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1.
Plant Sci ; 311: 110996, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482908

RESUMO

Rubus chingii, is widely distributed in many Asian countries and well known for its medicinal and dietary properties. Diversity of fruit color in raspberry has been attributed to the presence of either anthocyanins or carotenoids. In this study, we investigated anthocyanins and carotenoids, and their biosynthesis by LC-MS/MS. Six anthocyanins mainly consisted of flavanol-anthocyanins while five carotenoids mainly consisted of ß-citraurin esters. Flavanol-anthocyanins were produced from an offshoot of the anthocyanin biosynthesis, which started with biosynthesis of flavanols and anthocyanidin by leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR)/anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS/LDOX) respectively. ß-citraurin esters were produced from cleavage of zeaxanthin and esterification by organic acid, which was an offshoot of the carotenoid biosynthesis. The offshoot started with biosynthesis of zeaxanthin and ß-citraurin by carotene ß-hydroxylase (CHYB/LUT5) and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) respectively. During fruit ripening, biosynthesis of flavanols and anthocyanins was down-regulated by genes/proteins involved in phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis, while biosynthesis of ß-citraurin esters was up-regulated by imbalanced expression of genes/proteins involved in ß,ß-ring and ß, ε-ring hydroxylation. Thus, ß-citraurin esters, instead of anthocyanins imparted reddish color to the ripe fruit. These pigments and their biosynthesis in R. chingii are totally different from what occurs in other raspberry species.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Pigmentação/fisiologia , Rubus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rubus/metabolismo , Antocianinas/genética , China , Frutas/anatomia & histologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Pigmentação/genética , Rubus/anatomia & histologia
2.
Plant Cell Rep ; 40(10): 1923-1946, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333679

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Combined transcriptomic and metabolic analyses reveal that fruit of Rubus chingii Hu launches biosynthesis of phenolic acids and flavonols at beginning of fruit set and then coordinately accumulated or converted to their derivatives. Rubus chingii Hu (Chinese raspberry) is an important dual functional food with nutraceutical and pharmaceutical values. Comprehensively understanding the mechanisms of fruit development and bioactive components synthesis and regulation could accelerate genetic analysis and molecular breeding for the unique species. Combined transcriptomic and metabolic analyses of R. chingii fruits from different developmental stages, including big green, green-to-yellow, yellow-to-orange, and red stages, were conducted. A total of 89,188 unigenes were generated and 57,545 unigenes (64.52%) were annotated. Differential expression genes (DEGs) and differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) were mainly involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. The fruit launched the biosynthesis of phenolic acids and flavonols at the very beginning of fruit set and then coordinately accumulated or converted to their derivatives. This was tightly regulated by expressions of the related genes and MYB and bHLH transcription factors. The core genes products participated in the biosynthesis of ellagic acid (EA) and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (K-3-R), such as DAHPS, DQD/SDH, PAL, 4CL, CHS, CHI, F3H, F3'H, FLS, and UGT78D2, and their corresponding metabolites were elaborately characterized. Our research reveals the molecular and chemical mechanisms of the fruit development of R. chingii. The results provide a solid foundation for the genetic analysis, functional genes isolation, fruit quality improvement and modifiable breeding of R. chingii.


Assuntos
Ácido Elágico , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Rubus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácido Elágico/metabolismo , Flavonóis/biossíntese , Flavonóis/genética , Frutas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hidroxibenzoatos/metabolismo , Quempferóis/genética , Quempferóis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Controle de Qualidade , Rubus/genética , Rubus/metabolismo , Terpenos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
3.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251572, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989329

RESUMO

Over one third of crops are animal pollinated, with insects being the largest group. In some crops, including strawberries, fruit yield, weight, quality, aesthetics and shelf life increase with insect pollination. Many crops are protected from extreme weather in polytunnels, but the impacts of polytunnels on insects are poorly understood. Polytunnels could reduce pollination services, especially if insects have access issues. Here we examine the distribution and activity of honeybees and non-honeybee wild insects on a commercial fruit farm. We evaluated whether insect distributions are impacted by flower type (strawberry; raspberry; weed), or distance from polytunnel edges. We compared passive pan-trapping and active quadrat observations to establish their suitability for monitoring insect distribution and behaviour on a farm. To understand the relative value of honeybees compared to other insects for strawberry pollination, the primary crop at the site, we enhanced our observations with video data analysed using insect tracking software to document the time spent by insects on flowers. The results show honeybees strongly prefer raspberry and weed flowers over strawberry flowers and that location within the polytunnel impacts insect distributions. Consistent with recent studies, we also show that pan-traps are ineffective to sample honeybee numbers. While the pan-traps and quadrat observations tend to suggest that investment in managed honeybees for strawberry pollination might be ineffective due to consistent low numbers within the crop, the camera data provides contrary evidence. Although honeybees were relatively scarce among strawberry crops, camera data shows they spent more time visiting flowers than other insects. Our results demonstrate that a commercial fruit farm is a complex ecosystem influencing pollinator diversity and abundance through a range of factors. We show that monitoring methods may differ in their valuation of relative contributions of insects to crop pollination.


Assuntos
Criação de Abelhas , Fragaria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polinização , Rubus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Abelhas/fisiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Insetos/fisiologia
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6860, 2021 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767238

RESUMO

Spotted wing drosophila (SWD) causes significant economic loss in fruit crops to growers worldwide. There is immediate need for efficacious and selective monitoring tools that can detect infestations early. Previously, volatile organic compounds derived from apple were studied and a quinary chemical component blend (QB) was identified as the key SWD attractant in a blueberry orchard in the United States. This study's aim was to determine whether previously observed QB efficacy, selectivity, and early detection levels could be attained within raspberry and cherry fields in the USA and Europe. Results demonstrated that sticky trap baited QB dispenser provided earlier SWD detection potential than the usually adopted apple cider vinegar (ACV) trap. The number of SWD captured/trap by QB baited trapping systems was significantly lower than that of the ACV trap. However, percent SWD/trap of QB baited traps was same within cherry. Lower non-target capture will save farmer/grower's labor and time allocated to traps installation and drosophila species identification. Within the USA, SWD selectivity of QB baited liquid traps was consistently greater than sticky trap in raspberry field, suggesting that the QB dispenser can be an alternative to the standard ACV lure and that trap design could improve selectivity further.


Assuntos
Drosophila/fisiologia , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Feromônios/farmacologia , Prunus avium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rubus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia , Animais , Drosophila/efeitos dos fármacos , Europa (Continente) , Prunus avium/parasitologia , Rubus/parasitologia , Estados Unidos
5.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(1): 205-214, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The beneficial rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens N 21.4, and its metabolic elicitors were inoculated in commercial cultivars of blackberry plants (Rubus cv. Loch Ness). Phenolic compounds present in red and black fruit and the expression of structural marker genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway during fruit ripening were studied. RESULTS: An inverse relationship between gene expression and accumulation of metabolites was seen, except for the RuDFR gene, which had a direct correlation with cyanidin 3-O-glucoside synthesis, increasing its content 1.3 times when RuDFR was overexpressed in the red fruit of plants inoculated with the metabolic elicitors of P. fluorescens N 21.4, compared with red fruit of plants inoculated with N 21.4. The RuCHS gene also had a fundamental role in the accumulation of metabolites. Both rhizobacterium and metabolic elicitors triggered the flavonoid metabolism, enhancing the catechin and epicatechin content between 1.1 and 1.6 times in the case of red fruit and between 1.1 and 1.8 times in the case of black fruit. Both treatments also boosted the anthocyanin, quercetin, and kaempferol derivative content, highlighting the effects of metabolic elicitors in red fruit and the effects of live rhizobacterium in black fruit. CONCLUSION: The metabolic elicitors' capacity to modulate gene expression and to increase secondary metabolites content was demonstrated. This work therefore suggests that they are effective, affordable, easily manageable, and ecofriendly plant inoculants that complement, or are alternatives to, beneficial rhizobacteria. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/química , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Pseudomonas fluorescens/fisiologia , Rubus/microbiologia , Produção Agrícola , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Rubus/química , Rubus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rubus/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(12)2020 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545883

RESUMO

We present a case study report into nutritional competition between Trichoderma spp. isolated from wild raspberries and fungal phytopathogenic isolates (Colletotrichum sp., Botrytis sp., Verticillium sp. and Phytophthora sp.), which infect soft fruit ecological plantations. The competition was evaluated on the basis of nutritional potentiates. Namely, these were consumption and growth, calculated on the basis of substrate utilization located on Biolog® Filamentous Fungi (FF) plates. The niche size, total niche overlap and Trichoderma spp. competitiveness indices along with the occurrence of a stressful metabolic situation towards substrates highlighted the unfolding step-by-step approach. Therefore, the Trichoderma spp. and pathogen niche characteristics were provided. As a result, the substrates in the presence of which Trichoderma spp. nutritionally outcompete pathogens were denoted. These were adonitol, D-arabitol, i-erythritol, glycerol, D-mannitol and D-sorbitol. These substrates may serve as additives in biopreparations of Trichoderma spp. dedicated to plantations contaminated by phytopathogens of the genera Colletotrichum sp., Botrytis sp., Verticillium sp. and Phytophthora sp.


Assuntos
Fungos Mitospóricos/fisiologia , Phytophthora/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rubus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trichoderma/fisiologia , Botrytis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Colletotrichum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eritritol/análise , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/microbiologia , Glicerol/análise , Manitol/análise , Ribitol/análise , Rubus/microbiologia , Saccharomycetales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia do Solo , Sorbitol/análise , Álcoois Açúcares/análise
7.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 995, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flavonoids are produced in all flowering plants in a wide range of tissues including in berry fruits. These compounds are of considerable interest for their biological activities, health benefits and potential pharmacological applications. However, transcriptomic and genomic resources for wild and cultivated berry fruit species are often limited, despite their value in underpinning the in-depth study of metabolic pathways, fruit ripening as well as in the identification of genotypes rich in bioactive compounds. RESULTS: To access the genetic diversity of wild and cultivated berry fruit species that accumulate high levels of phenolic compounds in their fleshy berry(-like) fruits, we selected 13 species from Europe, South America and Asia representing eight genera, seven families and seven orders within three clades of the kingdom Plantae. RNA from either ripe fruits (ten species) or three ripening stages (two species) as well as leaf RNA (one species) were used to construct, assemble and analyse de novo transcriptomes. The transcriptome sequences are deposited in the BacHBerryGEN database (http://jicbio.nbi.ac.uk/berries) and were used, as a proof of concept, via its BLAST portal (http://jicbio.nbi.ac.uk/berries/blast.html) to identify candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid compounds. Genes encoding regulatory proteins of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway (MYB and basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors and WD40 repeat proteins) were isolated using the transcriptomic resources of wild blackberry (Rubus genevieri) and cultivated red raspberry (Rubus idaeus cv. Prestige) and were shown to activate anthocyanin synthesis in Nicotiana benthamiana. Expression patterns of candidate flavonoid gene transcripts were also studied across three fruit developmental stages via the BacHBerryEXP gene expression browser (http://www.bachberryexp.com) in R. genevieri and R. idaeus cv. Prestige. CONCLUSIONS: We report a transcriptome resource that includes data for a wide range of berry(-like) fruit species that has been developed for gene identification and functional analysis to assist in berry fruit improvement. These resources will enable investigations of metabolic processes in berries beyond the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway analysed in this study. The RNA-seq data will be useful for studies of berry fruit development and to select wild plant species useful for plant breeding purposes.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/biossíntese , Frutas/genética , Genes de Plantas , Rubus/genética , Transcriptoma , Antocianinas/biossíntese , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Magnoliopsida/classificação , Magnoliopsida/genética , Fenóis/análise , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , RNA-Seq , Rubus/química , Rubus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rubus/metabolismo
8.
Molecules ; 24(21)2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683568

RESUMO

In this work, an efficient method for the rapid extraction and separation of antioxidant phenols was developed and optimized. The method was then applied to extract and separate nine phenols from 37 varieties of raspberry, in which their antioxidant activities were further investigated. First, the extraction was conducted using ultra-sonication, which was then further separated using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet (RP-HPLC/UV) analysis. In this step, several key parameters (volume of the extraction reagent, time of extraction, and the temperature of extraction) affecting its efficiency were investigated and optimized using the response surface methodology (RSM) combined with the Box-Behnken design (BBD) so that the optimal conditions were obtained. According to the overall results of the optimization study, the optimal conditions were chosen as follows: volume of extraction reagent = 2.0 mL, time of extraction = 50.0 min, and temperature of extraction = 50 °C. The optimal conditions were then applied to extract nine phenols, including gallic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, cumaric acid, ferulic acid, rosemary acid, and quercetin from 37 raspberry varieties. The extracted phenols were characterized and their antioxidant activities, including DPPH- and ABTS- free radical scavenging and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity, using HepG2 cells as the model, were subsequently studied. The findings suggested that although their contents varied among most raspberry varieties, these phenols significantly contributed toward their antioxidant capacity and scavenging intracellular ROS activities. This study provides a scientific and theoretical basis for the selection of raspberry varieties and product development in Qinghai province.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Fenóis/análise , Rubus/química , Rubus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Benzotiazóis/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/química , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Fenóis/química , Picratos/química , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ácidos Sulfônicos/química , Tibet
9.
J Food Biochem ; 43(10): e12964, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608465

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate the free and bound volatiles in the Rubus coreanus (RC) fruits of different ripening stages. Thirty-seven free volatiles and 28 bound volatiles were identified in RC fruit for the first time. The contents of free (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, 1-hexanol, 2-heptanol, ß-myrcene, (E), (Z)-ß-ocimene, allo-ocimene, linalool, cosmene, α-terpineol, methyl salicylate, eugenol, and ß-damascenone remain high, and increased with the ripening of RC fruit. The contents of 11 bound volatiles decreased during the ripening, and became lower than the contents of their free volatiles in the ripe fruit. The ripe black fruit is closely correlated to the free nonanal, sulcatone, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, 1-hexanol, 2-heptanol, 1-heptanol, 1-nonanol, (E)-linalool oxide (furanoid), and ß-damascenone, and bound (E)-2-hexen-1-ol and (E)- ß-ocimene. The ripe RC fruit is more fruity and floral than unripe fruit. The gradually hydrolyzed bound volatiles can enhance the fruity, floral, and herbaceous odors. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Rubus coreanus (RC) fruit is a functional natural fruit. Both fresh and processed Rubus coreanus fruits including jams, confitures, wine, yogurt, vinegar, and beverages, as well as ingredients in functional foods or cosmetics have been extensively consumed. However, the free and bound aroma compounds in RC fruit have not been well understood. This work illustrates the contributions of free and bound volatiles to the flavor of RC fruit.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Rubus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/química , Aldeídos/química , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/química , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Odorantes/análise , Rubus/química
10.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222707, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536553

RESUMO

To determine the origin and genetic consequences of anagenesis in Rubus takesimensis on Ulleung Island, Korea, we compared the genetic diversity and population structure of R. takesimensis with those of its continental progenitor R. crataegifolius. We broadly sampled a total of 315 accessions in 35 populations and sequenced five noncoding regions of chloroplast DNA. Rubus takesimensis emerged as nonmonophyletic and several geographically diverse continental populations were likely responsible for the origin of R. takesimensis; the majority of R. takesimensis accessions were sisters to the clade containing accessions of R. crataegifolius, primarily from the Korean peninsula, while rare accessions from three populations shared common ancestors with the ones from the southern part of the Korean peninsula, Jeju Island, and Japan. A few accessions from the Chusan population originated independently from the Korean peninsula. Of 129 haplotypes, 81 and 48 were found exclusively in R. crataegifolius and R. takesimensis, respectively. We found unusually high genetic diversity in two regions on Ulleung Island and no geographic population structure. For R. crataegifolius, two major haplotype groups were found; one for the northern mainland Korean peninsula, and the other for the southern Korean peninsula and the Japanese archipelago. Compared with populations of R. crataegifolius sampled from Japan, much higher haplotype diversity was found in populations from the Korean peninsula. The patterns of genetic consequences in R. takesimensis need to be verified for other endemic species based on chloroplast DNA and independent nuclear markers to synthesize emerging patterns of anagenetic speciation on Ulleung Island.


Assuntos
Especiação Genética , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , Rubus/genética , DNA de Cloroplastos/análise , DNA de Cloroplastos/genética , DNA de Plantas/análise , DNA de Plantas/genética , Genética Populacional , Geografia , Ilhas , Japão , Filogenia , República da Coreia , Rubus/classificação , Rubus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
J Insect Sci ; 19(1)2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624704

RESUMO

The invasion of the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, across the Americas and Europe has led to increased insecticide applications to protect fruit crops. This insecticide usage conflicts with integrated pest management programs, as well as harvest, export, and pollination services in the affected crops. A novel management tool was assessed against D. suzukii that may mitigate these conflicts. HOOK SWD, an attract-and-kill (A&K) formulation applied as a sprayable bait, was evaluated for three growing seasons in two berry crops in New Jersey and California. In blueberry crops treated with HOOK SWD, fruit infestations by D. suzukii were 2-8 times lower than in untreated crops. In trials in commercial raspberry fields, weekly or biweekly HOOK SWD applications combined with a single grower standard D. suzukii-targeted cover spray resulted in nearly 2-5 times fewer fruit infestations compared to the grower standard cover spray alone. Assays of the residual activity of HOOK SWD resulted in more than 78-93% adult D. suzukii mortality when exposed to raspberry leaves after the formulation had aged for 35 d in the field under plastic hoop houses. These results suggest that this A&K strategy can be integrated in D. suzukii management programs.


Assuntos
Drosophila , Controle de Insetos , Feromônios , Animais , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , California , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Masculino , New Jersey , Rubus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 90(4): 3879-3885, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30365722

RESUMO

The goal of this work was to evaluate blackberry cultivars in terms of productivity and bioactive compounds. Two experiments were conducted: in the first experiment four cultivars were evaluated (Cherokee, Guarani, BRS-Tupy and Xavante). In the second experiment, the effects of pruning management in the BRS-Tupy cultivar were evaluated with the following treatments: drastic winter pruning (zero primocane), and maintenance of two, three or four primocanes in the winter pruning. Vegetative, productive and fruit quality characteristics were determined, including measurement of bioactive compounds. Among the cultivars, the cultivar BRS-Tupy was superior in terms of productive characteristics, but for content of anthocyanins and flavonoids, the cultivar Xavante stood out (191.97 and 68.44 mg 100 g-1, respectively). Drastic winter pruning produced lower fruit quality. The number of primocanes has a directly proportional influence on the soluble solids content and productivity component. For farmers who want fruits with greater levels of bioactive compounds, the use of cultivar Xavante is recommended; however, for those who aim for productive aspects, we suggest the use of cultivar BRS-Tupy with four primocanes per plant.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Antocianinas/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Frutas/química , Fenóis/análise , Rubus/química , Rubus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estações do Ano
13.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 73(4): 302-307, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30218257

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the free individual phenolics and the in vitro antioxidant capacity of blackberry, acerola, yellow guava, guabiju, jambolan and jabuticaba fruits in two edible stages. Of the thirty-three phenolics investigated by liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), twenty-five were quantified and the major ones were catechin, isoquercitrin, epicatechin and gallic acid. The highest values for the total phenolic content (in dry matter) were observed for acerola (83.6 to 97.7 mg gallic acid equivalents g-1 DM) and blackberry (18.9 to 28.3 mg gallic acid equivalents g-1 DM); however, acerola, jabuticaba, and blackberry showed the highest antioxidant capacities (134.6 to 1120.4 mg Trolox equivalents g-1 for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 43.6 to 501.8 µmol Trolox equivalents g-1 for ferric reducing antioxidant power). For most fruits, the antioxidant capacity decreased during the ripening, possibly due to a decrease in the concentration of most of the phenolics.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Flavonoides/análise , Malpighiaceae/química , Myrtaceae/química , Fenóis/análise , Rubus/química , Brasil , Cromatografia Líquida , Frutas/química , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Malpighiaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Myrtaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rubus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
14.
BMC Genet ; 19(1): 59, 2018 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30111279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The changing climate is altering timing of key fruit ripening processes and increasing the occurrence of fruit defects. To improve our understanding of the genetic control of raspberry fruit development an enhanced genetic linkage map was developed and used to examine ripening phenotypic data. RESULTS: In this study we developed an enhanced genetic linkage map for the raspberry cvs. Glen Moy x Latham reference mapping population using genotyping by sequencing (GbS). Alignment to a newly sequenced draft reference genome of red raspberry, cultivar (cv.) Glen Moy, identified 8019 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). After stringent filtering to take account of read coverage over all the progeny individuals, association with a single chromosome, heterozygosity and marker regression mapping, 2348 high confidence SNPs were retained and integrated with an existing raspberry genetic map. The linkage map contained many more SNPs segregating in Latham than in Glen Moy. This caused difficulties in quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping with standard software and a novel analysis based on a hidden Markov model was used to improve the mapping. QTL mapping using the newly generated dense genetic map not only corroborated previously identified genetic locations but also provided additional genetic elements controlling fruit ripening in raspberry. CONCLUSION: The high-density GbS map located the QTL peaks more precisely than in earlier studies, aligned the QTLs with Glen Moy genome scaffolds, narrowed the range of potential candidate genes to these regions that can be utilised in other populations or in gene expression studies to confirm their role and increased the repertoire of markers available to understand the genetic control of fruit ripening traits.


Assuntos
Frutas/genética , Ligação Genética , Organogênese Vegetal/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Rubus/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Rubus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Environ Entomol ; 47(4): 935-945, 2018 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29668869

RESUMO

Spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is an invasive pest of soft-skinned fruits across the globe. Effective monitoring is necessary to manage this pest, but suitable attractants are still being identified. In this study, we combined lures with fermenting liquid baits to improve D. suzukii trapping specificity and attractiveness. We also measured the efficiency and specificity of baits/lures during different times of the season; the reproductive status of females among baits/lures; and the effects of locations and crop type on these response variables. We developed a metric that combined mating status and fat content to determine differences in types of females attracted. Lures utilizing yeast and sugar-based volatiles trapped the most D. suzukii. The addition of a commercial lure to yeast and sugar-based lures increased catches in most locations, but was also the least specific to D. suzukii. Apple juice-based chemical lures tended to be most specific to D. suzukii, while lures comprised of a singular attractant tended to trap more D. suzukii with a higher reproductive potential than combinations of attractants. Trap catch and lure specificity was lower during fruit development than fruit ripening. While catch amounts varied by geographic location and crop type, attractants performed similarly relative to each other in each location and crop. Based on the metrics in this study, the yeast and sugar-based attractants were the most effective lures. However, further work is needed to improve early season monitoring, elucidate the effects of physiological status on bait attraction, and understand how abiotic factors influence bait attraction.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Quimiotaxia , Drosophila/fisiologia , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Feromônios/farmacologia , Rubus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Feminino , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Geografia , Masculino , Estados Unidos
16.
J Sci Food Agric ; 98(12): 4616-4624, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29508396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Consumer demand for organic products is increasing because of their claimed health benefits. Blackberries are a rich source of polyphenols, with high antioxidant activity; nevertheless, the impact of organic versus conventional agricultural practices on its phytochemical composition is unknown. 'Loch Ness' and 'Chester Thornless' were selected as blackberry cultivars for this study because of their desired sensory and technological properties, which make them more suitable for export. RESULTS: 'Loch Ness' variety presented a higher amounts of polyphenols and higher antioxidant activity when compared to the 'Chester Thornless' variety. The impact of agricultural practices on the phytochemical composition of the two varieties was contradictory. Under organic agricultural practices, levels of polyphenols increased for 'Loch Ness' and decreased for 'Chester Thornless', whereas the soluble solids content increased in both varieties. These changes in composition were correlated with changes observed in the blackberries' sensory profile. CONCLUSION: The effect of agricultural practices on the blackberries' chemical and sensory profile was dependent on the variety and cannot be generalized. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Agricultura Orgânica/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , Rubus/química , Antioxidantes/química , Frutas/química , Humanos , Rubus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Paladar
17.
Ecol Appl ; 28(5): 1215-1222, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29575300

RESUMO

Globally, agriculture increasingly depends on pollinators to produce many seed and fruit crops. However, what constitutes optimal pollination service for pollinator-dependent crops remains unanswered. We developed a simulation model to identify the optimal pollination service that maximizes fruit quality in crops. The model depicts the pollination (i.e., autonomous self-fertilization, pollen deposition) and post-pollination (i.e., pollen germination, and time from germination to ovule fertilization) processes leading to fruit and seed set and allows for negative flower-pollinator interactions, specifically pistil damage. We parameterized and validated the model based on empirical observations of commercial raspberry in western Argentina. To assess the effects of pollination intensity for fruit production, we conducted simulations over a range of visit number per flower by the two primary managed pollinators worldwide, Apis mellifera and Bombus terrestris. Simulations identified that ~15-35 visits per flower by A. mellifera or ~10-20 visits by B. terrestris provide adequate pollination and maximize raspberry fruit quality (i.e., estimated as the proportion of ovules that develop into drupelets). Visits in excess of these optima reduce simulated fruit quality, and flowers receiving >670 honey bee visits or >470 bumble bee visits would produce fruits of poorer quality than those receiving no bee visits. The simulations generated consistent, unbiased predictions of fruit quality for 12 raspberry fields. This model could be adapted easily to other animal-pollinated crops and used to guide efficient pollinator management in any agro-ecosystem.


Assuntos
Abelhas/fisiologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Polinização , Rubus/fisiologia , Animais , Argentina , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Rubus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
Environ Entomol ; 47(3): 567-574, 2018 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29566159

RESUMO

Berry crops are increasingly produced in high tunnels, which provide growers with the opportunity to extend their production season. This is particularly beneficial for the northern region of the United States with short and unpredictable growing seasons and where rainfall limits fruit quality. However, little is known about the effect of high tunnels on the community of pests, natural enemies, or pollinators, especially in berry crops, and there are few reports of the insect community in raspberries in this region. We compared the abundance of these insects during two growing seasons in field-grown and tunnel-grown floricane and primocane producing raspberries through direct observation and trapping at five sites in southwestern and central Michigan. We found eight key pests, including spotted wing Drosophila, leafhoppers, and thrips, and seven key natural enemies including parasitoid wasps, spiders, and lacewings, that were common across all sites. Pest populations were up to 6.6 times higher in tunnels, and pests typical of greenhouse systems became more dominant in this environment. Natural enemies observed on plants under tunnels were also more abundant than in the field, but this trend was reversed for natural enemies trapped on yellow sticky cards. There was also a reduction of both honey bees and wild bees under the high tunnels, which was balanced by use of commercial bumble bees. These data not only provide much-needed information on the phenology of the insect community on raspberry plantings, they also highlight the entomological implications of protected raspberry culture.


Assuntos
Artrópodes/fisiologia , Herbivoria , Polinização , Comportamento Predatório , Rubus , Animais , Michigan , Rubus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estações do Ano
19.
J Sci Food Agric ; 98(11): 4331-4338, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29430645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phytochemical profiles of two Brazilian native fruits - pitanga (red and purple) and araçá (yellow and red) - as well as strawberry cultivars Albion, Aromas and Camarosa, blackberry cultivar Tupy and blueberry cultivar Bluegen cultivated in Brazil were characterized for total phenolic content and total anthocyanin content by liquid chromatography coupled to a photodiode array and a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Radical scavenging, antiherpes and cytotoxic activities of these berry extracts were also evaluated. RESULTS: Blueberry presented the highest total anthocyanin content (1202 mg cyanidin-O-glucoside equivalents kg-1 fresh fruit), while strawberry cultivar Aromas presented the highest total phenolic content (13 550 mg gallic acid equivalents kg-1 fresh fruit). Liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis resulted in the identification of 21 anthocyanins. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of cyanidin-O-glucoside in yellow and red Araçá fruit and the first time eight anthocyanins have been reported in pitanga fruits. DPPH and ABTS assays showed that blueberry cultivar Bluegen, blackberry cultivar Tupy and pitanga (red and purple) showed the most promising antiradical activities, respectively. No relevant cytotoxicity against three cancer cell lines or antiherpes activity was detected under the experimental conditions tested. CONCLUSION: Total anthocyanin content of all fruits had a strong positive correlation with their free radical scavenging activity, suggesting anthocyanins contribute to the antioxidant potential of these fruits. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Frutas/química , Antioxidantes/química , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/química , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brasil , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fragaria/química , Fragaria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenóis/química , Rubus/química , Rubus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
20.
Pest Manag Sci ; 74(1): 120-125, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28714131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drosophila suzukii Matsumura is a serious pest of small fruits that lays its eggs in growing fruit. Current management strategies rely on an unsustainable schedule of foliar applications of chemical insecticides. Alternative approaches to suppressing oviposition are under investigation, such as attract-and-kill and the use of oviposition deterrents. Here, we evaluated two behavioral control approaches in combination as a push-pull strategy using laboratory and field assays. RESULTS: In laboratory caged assays, both an attractive mass trapping device (pull) and an oviposition deterrent (push: 1-octen-3-ol) reduced oviposition by D. suzukii, and the combination of the two (push-pull) resulted in significantly greater reduction than either treatment alone. In field experiments, oviposition reduction was observed in fruit from plots treated with oviposition deterrent (push) or a combination of mass trapping devices and deterrent (push-pull) compared with fruit from control plots. However, oviposition in plots with mass trapping devices (pull) was higher than observed in all other treatments. Additionally, the protection provided by the deterrent in push plots extended to the entire plot rather than just in fruit closest to deterrent dispensers. CONCLUSION: Push-pull treatments negatively affected D. suzukii infestation in both laboratory and field experiments. The reduction in oviposition observed in laboratory experiments was based on the additive effect of push and pull components acting on a finite population, while the reduction observed in field experiments appeared to be mainly based on the effect of pull components. We discuss potential underlying reasons for the discrepancy results and suggest potential improvements. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Drosophila , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Inseticidas , Octanóis , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Rubus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Feminino
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