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1.
Biol Res ; 52(1): 47, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455418

RESUMO

Rubella or German measles is an infection caused by rubella virus (RV). Infection of children and adults is usually characterized by a mild exanthematous febrile illness. However, RV is a major cause of birth defects and fetal death following infection in pregnant women. RV is a teratogen and is a major cause of public health concern as there are more than 100,000 cases of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) estimated to occur every year. Several lines of evidence in the field of molecular biology of RV have provided deeper insights into the teratogenesis process. The damage to the growing fetus in infected mothers is multifactorial, arising from a combination of cellular damage, as well as its effect on the dividing cells. This review focuses on the findings in the molecular biology of RV, with special emphasis on the mitochondrial, cytoskeleton and the gene expression changes. Further, the review addresses in detail, the role of apoptosis in the teratogenesis process.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/virologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Síndrome da Rubéola Congênita/virologia , Vírus da Rubéola/fisiologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/complicações , Teratogênese , Apoptose/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/virologia , Gravidez , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/virologia , Transdução de Sinais , Replicação Viral/fisiologia
2.
J Infect Chemother ; 25(10): 829-831, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253475

RESUMO

Patients with measles or rubella infections manifest acute onset fever accompanying systemic exanthema, which are clinically difficult to be distinguish. Rapid diagnosis and differentiation of such epidemic viral diseases is essential to prevent outbreaks. We developed a single-tube multiplex real-time PCR assay for these indistinguishable viruses. We used previously-reported primer settings, with a slight modification of reporter dye, and applied to multiplex Taqman real-time PCR by cobas z480 (Roche Molecular Systems, Inc.). Consequently, the assay could detect 10 copies/10 µl of measles and rubella with coefficient of variations of 11.2% and 21.8%, respectively. Strengths of our methodology include simplicity of operation, short measurement time (2 h), uses of internal control (confirming a run of PCR), and quantitative measurement with high sensitivity. Both measles and rubella currently cause social outbreaks in Japan. We hope that our single-tube multiplex assay contributes to an early diagnosis, leading to an appropriate infection control measure and prevention of epidemics.


Assuntos
Sarampo/diagnóstico , Morbillivirus/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Rubéola/isolamento & purificação , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/diagnóstico , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/virologia , Morbillivirus/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/virologia , Vírus da Rubéola/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(6): 1101-1109, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107215

RESUMO

We estimated the economic impact of concurrent measles and rubella outbreaks in Romania during 2011-2012. We collected costs from surveys of 428 case-patients and caretakers, government records, and health staff interviews. We then estimated financial and opportunity costs. During the study period, 12,427 measles cases and 24,627 rubella cases were recorded; 27 infants had congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). The cost of the outbreaks was US $9.9 million. Cost per case was US $439 for measles, US $132 for rubella, and US $44,051 for CRS. Up to 36% of households needed to borrow money to pay for illness treatment. Approximately 17% of patients continued to work while ill to pay their treatment expenses. Our key study findings were that households incurred a high economic burden compared with their incomes, the health sector bore most costs, and CRS costs were substantial and relevant to include in rubella outbreak cost studies.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Surtos de Doenças , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Custos e Análise de Custo , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Sarampo/história , Sarampo/virologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Romênia/epidemiologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/história , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/virologia , Síndrome da Rubéola Congênita/epidemiologia , Síndrome da Rubéola Congênita/virologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
4.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 19(1): 51, 2019 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our work was motivated by the need to, given serum availability and/or financial resources, decide on which samples to test in a serum bank for different pathogens. Simulation-based sample size calculations were performed to determine the age-based sampling structures and optimal allocation of a given number of samples for testing across various age groups best suited to estimate key epidemiological parameters (e.g., seroprevalence or force of infection) with acceptable precision levels in a cross-sectional seroprevalence survey. METHODS: Statistical and mathematical models and three age-based sampling structures (survey-based structure, population-based structure, uniform structure) were used. Our calculations are based on Belgian serological survey data collected in 2001-2003 where testing was done, amongst others, for the presence of Immunoglobulin G antibodies against measles, mumps, and rubella, for which a national mass immunisation programme was introduced in 1985 in Belgium, and against varicella-zoster virus and parvovirus B19 for which the endemic equilibrium assumption is tenable in Belgium. RESULTS: The optimal age-based sampling structure to use in the sampling of a serological survey as well as the optimal allocation distribution varied depending on the epidemiological parameter of interest for a given infection and between infections. CONCLUSIONS: When estimating epidemiological parameters with acceptable levels of precision within the context of a single cross-sectional serological survey, attention should be given to the age-based sampling structure. Simulation-based sample size calculations in combination with mathematical modelling can be utilised for choosing the optimal allocation of a given number of samples over various age groups.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Sarampo/sangue , Modelos Teóricos , Caxumba/sangue , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Lactente , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/virologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Caxumba/epidemiologia , Caxumba/virologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/virologia , Tamanho da Amostra , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 82: 7-8, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825652

RESUMO

We report the case of a 32-year-old Japanese female who presented with a mild sore throat, rash and posterior cervical and posterior auricular lymphadenopathy. She was diagnosed with rubella. Japan has experienced multiple outbreaks of rubella in recent times. Travelers to Japan should consider getting vaccinated for rubella.


Assuntos
Linfadenopatia/diagnóstico , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/diagnóstico , Adulto , Exantema/diagnóstico , Exantema/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Linfadenopatia/virologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/virologia
6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 82: 1-5, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30807870

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A rubella epidemic has been ongoing in Japan since August 2018. In the present study, we aimed to predict the likely size of a congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) epidemic during 2018-19. METHODS: The expected number of CRS cases was estimated using an integral equation based on age-specific incidence of rubella among adult women, the time delay from gestational age of infection to diagnosis of CRS, and distribution of the mothers' age at delivery. We used epidemic data during 2012-14 to parameterize the model and applied this in the prediction for 2018-19. RESULTS: In analyzing the 2012-14 epidemic data, the mean delay from the mother's infection to diagnosis was estimated at 24.2weeks (95% confidence interval (CI): 20.7, 28.1). Applying the parameterized model, together with the more than 480 rubella cases in women in 2018 as well as delayed mother's age at delivery in 2017, we determined that the expected number of CRS cases would be 9.7 (95% CI: 6.5, 12.5) cases. As the epidemic is ongoing, the cumulative number of CRS cases could potentially reach 96.8 (95% CI: 65.3, 125.5) cases, if rubella cases in adult women rose to 10 times the number by week 49 in 2018. CONCLUSIONS: CRS is expected to occur an average of 24weeks following the mother's infection with rubella virus. Accounting for an increase to 650 cases in women by week 5 in 2019, the expected number of CRS cases during 2018-19 has already exceeded 13 cases, as of week 5 in 2019.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Síndrome da Rubéola Congênita/epidemiologia , Vírus da Rubéola/fisiologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/virologia , Síndrome da Rubéola Congênita/virologia
7.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(1): 81-89, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30607663

RESUMO

The association of immunodeficiency-related vaccine-derived rubella virus (iVDRV) with cutaneous and visceral granulomatous disease has been reported in patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs). The majority of these PID patients with rubella-positive granulomas had DNA repair disorders. To support this line of inquiry, we provide additional descriptive data on seven previously reported patients with Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) (n = 3) and ataxia telangiectasia (AT) (n = 4) as well as eight previously unreported patients with iVDRV-induced cutaneous granulomas and DNA repair disorders including NBS (n = 1), AT (n = 5), DNA ligase 4 deficiency (n = 1), and Artemis deficiency (n = 1). We also provide descriptive data on several previously unreported PID patients with iVDRV-induced cutaneous granulomas including cartilage hair hypoplasia (n = 1), warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, immunodeficiency, myelokathexis (WHIM) syndrome (n = 1), MHC class II deficiency (n = 1), Coronin-1A deficiency (n = 1), X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) (n = 1), and combined immunodeficiency without a molecular diagnosis (n = 1). At the time of this report, the median age of the patients with skin granulomas and DNA repair disorders was 9 years (range 3-18). Cutaneous granulomas have been documented in all, while visceral granulomas were observed in six cases (40%). All patients had received rubella virus vaccine. The median duration of time elapsed from vaccination to the development of cutaneous granulomas was 48 months (range 2-152). Hematopoietic cell transplantation was reported to result in scarring resolution of cutaneous granulomas in two patients with NBS, one patient with AT, one patient with Artemis deficiency, one patient with DNA Ligase 4 deficiency, one patient with MHC class II deficiency, and one patient with combined immunodeficiency without a known molecular etiology. Of the previously reported and unreported cases, the majority share the diagnosis of a DNA repair disorder. Analysis of additional patients with this complication may clarify determinants of rubella pathogenesis, identify specific immune defects resulting in chronic infection, and may lead to defect-specific therapies.


Assuntos
Reparo do DNA/genética , Granuloma/complicações , Granuloma/virologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Vírus da Rubéola/patogenicidade , Dermatopatias/etiologia , Dermatopatias/virologia , Adolescente , Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Ataxia Telangiectasia/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Granuloma/genética , Cabelo/anormalidades , Cabelo/virologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Doença de Hirschsprung/genética , Doença de Hirschsprung/virologia , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/virologia , Masculino , Síndrome de Quebra de Nijmegen/genética , Síndrome de Quebra de Nijmegen/virologia , Osteocondrodisplasias/congênito , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Osteocondrodisplasias/virologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/genética , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/virologia , Pele/virologia , Dermatopatias/genética , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/genética , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/virologia
8.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(1): 112-117, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30680653

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Nitazoxanide was recently reported as having in vitro effectiveness against the rubella virus. Immunodeficiency-related vaccine-derived rubella occurs in some patients who have an inherited immunodeficiency and who received the MMR vaccine. This study investigated the in vivo effectiveness of nitazoxanide therapy. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of seven patients treated with nitazoxanide as salvage therapy for immunodeficiency-related vaccine-derived rubella infection. The patients were recruited from an ongoing rubella detection surveillance project. RESULTS: Seven patients with persistent rubella were treated with nitazoxanide and one demonstrated significant clinical improvement. Two additional patients exhibited diminished viral capsid production with one patient having transient slowing of progression. The cohort overall generally had low T cell counts and had a high burden of comorbidities. There were three deaths. Two deaths were from PML and one was related to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Nitazoxanide has limited in vivo anti-viral effects for immunodeficiency-related vaccine-derived rubella. Most patients did not exhibit clinical improvement.


Assuntos
Granuloma/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/virologia , Vírus da Rubéola/efeitos dos fármacos , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/tratamento farmacológico , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Granuloma/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/virologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/virologia , Vacinação/métodos
9.
Int Ophthalmol ; 39(2): 477-484, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29411259

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report a case of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) associated with rubella retinopathy (RR) treated with intravitreal aflibercept. CASE PRESENTATION: A 15-year-old girl presented a complaint of visual decrease in her left eye. She had a history of hearing decrease since she was 1 year old in addition to patent ductus arteriosus. On ocular examination, the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/20 in the right eye and 20/400 in the left eye. Dilated fundus examinations revealed a classic salt-and-pepper appearance in both eyes and a whitish subretinal lesion with retinal hemorrhages in the left macula. Fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) of the left eye illustrated a pattern of diffuse spotty fluorescence with an active subfoveal CNV lesion, that hyperfluoresces in the early phases of the FFA, maintains well-demarcated borders, and leaks. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) revealed thickened and elevated retinal layers at the macula due to the subretinal and intraretinal fluid with foveal and extrafoveal protruding hyper-reflective lesion in the left eye. Single dose of intravitreal aflibercept was performed to the left eye and at the first month after the injection, the BCVA improved to 20/100 and the OCT revealed scar formation. At the follow-up visits, the macula was similar to those at the first month post-injection, and the BCVA was preserved. No additional injections were needed. CONCLUSION: Intravitreal aflibercept may be a treatment alternative, which provides satisfactory anatomical and functional results and leads to a better visual acuity in cases with RR complicated by CNV.


Assuntos
Neovascularização de Coroide/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Oculares Virais/complicações , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/administração & dosagem , Retinite/complicações , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/complicações , Adolescente , Neovascularização de Coroide/diagnóstico , Neovascularização de Coroide/etiologia , Infecções Oculares Virais/diagnóstico , Feminino , Angiofluoresceinografia , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Injeções Intravítreas , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Retinite/diagnóstico , Retinite/virologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/diagnóstico , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/virologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
10.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; 27(3): 418-423, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29370571

RESUMO

Purpose: To analyze intraocular cytokine levels and cell profiles in patients with rubella virus-associated uveitis (RVU). Methods: We collected intraocular fluid samples from patients with RVU (n = 10), uveitis of other causes (n = 27), and cataract (n = 22). Levels of 15 cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-6, IL-6rα, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-23, TARC, MCP-1, TNF-α, PlGF, and VEGF) were measured using multiplex assay, and intraocular cell populations were determined by multiparameter flowcytometry. Clinical characteristics of RVU patients were collected and compared to laboratory outcomes. Results: RVU patients exhibited high intraocular levels of MCP-1, IL-6rα, and TARC, whilst patients with noninfectious uveitis were characterized by high levels of PlGF. Cataract patients showed high levels of IL-2 and IL-23. Intraocular cell population of RVU patients disclosed mainly T-cells and monocytes/macrophages and B-cells were scarcely detected. Conclusion: RVU patients exhibit a cytokine profile distinct from noninfectious uveitis and cataract.


Assuntos
Humor Aquoso/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Infecções Oculares Virais/metabolismo , Vírus da Rubéola/genética , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/metabolismo , Uveíte/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , DNA Viral/análise , Infecções Oculares Virais/diagnóstico , Infecções Oculares Virais/virologia , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/diagnóstico , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/virologia , Uveíte/diagnóstico , Uveíte/virologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 99(6): 1639-1642, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30277204

RESUMO

Age-specific population immunity to many vaccine-preventable diseases can be measured using serological surveys. However, stand-alone serological surveys are infrequently conducted in low- and middle-income countries because of costs, operational challenges, and potential high refusal rates for blood collection. Nesting a serosurvey within a household cluster survey may overcome some of these challenges. We share lessons learned from nesting a serosurvey within a measles and rubella vaccination post-campaign coverage evaluation survey (PCES). In 15 of the 26 PCES clusters in Southern Province, Zambia, we collected dried blood spots from 581 participants aged 9 months and older. Household participation rates for the main PCES were higher in the serosurvey clusters (86%) than PCES-only clusters (71%), suggesting that a serosurvey can be successfully integrated without adversely affecting PCES participation. Among households that participated in the PCES, 80% also participated in the serosurvey and 86% of individuals available in the household provided a blood sample for the serosurvey. Substantial planning and coordination, additional staff training, and community mobilization were critical to the success of the serosurvey. Most challenges stemmed from using different data collecting tools and teams for the serosurvey and PCES. A more efficient design would be to fully integrate the serosurvey by adding blood collection and additional questions to the PCES.


Assuntos
Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/métodos , Vacina contra Sarampo/administração & dosagem , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Rubéola/administração & dosagem , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/prevenção & controle , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/estatística & dados numéricos , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Lactente , Masculino , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/imunologia , Sarampo/virologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/imunologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/virologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
12.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 13: 4795-4805, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30197515

RESUMO

Background: As nanotechnology advances rapidly, the nanozymes which could replace protein enzymes in bioanalytical assays bring a new opportunity to the development of simple and sensitive diagnostic tools. Purpose: Antibody-conjugated Au-Pt core/shell nanorods (Au@Pt NRs) have been used for nanozyme probes for diagnosis of rubella virus. Au@Pt NRs, prepared by Au nanorod-mediated growth, exhibit peroxidase-like activities and could serve as an inexpensive replacement for horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in conjugation of antigen. Method: Using a capture enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay for the determination of rubella virus. Results: Compared with antibody-conjugated HRP, the antigen-conjugated Au@Pt NRs are more stable and more robust, but less expensive. Based on the enhanced catalytic properties of this nanozyme probe, it was found that the antigen-conjugated Au@Pt NRs-based enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay exhibited good sensitivity. Conclusion: Our results indicate that these antigen-conjugated Au@Pt NRs represent a suitable nanozyme probe for future clinical applications under various conditions.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Ouro/química , Peroxidase do Rábano Silvestre/metabolismo , Nanotubos/química , Platina/química , Vírus da Rubéola/imunologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/diagnóstico , Catálise , Humanos , Imunoensaio/métodos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/imunologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/virologia
13.
14.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; 26(7): 1135-1142, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096015

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To define a clinically tailored therapeutic strategy for the treatment of viral anterior uveitis (VAU). METHODS: A PubMed search spanning the past 5 years was conducted using the MesH-terms "viral anterior uveitis" and "therapy." RESULTS: The herpes simplex virus (HSV), the varicella zoster virus (VZV), and the cytomegalovirus (CMV) are the predominant pathogens in VAU. Other viruses, including rubella, chikungunya, and zika, have been linked with distinct forms of the disease. Depending on the causative agent and the host immunocompetence, the mainstay treatment for suspected VAU is a combination of topical or systemic antivirals and topical corticosteroids, supplemented with cycloplegics and intraocular-pressure-lowering medication. CONCLUSIONS: Oral acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir are the mainstay of treatment for HSV- and VZV-induced infections. Brivudin serves as an alternative in insufficiently responsive cases. CMV-induced infections respond well to valganciclovir. A 3- to 12-month course of prophylactic treatment against recurrences is worth considering.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções Oculares Virais/tratamento farmacológico , Uveíte Anterior/tratamento farmacológico , Aciclovir/uso terapêutico , Bromodesoxiuridina/análogos & derivados , Bromodesoxiuridina/uso terapêutico , Febre de Chikungunya/tratamento farmacológico , Febre de Chikungunya/virologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Infecções Oculares Virais/virologia , Famciclovir/uso terapêutico , Herpes Simples/tratamento farmacológico , Herpes Simples/virologia , Herpes Zoster Oftálmico/tratamento farmacológico , Herpes Zoster Oftálmico/virologia , Humanos , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/tratamento farmacológico , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/virologia , Uveíte Anterior/virologia , Valaciclovir/uso terapêutico , Infecção por Zika virus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 24(9): 1763-1765, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30124420

RESUMO

Although rubella is epidemic in Indonesia, the phylogenetic profile of circulating rubella virus strains has not been clarified. In 2017, rubella virus was detected in 2 travelers who returned from Indonesia to Japan. These strains were classified into genotype 1E lineage 2, which may be an indigenous strain in Indonesia.


Assuntos
Vírus da Rubéola/isolamento & purificação , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/diagnóstico , Viagem , Adulto , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Genótipo , Humanos , Indonésia , Japão , Masculino , Filogenia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/prevenção & controle , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/virologia , Vírus da Rubéola/classificação , Vírus da Rubéola/genética
16.
J Med Virol ; 90(11): 1687-1694, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29984523

RESUMO

Rubella is a contagious disease caused by the rubella virus (RuV) that can lead to serious birth defects when women are infected in early pregnancy. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology and genetic diversity of rubella viruses in Cote d'Ivoire (CIV). Blood or oral fluid samples collected from suspected measles cases were first tested for the presence of measles specific IgM antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All measles IgM negative or indeterminate samples were tested for rubella IgM antibody using ELISA. Rubella-IgM-positive samples were tested by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the presence of rubella virus RNA. Real-time RT-PCR-positive RNA samples were used as template to amplify the 739 nt region used for rubella genotyping. PCR-positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetic analysis performed. Between 2012 and 2016, 4121 serums and 126 oral fluids were collected through the measles surveillance system. Of these, 3823 and 108 respectively were measles IgM negative or indeterminate. Subsequent testing for rubella found that 690 of 3823 (18%) serum samples and 25 of 108 (23%) oral fluid samples were rubella IgM-positive. The 739 nt segment of the E1 glycoprotein gene was amplified and sequenced for two serums and seven oral fluids samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the rubella viruses from CIV belonged to genotypes 1G (eight samples) and 2B (one sample). Rubella virus genotype 2B was found in CIV for the first time. These data contribute to baseline information on rubella virus strains found in CIV before the introduction of rubella vaccine.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Vírus da Rubéola/classificação , Vírus da Rubéola/isolamento & purificação , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Sangue/imunologia , Sangue/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Costa do Marfim/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/análise , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucosa Bucal/imunologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Vírus da Rubéola/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
18.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 14(11): 2624-2631, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29902133

RESUMO

The introduction of vaccination programs against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) led to significant global reduction in morbidity and mortality from these diseases. The currently recommended MMR vaccination schedule in the United States of America comprises 2 vaccine doses typically administered at 12-15 months and 4-6 years, respectively. Considering recent outbreaks in the USA, catch-up vaccination with an additional dose of MMR vaccine could contribute to outbreak control and community protection. This phase III, observer-blind, randomized controlled trial (NCT02058563) assessed the immunogenicity and safety of a dose of the MMR-RIT vaccine (Priorix, GSK) compared to MMR II vaccine (control; M-M-R II, Merck&Co Inc.) in ≥7-year-olds who had received ≥1 previous dose of MMR vaccine. We assessed anti-measles, anti-mumps, and anti-rubella antibody geometric mean concentrations (GMCs; primary endpoint) and seroresponse rates (SRRs) at day 42 post-vaccination. Solicited, unsolicited, and serious adverse events (AEs) were recorded. The according-to-protocol cohort for immunogenicity included 869 participants (MMR-RIT: N = 433; MMR II: N = 436). We observed anti-measles, anti-mumps, and anti-rubella antibody GMCs of 1790.2 mIU/mL, 113.5 EU/mL, and 76.1 IU/mL, respectively, and SRRs of 98.8%, 98.4%, and 99.5%, respectively, after a dose of MMR-RIT; non-inferiority compared to MMR II was demonstrated. Both vaccines showed comparable reactogenicity profiles; the most common solicited AEs were injection site redness and pain, and fever (MMR-RIT: 12.2%, 11.8%, and 3.0%; MMR II: 11.7%, 11.5%, and 5.2%, respectively). The dose of MMR-RIT induced robust immune responses that were not inferior to those of MMR II, and was well tolerated.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Imunização Secundária/métodos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Criança , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Imunização Secundária/efeitos adversos , Reação no Local da Injeção/epidemiologia , Reação no Local da Injeção/imunologia , Masculino , Sarampo/imunologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Sarampo/virologia , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/administração & dosagem , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/efeitos adversos , Caxumba/imunologia , Caxumba/prevenção & controle , Caxumba/virologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/imunologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/prevenção & controle , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/virologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Euro Surveill ; 23(19)2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29766840

RESUMO

Rubella vaccination has been included in the United Kingdom's (UK) routine childhood schedule for nearly 30 years. The UK achieved World Health Organization (WHO) elimination status in 2016 and acute rubella infections are rare. In the period 2003-16, 31 rubella infections in pregnancy (0.23 per 100,000 pregnancies) were identified through routine surveillance, of which 26 were in women who were born abroad. Five of the 31 rubella infections led to congenital rubella syndrome in the infant and three had confirmed congenital rubella infection without congenital rubella syndrome. An additional seven babies were identified with congenital rubella syndrome, although rubella infection in pregnancy had not been reported. Place of birth was known for six of these seven mothers, all of whom were born outside the UK, and in five cases maternal infection was acquired abroad. WHO Europe has set targets for measles and rubella elimination and prevention of congenital rubella syndrome by 2015. Vaccination uptake and rubella immunity is high in the UK population and most infections in pregnancy since 2003 were acquired abroad and in unvaccinated women. Every contact with a health professional should be used to check that women are fully immunised according to UK schedule.


Assuntos
Notificação de Doenças , Vigilância da População/métodos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Síndrome da Rubéola Congênita/diagnóstico , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/diagnóstico , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mães , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/virologia , Síndrome da Rubéola Congênita/epidemiologia , Síndrome da Rubéola Congênita/virologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
20.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 18(1): 169, 2018 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29769062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal tests are important for prevention of vertical transmission of various infectious agents. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), rubella virus and vaccination coverage against HBV in pregnant adolescents who received care in the city of Belém, Pará, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed with 324 pregnant adolescents from 2009 to 2010. After the interview and blood collection, the patients were screened for antibodies and/or antigens against HIV-1/2, HTLV-1/2, CMV, rubella virus and HBV. The epidemiological variables were demonstrated using descriptive statistics with the G, χ2 and Fisher exact tests. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 15.8 years, and the majority (65.4%) had less than 6 years of education. The mean age at first intercourse was 14.4 years, and 60.8% reported having a partner aged between 12 and 14 years. The prevalence of HIV infection was 0.3%, and of HTLV infection was 0.6%. Regarding HBV, 0.6% of the participants had acute infection, 9.9% had a previous infection, 16.7% had vaccine immunity and 72.8% were susceptible to infection. The presence of anti-HBs was greater in adolescent between 12 and 14 years old (28.8%) while the anti-HBc was greater in adolescent between 15 and 18 years old (10.3%). Most of the adolescents presented the IgG antibody to CMV (96.3%) and rubella (92.3%). None of the participants had acute rubella infection, and 2.2% had anti-CMV IgM. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first report of the seroepidemiology of infectious agents in a population of pregnant adolescents in the Northern region of Brazil. Most of the adolescents had low levels of education, were susceptible to HBV infection and had IgG antibodies to CMV and rubella virus. The prevalence of HBV, HIV and HTLV was similar to that reported in other regions of Brazil. However, the presence of these agents in this younger population reinforces the need for good prenatal follow-up and more comprehensive vaccination campaigns against HBV due to the large number of women susceptible to the virus.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Testes para Triagem do Soro Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Gravidez na Adolescência/sangue , Viroses/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/sangue , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Deltaretrovirus/imunologia , Infecções por Deltaretrovirus/sangue , Infecções por Deltaretrovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Deltaretrovirus/virologia , Feminino , HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Hepatite B/sangue , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/sangue , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/virologia , Vírus da Rubéola/imunologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Viroses/sangue , Viroses/virologia
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