days 1 and 10 days after completing steroid administration. The changes in cochlear structure were evaluated by histological analysis. RESULTS: The threshold shift was checked 1 and 10 days after intraperitoneal steroid injection, and no differences in threshold shift were observed between the two groups in each frequency except for 32 kHz 1 day after steroid injection. The mean GPIAS value in the noise + DEX group (36.4% ± 14.1%) was significantly higher than that in the noise group (16.4% ± 18.8%) 10 days after intraperitoneal steroid administration (P = 0.017). There were no pathological changes associated with noise trauma in the two groups as determined on hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical staining. CONCLUSION: An acute tinnitus model with minimal structural changes by noise exposure was set up, and used to verify tinnitus objectively by measuring the GPIAS value. Steroid therapy for control of tinnitus was validated in this animal model.


Assuntos
Dexametasona , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glucocorticoides , Ruído , Zumbido , Acústica , Doença Aguda , Animais , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos do Tronco Encefálico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Ratos , Zumbido/diagnóstico , Zumbido/tratamento farmacológico , Zumbido/etiologia
15.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231301, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294129

RESUMO

Research results on the impact of railway noise on birds show a variety of bird responses. These behaviours are often different from those exhibited by birds occupying habitats along tarred roads. Knowledge of this subject is still incomplete. We attempted to define the influence of a heavily transited railway line on bird communities at stopover sites near the tracks during the autumn migration period. Birds were counted using the point method at 45 observation points located at three distances (30 m, 280 m, 530 m) from the tracks. At each point we determined the habitat parameters and the intensity of noise. A total of 614 individuals from 29 species were recorded on the study plot. The results of our observations indicate that the railway line does not adversely affect woodland birds during the autumn migration. The results showed that the abundance of birds and the species richness were actually the highest near the railway line. Species foraging on invertebrates preferred the neighbourhood of the tracks. The number of the most common species did not differ widely in relation to distance from the tracks. These data may be helpful in planning and managing the environment in the context of bird conservation, protection from railway noise and collisions with trains.


Assuntos
Migração Animal/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Aves/fisiologia , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Fenômenos Ecológicos e Ambientais/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Florestas , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Estações do Ano
16.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306634

RESUMO

Objective: The research is to study the expression and distribution of matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs)-2 and -9 in the guinea pig cochlea after noise exposure, and to explore the role of MMPs in the blood-labyrinth-barrier (BLB). In addition, the role of MMPs inhibitor doxycycline in noise-induced BLB trauma was studied as well, which provides the basis for further studies and prophylaxis of noise-induced hearing loss. Methods: A total of 45 healthy adult guinea pigs were randomly divided into the control group (15 received intraperitoneal injection of 0.9% saline for 4 consecutive days), the noise-exposure group (15 exposed by 120 dB SPL white noise for 4 h per day for continuous 2 d, intraperitoneal injection of normal saline for 4 consecutive days) and the noise-exposure + doxycycline group (15 exposed by 120 dB SPL white noise exposure for 4 h per day for 2 consecutive days, and intraperitoneal injection of doxycycline 50 mg/kg/d for 4 consecutive days), respectively. Immunofluorescence staining, western blot, and real-time quantitative PCR were used to analyze the distribution and differential expression of MMP-2 and -9 in the stria vascularis of guinea pigs in comparison with the normal control group, noise only group, and noise & doxycycline treatment group. Immunofluorescence staining was used to observe the changes in tight junction (TJ) protein ZO-1 in stria vascularis in three groups and to investigate the effect of acoustic injury on TJs. And ABR tests were utilized to detect the hearing function of guinea pigs in the three groups. Intravenous Evans blue was administrated intravenously as an indicator of vascular leakage among three groups to study the changes in BLB permeability in context of acoustic injury. SPSS 22.0 was used for statistical analysis. Results: There was no significant difference in hearing function between the noise-exposure group and the noise & doxycycline group two hours after noise exposure. After seven, 14 and 28 days noise exposure, the hearing recovery of the noise & doxycycline treatment group was significantly greater than that of the noise-exposure group (P<0.05) . Immunofluorescence staining showed that there was only a small amount of MMP-2 and -9 in the stria vascular in the normal control group, and ZO-1 showed dense linear expression. While, in the noise-explore group, MMP-2 and -9 in the stria vascular was significantly elevated (P<0.05), and the configuration of ZO-1 became loose and discontinuous. However, the MMP-2 and -9 in the noise & doxycycline treatment group were not significantly different from the normal control group (P>0.05), which were significantly less than that in the noise-exposure group, and just a little break of ZO-1 was observed, however, the overall structure remained dense. The leakage of Evans blue from stria vascular capillary in the noise-exposure group was significantly increased, and the difference between the other two groups did not show any statistical significance (P>0.05). Conclusions: The damage of tight junction structure induced by MMP-2 and -9 may play an important role in BLB destruction. In addition, doxycycline can inhibit MMPs secretion, thereby, to some extent, protecting the integrity of BLB from acoustic injury, and contributing to the long-term hearing recovery.


Assuntos
Doxiciclina/uso terapêutico , Orelha Interna/lesões , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/terapia , Inibidores de Metaloproteinases de Matriz/uso terapêutico , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Animais , Cóclea , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos do Tronco Encefálico , Cobaias , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Junções Íntimas/patologia , Proteína da Zônula de Oclusão-1/metabolismo
17.
Br J Nurs ; 29(5): 298-302, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167811

RESUMO

Sleep disturbance is common in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Numerous factors can contribute to this. High noise and light levels, nursing interventions and medication administration are major factors. This study investigated the demographic and environmental factors that might adversely affect ICU patients' quality of sleep. Data were collected from 103 patients using a demographic data sheet, the Freedman Quality of Sleep Scale and the Richards-Campbell Sleep Scale. Patients' demographic characteristics were found to have no significant effects on their perceived quality of sleep. Environmental factors, including noise, light, nursing interventions, diagnostic testing, the administration of medication, talking and phones ringing, were significantly related to the patients' perceived quality of sleep.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Adulto , Cuidados Críticos , Estudos Transversais , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , Jordânia , Masculino , Sono/fisiologia , Privação do Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia
18.
Surgery ; 167(5): 843-851, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of sound-activated noise meters to decrease the noise level in the operating room is not clear. The aim of this study was to determine whether a sound-activated, visual noise meter would decrease noise levels, decrease postoperative morbidity, and improve surgeons' feelings of well-being. METHODS: This prospective, single-center study proceeded in 2 phases. First, sound levels were compared during a 6-month period with noise measurement only and without a visual feedback function. Second, we conducted a subsequent 6-month phase with noise meters providing direct feedback. Surgeon disturbance during the operation was assessed by a questionnaire after each procedure. RESULTS: Of the 664 procedures included in this analysis, 447 (67.3%) were in phase 1 and 217 (32.7%) in phase 2. The noise levels in the operating room were decreased by 3.8 dB(A) from 54.6 ± 4.5 dB(A) in phase 1 to 50.8 ± 2.8 dB(A) in phase 2 after intervention with the feedback device (P < .001). During the procedures, there was an increase of 0.7 dB(A) (P < .001), with mean noise levels of 53.5 dB(A) at the beginning of the procedures and 54.2 dB(A) at the end. There was a correlation between the disturbance of the surgeon and the noise level (P < .001). CONCLUSION: The application of a visual noise warning device in an operating room decreased both the noise levels and surgeon stress and may offer sustained decreases in ambient and peak sound levels, potentially leading to improved quality outcomes in visceral surgery.


Assuntos
Período Intraoperatório , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Estresse Psicológico , Cirurgiões/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Salas Cirúrgicas , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 13, 2020 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a complex disease caused by environmental and genetic risk factors. This study was to explore the association of noise kurtosis, triphosphopyridine nucleotide oxidase 3 (NOX3) and lifestyles with NIHL. METHODS: This case-control study included 307 patients with NIHL and 307 matched control individuals from Zhejiang province of China. General characteristics, noise exposure data, the exfoliated cells of the oral mucosa, and lifestyle details of individuals were collected. The kompetitive allele specific polymerase chain reaction (KASP) method was used to analyze the genotypes of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of NOX3. RESULTS: People who exposed to complex noise had a higher risk of NIHL than those exposed to steady noise (adjusted: OR = 1.806, P = 0.002). The GT genotype of additive model and TT + GT genotype of dominant model in NOX3 rs12195525 decreased the risk of NIHL (adjusted: OR = 0.618, P = 0.043; OR = 0.622, P = 0.036). Smoking and exposure to high video volume increased the risk of NIHL (adjusted: OR = 1.486, P = 0.038; OR = 1.611, P = 0.014). Oppositely, regular physical exercise decreased the risk of NIHL (adjusted: OR = 0.598, P = 0.004). A positive interaction was found between complex noise and lifestyles including high video volume exposure and no physical exercise in the additive models (RERI = 1.088, P < 0.001; RERI = 1.054, P = 0.024). A positive interaction was also found between NOX3 rs12195525 GG genotype and lifestyles including smoking and high video volume exposure in the additive models (RERI = 1.042, P = 0.005; RERI = 0.774, P = 0.044). CONCLUSIONS: Noise temporal structure, NOX3 rs12195525 polymorphism, and the three lifestyles of smoking, video volume, and physical exercise were related to the NIHL. There were the interactions between noise temporal structure and the lifestyle of video volume or physical exercise, as well as between NOX3 and the lifestyle of smoking or video volume. These results provide a theoretical basis for the prevention and genetic testing of NIHL.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , NADPH Oxidases/genética , Ruído Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/etiologia , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/genética , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(7): 3828-3838, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015128

RESUMO

Exposure to loud sound damages the postsynaptic terminals of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) on cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs), resulting in loss of synapses, a process termed synaptopathy. Glutamatergic neurotransmission via α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA)-type receptors is required for synaptopathy, and here we identify a possible involvement of GluA2-lacking Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) using IEM-1460, which has been shown to block GluA2-lacking AMPARs. In CBA/CaJ mice, a 2-h exposure to 100-dB sound pressure level octave band (8 to 16 kHz) noise results in no permanent threshold shift but does cause significant synaptopathy and a reduction in auditory brainstem response (ABR) wave-I amplitude. Chronic intracochlear perfusion of IEM-1460 in artificial perilymph (AP) into adult CBA/CaJ mice prevented the decrease in ABR wave-I amplitude and the synaptopathy relative to intracochlear perfusion of AP alone. Interestingly, IEM-1460 itself did not affect the ABR threshold, presumably because GluA2-containing AMPARs can sustain sufficient synaptic transmission to evoke low-threshold responses during blockade of GluA2-lacking AMPARs. On individual postsynaptic densities, we observed GluA2-lacking nanodomains alongside regions with robust GluA2 expression, consistent with the idea that individual synapses have both CP-AMPARs and Ca2+-impermeable AMPARs. SGNs innervating the same IHC differ in their relative vulnerability to noise. We found local heterogeneity among synapses in the relative abundance of GluA2 subunits that may underlie such differences in vulnerability. We propose a role for GluA2-lacking CP-AMPARs in noise-induced cochlear synaptopathy whereby differences among synapses account for differences in excitotoxic susceptibility. These data suggest a means of maintaining normal hearing thresholds while protecting against noise-induced synaptopathy, via selective blockade of CP-AMPARs.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Cóclea/metabolismo , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/metabolismo , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Receptores de AMPA/metabolismo , Sinapses/metabolismo , Animais , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos do Tronco Encefálico , Audição , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/etiologia , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/genética , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos CBA , Receptores de AMPA/genética
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