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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638877

RESUMO

Due to the lack of effective and stable reference genes, studies on functional genes in Rubus, a genus of economically important small berry crops, have been greatly limited. To select the best internal reference genes of different types, we selected four representative cultivars of blackberry and raspberry (red raspberry, yellow raspberry, and black raspberry) as the research material and used RT-qPCR technology combined with three internal stability analysis software programs (geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper) to analyze 12 candidate reference genes for the stability of their expression. The number of most suitable internal reference genes for different cultivars, tissues, and fruit developmental stages of Rubus was calculated by geNorm software to be two. Based on the results obtained with the three software programs, the most stable genes in the different cultivars were RuEEF1A and Ru18S. Finally, to validate the reliability of selected reference genes, the expression pattern of the RuCYP73A gene was analyzed, and the results highlighted the importance of appropriate reference gene selection. RuEEF1A and Ru18S were screened as reference genes for their relatively stable expression, providing a reference for the further study of key functional genes in blackberry and raspberry and an effective tool for the analysis of differential gene expression.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/normas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/normas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/normas , Rubus , Padrões de Referência , Rubus/genética , Rubus/metabolismo
2.
Plant Sci ; 311: 110996, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482908

RESUMO

Rubus chingii, is widely distributed in many Asian countries and well known for its medicinal and dietary properties. Diversity of fruit color in raspberry has been attributed to the presence of either anthocyanins or carotenoids. In this study, we investigated anthocyanins and carotenoids, and their biosynthesis by LC-MS/MS. Six anthocyanins mainly consisted of flavanol-anthocyanins while five carotenoids mainly consisted of ß-citraurin esters. Flavanol-anthocyanins were produced from an offshoot of the anthocyanin biosynthesis, which started with biosynthesis of flavanols and anthocyanidin by leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR)/anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS/LDOX) respectively. ß-citraurin esters were produced from cleavage of zeaxanthin and esterification by organic acid, which was an offshoot of the carotenoid biosynthesis. The offshoot started with biosynthesis of zeaxanthin and ß-citraurin by carotene ß-hydroxylase (CHYB/LUT5) and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) respectively. During fruit ripening, biosynthesis of flavanols and anthocyanins was down-regulated by genes/proteins involved in phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis, while biosynthesis of ß-citraurin esters was up-regulated by imbalanced expression of genes/proteins involved in ß,ß-ring and ß, ε-ring hydroxylation. Thus, ß-citraurin esters, instead of anthocyanins imparted reddish color to the ripe fruit. These pigments and their biosynthesis in R. chingii are totally different from what occurs in other raspberry species.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Pigmentação/fisiologia , Rubus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rubus/metabolismo , Antocianinas/genética , China , Frutas/anatomia & histologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Pigmentação/genética , Rubus/anatomia & histologia
3.
Plant Cell Rep ; 40(10): 1923-1946, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333679

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Combined transcriptomic and metabolic analyses reveal that fruit of Rubus chingii Hu launches biosynthesis of phenolic acids and flavonols at beginning of fruit set and then coordinately accumulated or converted to their derivatives. Rubus chingii Hu (Chinese raspberry) is an important dual functional food with nutraceutical and pharmaceutical values. Comprehensively understanding the mechanisms of fruit development and bioactive components synthesis and regulation could accelerate genetic analysis and molecular breeding for the unique species. Combined transcriptomic and metabolic analyses of R. chingii fruits from different developmental stages, including big green, green-to-yellow, yellow-to-orange, and red stages, were conducted. A total of 89,188 unigenes were generated and 57,545 unigenes (64.52%) were annotated. Differential expression genes (DEGs) and differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) were mainly involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. The fruit launched the biosynthesis of phenolic acids and flavonols at the very beginning of fruit set and then coordinately accumulated or converted to their derivatives. This was tightly regulated by expressions of the related genes and MYB and bHLH transcription factors. The core genes products participated in the biosynthesis of ellagic acid (EA) and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (K-3-R), such as DAHPS, DQD/SDH, PAL, 4CL, CHS, CHI, F3H, F3'H, FLS, and UGT78D2, and their corresponding metabolites were elaborately characterized. Our research reveals the molecular and chemical mechanisms of the fruit development of R. chingii. The results provide a solid foundation for the genetic analysis, functional genes isolation, fruit quality improvement and modifiable breeding of R. chingii.


Assuntos
Ácido Elágico , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Rubus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácido Elágico/metabolismo , Flavonóis/biossíntese , Flavonóis/genética , Frutas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hidroxibenzoatos/metabolismo , Quempferóis/genética , Quempferóis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Controle de Qualidade , Rubus/genética , Rubus/metabolismo , Terpenos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
4.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 20(1): 139-151, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721242

RESUMO

Some vegetable oils are currently being promoted as a safe alternative to commercial sunscreens. The true UVB photoprotective efficacy of 14 virgin vegetable oils and the suitability of the dilution method for determining their SPF value were evaluated. Oils and standard sunscreens were investigated in vitro by the Mansur's method in Slovakia and in vivo by the ISO method in the Czech Republic. SPF values in vitro (0.1; 0.0; 0.4; 0.2 and 0.2) and in vivo (2.5; 1.2; 2.6; 2.6; and 2.8) of the five most promoted oils (from carrot seed, coconut, raspberry seed, rosehip seed, and wheat germ) were significantly lower than the values reported in the controversial studies. We have shown that the overestimated SPF values of these oils were determined by authors who did not strictly follow Mansur's original methodology. The other eight vegetable oils also provide no or negligible SPF values. Only the in vitro SPF value of 11.2 tamanu oil is worth mentioning, probably due to high proportion of calophyllolides. In vitro and in vivo SPF ratios from 1.14 to 0.94 obtained by two methods in two laboratories for six commercial sunscreen oils used as controls confirm the correctness of performing the Mansur's method in this study. However, this dilution method has proven to be fundamentally flawed in determining the SPF value of substances with such negligible photoprotection as most vegetable oils can provide. An SPF value of less than 1, which can be determined by this Mansur's method, is physiologically impossible and meaningless.


Assuntos
Óleos Vegetais/química , Protetores Solares/química , Raios Ultravioleta , Adulto , Idoso , Benzimidazóis/química , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rubus/química , Rubus/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Fator de Proteção Solar
5.
Food Chem ; 336: 127721, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763731

RESUMO

The major aroma-active compounds in clear red raspberry juice were identified by molecular sensory science approaches. Thirty-one aroma-active compounds were identified using detection frequency analysis and aroma extract dilution analysis. Among them, 18 volatiles with aroma activity in red raspberry were identified for the first time, while 14 volatiles with odor activity values (OAVs) ≥ 1 were confirmed as the major aroma-active compounds. Three C6 aldehydes showed the highest detection frequencies of 8, and ß-ionone exhibited the highest OAV of 9507 and flavor dilution factor of 512, which indicated that the floral and grassy note could be dominant in overall aroma. Quantitative descriptive analysis suggested that the grassy, floral, woody, and caramel-like notes can be simulated using aroma recombination model 1. Electronic nose analysis also demonstrated that model 1 had closer similarity to the original juice than others. The combination strategy used here would help improve the knowledge of red raspberry aroma.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/análise , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Rubus/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Análise Discriminante , Nariz Eletrônico , Aromatizantes/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Norisoprenoides/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Componente Principal , Rubus/metabolismo , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
6.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(1): 205-214, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The beneficial rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens N 21.4, and its metabolic elicitors were inoculated in commercial cultivars of blackberry plants (Rubus cv. Loch Ness). Phenolic compounds present in red and black fruit and the expression of structural marker genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway during fruit ripening were studied. RESULTS: An inverse relationship between gene expression and accumulation of metabolites was seen, except for the RuDFR gene, which had a direct correlation with cyanidin 3-O-glucoside synthesis, increasing its content 1.3 times when RuDFR was overexpressed in the red fruit of plants inoculated with the metabolic elicitors of P. fluorescens N 21.4, compared with red fruit of plants inoculated with N 21.4. The RuCHS gene also had a fundamental role in the accumulation of metabolites. Both rhizobacterium and metabolic elicitors triggered the flavonoid metabolism, enhancing the catechin and epicatechin content between 1.1 and 1.6 times in the case of red fruit and between 1.1 and 1.8 times in the case of black fruit. Both treatments also boosted the anthocyanin, quercetin, and kaempferol derivative content, highlighting the effects of metabolic elicitors in red fruit and the effects of live rhizobacterium in black fruit. CONCLUSION: The metabolic elicitors' capacity to modulate gene expression and to increase secondary metabolites content was demonstrated. This work therefore suggests that they are effective, affordable, easily manageable, and ecofriendly plant inoculants that complement, or are alternatives to, beneficial rhizobacteria. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/química , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Pseudomonas fluorescens/fisiologia , Rubus/microbiologia , Produção Agrícola , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Rubus/química , Rubus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rubus/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário
7.
Nutrients ; 12(12)2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348685

RESUMO

Consumption of red raspberries has been reported to exert acute beneficial effects on postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, triglyceridemia, and cytokine levels in metabolically disturbed subjects. In a two-arm parallel-group, randomized, controlled trial, 59 subjects with overweight or abdominal obesity and with slight hyperinsulinemia or hypertriglyceridemia were randomized to consume 280 g/day of frozen raspberries or to maintain their usual diet for 8 weeks. Primary analyses measured metabolic differences between the groups. Secondary analyses performed with omics tools in the intervention group assessed blood gene expression and plasma metabolomic changes following the raspberry supplementation. The intervention did not significantly affect plasma insulin, glucose, inflammatory marker concentrations, nor blood pressure. Following the supplementation, 43 genes were differentially expressed, and several functional pathways were enriched, a major portion of which were involved in the regulation of cytotoxicity, immune cell trafficking, protein signal transduction, and interleukin production. In addition, 10 serum metabolites were found significantly altered, among which ß-alanine, trimethylamine N-oxide, and bioactive lipids. Although the supplementation had no meaningful metabolic effects, these results highlight the impact of a diet rich in raspberry on the immune function and phospholipid metabolism, thus providing novel insights into potential immune-metabolic pathways influenced by regular raspberry consumption.


Assuntos
Dieta/métodos , Hiperinsulinismo/complicações , Hipertrigliceridemia/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/complicações , Rubus/imunologia , Rubus/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/imunologia , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Frutas/imunologia , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperinsulinismo/sangue , Hiperinsulinismo/imunologia , Hipertrigliceridemia/sangue , Hipertrigliceridemia/imunologia , Insulina/sangue , Insulina/imunologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipídeos/imunologia , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Molecules ; 25(24)2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339214

RESUMO

Previously, we demonstrated that a 5% ethanol extract of unripe Rubus coreanus (5-uRCK) and ellagic acid has hypocholesterolemic and antiobesity activity, at least partially mediated by the downregulation of adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed animals. The present study investigated the thermogenic and lipolytic antiobesity effects of 5-uRCK and ellagic acid in HFD-induced obese C57BL/6 mice and explored its mechanism of action. Mice fed an HFD received 5-uRCK or ellagic acid as a post-treatment or pretreatment. Both post-treated and pretreated mice showed significant reductions in body weight and adipose tissue mass compared to the HFD-fed mice. The protein levels of lipolysis-associated proteins, such as adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), phosphorylated hormone-sensitive lipase (p-HSL), and perilipin1 (PLIN1), were significantly increased in both the 5-uRCK- and ellagic acid-treated mouse epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT). Additionally, thermogenesis-associated proteins, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT1), uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC1α), in inguinal white adipose tissue (ingWAT) were clearly increased in both the 5-uRCK- and ellagic acid-treated mice compared to HFD-fed mice. These results suggest that 5-uRCK and ellagic acid are effective for suppressing body weight gain and enhancing the lipid profile.


Assuntos
Ácido Elágico/química , Lipólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rubus/química , Termogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipogenia/genética , Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/patologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Elágico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Elágico/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Elágico/farmacologia , Lipogênese/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/veterinária , PPAR alfa/genética , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , Rubus/metabolismo , Proteína Desacopladora 1/genética , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo
9.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33238618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota metabolize select dietary (poly)phenols to absorbable metabolites that exert biological effects important in metabolic health. Microbiota composition associated with health/disease status may affect its functional capacity to yield bioactive metabolites from dietary sources. Therefore, this study assessed gut microbiome composition and its related functional capacity to metabolize fruit (poly)phenols in individuals with prediabetes and insulin resistance (PreDM-IR, n = 26) compared to a metabolically healthy Reference group (n = 10). METHODS: Shotgun sequencing was used to characterize gut microbiome composition. Targeted quantitative metabolomic analyses of plasma and urine collected over 24 h were used to assess microbial-derived metabolites in response to a (poly)phenol-rich raspberry test drink. RESULTS: PreDM-IR compared to the Reference group: (1) enriched Blautia obeum and Blautia wexlerae and depleted Bacteroides dorei and Coprococcus eutactus. Akkermansia muciniphila and Bacteroides spp. were depleted in the lean PreDM-IR subset; and (2) impaired microbial catabolism of select (poly)phenols resulting in lower 3,8-dihydroxy-urolithin (urolithin A), phenyl-γ-valerolactones and various phenolic acids concentrations (p < 0.05). Controlling for obesity revealed relationships with microbial species that may serve as metagenomic markers of diabetes development and therapeutic targets. CONCLUSIONS: Data provide insight from multi-omics approaches to advance knowledge at the diet-gut-disease nexus serving as a platform for devising dietary strategies to improve metabolic health.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Fenóis/metabolismo , Estado Pré-Diabético/metabolismo , Estado Pré-Diabético/microbiologia , Rubus/metabolismo , Adulto , Bebidas , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
10.
Food Chem ; 328: 126833, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480265

RESUMO

Raspberries are rich in polyphenols but the impact of organic versus conventional agricultural practices on their phytochemical composition is not well known. This study aimed to analyse and compare the polyphenol accumulation in raspberries grown under both agricultural practices in the same edaphoclimatic conditions. Two raspberry cultivars 'Kweli' and 'Tulameen' were used. Under organic agricultural practices, the polyphenols levels increased for the 'Kweli' cultivar but decreased for the 'Tulameen' cultivar. 'Tulameen' cultivar grown under conventional agricultural practices contained higher anthocyanins levels than grown under organic agricultural practices while for the 'Kweli' cultivar no significant differences were observed between the two agricultural practices. 'Kweli' cultivar presented a significantly higher amount of ellagitannins and ellagic acid derivatives when compared to the 'Tulameen' cultivar under both agricultural practices. The effect of the agricultural practices on the raspberries' chemical profile was dependent on the cultivar and cannot be generalised.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Rubus/química , Antocianinas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácido Elágico/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/química , Rubus/metabolismo
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(22): 6170-6180, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383861

RESUMO

Beneficial rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens N 21.4 and its metabolic elicitors inoculated to cultivars of blackberry (Rubus spp. Var. Loch Ness) reinforced the plants' immune system and improved their fitness by increasing photosynthesis, decreasing oxidative stress, and activating pathogenesis-related proteins. They also triggered the leaves' flavonoid metabolism, enhancing the accumulation of beneficial phenolic compounds such as kaempferols and quercetin derivatives. The elicitation of leaf secondary metabolism allows one to take advantage of the blackberry leaves (a current crop waste), following the premises of the circular economy, to isolate and obtain high added value compounds. The results of this work suggest the use of N 21.4 and/or its metabolic elicitors as plant inoculants as an effective and economically and environmentally friendly agronomic alternative practice in the exploitation of blackberry crops to obtain plants with a better immune system and to revalorize the leaf pruning as a potential source of polyphenols.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Rubus/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Rubus/microbiologia , Metabolismo Secundário
12.
Chem Biodivers ; 17(4): e2000033, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119759

RESUMO

Five traditional medicinal food from the Tibetan plateau including Nitraria tangutorum Bobrov (NT), Hippophae rhamnoides L. (HR), Lycium ruthenicum Murray (LR), Lycium barbarum L. (LB) and Rubus corchorifolius L.f. (RC) are rich in phenolic compounds. However, the detailed studies about the phenolic compounds remain scarce. Therefore, we established a rapid method for the simultaneous identification and quantification of the phenolic compounds from berries via Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadruple-Orbitrap MS system (UPLC-Q-Orbitrap MS). This method was verified from many aspects including detection limit, quantification limit, precision, repeatability, stability, average recovery rate and recovery range, and then was used to analyze the phenolic compounds in these five species of berries. Finally, a total of 21 phenolic compounds were directly identified by comparing the retention time and exact mass, of which 14 compounds were identified by us for the first time in berries from the Tibetan plateau, including one flavonoid aglycone (myricetin), 11 phenolic acids (gallic acid, protocatechuate, chlorogenic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, 2-hydroxybenzeneacetic acid and ellagic acid), one flavanol (catechin) and one dihydrochalcone flavonoid (phloretin). Quantitative results showed that rutin, myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol were the main flavonoids. Moreover, a variety of phenolic acid compounds were also detected in most of the berries from the Tibetan plateau. Among these compounds, the contents of protocatechuate and chlorogenic acid were high, and high levels of catechin and phloretin were also detected in these plateau berries.


Assuntos
Hippophae/química , Lycium/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Fenóis/química , Rubus/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Hippophae/metabolismo , Lycium/metabolismo , Medicina Tradicional , Rubus/metabolismo , Tibet
13.
Food Chem ; 309: 125694, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706673

RESUMO

Despite the numerous studies that have shown a wide range of biological activities to berry fruits, scientific data focusing on modern, rapid and simple extraction methods followed by a clean-up step is still lacking. Therefore, the present work was aimed at investigating the use of a fast one-step solid-liquid extraction procedure followed by a dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up step to evaluate the phenolic composition, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities from three of the principal berries found in Brazil, pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius Schott.), and strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.). Under the optimized extraction conditions, sixteen phenolic compounds were determined by UHPLC-MS/MS analysis and all berry extracts showed antioxidant activity and antiproliferative effects on cervical (HeLa) and colon (HT-29) cancer cells. Overall, these results highlight the importance of the clean-up step for more reliable data in studies of health-promoting proprieties from berry fruits.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rosaceae/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fragaria/química , Fragaria/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Romã (Fruta)/química , Romã (Fruta)/metabolismo , Rosaceae/metabolismo , Rubus/química , Rubus/metabolismo , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
14.
Insect Sci ; 27(4): 771-779, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087762

RESUMO

Herbivorous insects may benefit from avoiding the smell produced by phytopathogens infecting plant host tissue if the infected tissue reduces insect fitness. However, in many cases the same species of phytopathogen can also infect host plant tissues that do not directly affect herbivore fitness. Thus, insects may benefit from differentiating between pathogen odors emanating from food and nonfood tissues. This is based on the hypothesis that unnecessarily staying attentive to pathogen odor from nonfood tissue may incur opportunity costs associated with not responding to other important survival functions. In this study adults of Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, an invasive larval frugivore, showed reduced attraction to the odor of raspberry fruit, a food tissue, when infected with Botrytis cinerea Pers., a ubiquitous phytopathogen, in favor of odors of uninfected raspberry fruit. Moreover, D. suzukii oviposited fewer eggs on infected raspberry fruit relative to uninfected raspberry fruit. Larval survival and adult size after eclosion were significantly reduced when reared on B. cinerea-infected raspberry relative to uninfected fruit. Interestingly, when the behavioral choice experiment was repeated using Botrytis-infected vs. -uninfected strawberry leaves, a nonfood tissue, in combination with fresh raspberry fruit, odor from B. cinerea-infected leaves did not reduce D. suzukii attraction to raspberries relative to raspberries with uninfected leaves. These behavioral results illustrate the important role context can play in odor-mediated interactions between insects, plants and microbes. We discuss implications of our findings for developing a repellent that can be useful for the management of D. suzukii.


Assuntos
Botrytis/química , Drosophila/fisiologia , Frutas/química , Odorantes/análise , Percepção Olfatória , Rubus/química , Animais , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/microbiologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Oviposição , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Rubus/metabolismo , Rubus/microbiologia
15.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 995, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flavonoids are produced in all flowering plants in a wide range of tissues including in berry fruits. These compounds are of considerable interest for their biological activities, health benefits and potential pharmacological applications. However, transcriptomic and genomic resources for wild and cultivated berry fruit species are often limited, despite their value in underpinning the in-depth study of metabolic pathways, fruit ripening as well as in the identification of genotypes rich in bioactive compounds. RESULTS: To access the genetic diversity of wild and cultivated berry fruit species that accumulate high levels of phenolic compounds in their fleshy berry(-like) fruits, we selected 13 species from Europe, South America and Asia representing eight genera, seven families and seven orders within three clades of the kingdom Plantae. RNA from either ripe fruits (ten species) or three ripening stages (two species) as well as leaf RNA (one species) were used to construct, assemble and analyse de novo transcriptomes. The transcriptome sequences are deposited in the BacHBerryGEN database (http://jicbio.nbi.ac.uk/berries) and were used, as a proof of concept, via its BLAST portal (http://jicbio.nbi.ac.uk/berries/blast.html) to identify candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid compounds. Genes encoding regulatory proteins of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway (MYB and basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors and WD40 repeat proteins) were isolated using the transcriptomic resources of wild blackberry (Rubus genevieri) and cultivated red raspberry (Rubus idaeus cv. Prestige) and were shown to activate anthocyanin synthesis in Nicotiana benthamiana. Expression patterns of candidate flavonoid gene transcripts were also studied across three fruit developmental stages via the BacHBerryEXP gene expression browser (http://www.bachberryexp.com) in R. genevieri and R. idaeus cv. Prestige. CONCLUSIONS: We report a transcriptome resource that includes data for a wide range of berry(-like) fruit species that has been developed for gene identification and functional analysis to assist in berry fruit improvement. These resources will enable investigations of metabolic processes in berries beyond the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway analysed in this study. The RNA-seq data will be useful for studies of berry fruit development and to select wild plant species useful for plant breeding purposes.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/biossíntese , Frutas/genética , Genes de Plantas , Rubus/genética , Transcriptoma , Antocianinas/biossíntese , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Magnoliopsida/classificação , Magnoliopsida/genética , Fenóis/análise , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , RNA-Seq , Rubus/química , Rubus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rubus/metabolismo
16.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(1)2019 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877734

RESUMO

Strawberry (Fragaria) and raspberry (Rubus) are very popular crops, and improving their nutritional quality and disease resistance are important tasks in their breeding programs that are becoming increasingly based on use of functional DNA markers. We identified 118 microsatellite (simple sequence repeat-SSR) loci in the nucleotide sequences of flavonoid biosynthesis and pathogenesis-related genes and developed 24 SSR markers representing some of these structural and regulatory genes. These markers were used to assess the genetic diversity of 48 Fragaria and Rubus specimens, including wild species and rare cultivars, which differ in berry color, ploidy, and origin. We have demonstrated that a high proportion of the developed markers are transferable within and between Fragaria and Rubus genera and are polymorphic. Transferability and polymorphism of the SSR markers depended on location of their polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer annealing sites and microsatellite loci in genes, respectively. High polymorphism of the SSR markers in regulatory flavonoid biosynthesis genes suggests their allelic variability that can be potentially associated with differences in flavonoid accumulation and composition. This set of SSR markers may be a useful molecular tool in strawberry and raspberry breeding programs for improvement anthocyanin related traits.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/biossíntese , Fragaria/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Rubus/genética , Vias Biossintéticas , Fragaria/classificação , Fragaria/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Rubus/classificação , Rubus/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(45): 12428-12440, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668067

RESUMO

In the present study, the digestion and fermentation of blackberry polysaccharides (BBPs) with different molecular weights (Mw) were investigated. The results showed that the Mw decrease rates of BBP, BBP-8, BBP-16, and BBP-24 were 77.48, 69.61, 56.87, and 52.89%, respectively. The antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of BBPs were decreased under gastrointestinal condition, which might be due to the variation of Mw during digestion. The bile acid-binding ability of BBPs showed an Mw-dependent manner for higher Mw polysaccharides with higher viscosity. Through fermentation, the BBPs affected the ecosystem of the intestinal tract by promoting the production of short-chain fatty acids, lowering the pH of colon, and decreasing the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes. All BBPs showed almost a similar modulation effect on the gut bacteria, but the lower Mw polysaccharide was more easily utilized by bacteria.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Rubus/metabolismo , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Digestão , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Masculino , Peso Molecular , Rubus/química , Estômago/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Food Chem ; 300: 125169, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336273

RESUMO

Red drupelet is a postharvest disorder of blackberries with several drupelets turning back to red. This affects visual quality and thus marketability and consumers' acceptance. However, the cause of this disorder as well as metabolite changes during color reversion have not been fully understood. Anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-malonylglucoside, cyanidin 3-dioxalylglucoside, and total anthocyanin, were significantly lower in red drupelets than in black drupelets after 7 days of storage. Sugars and organic acids, lipids, and free amino acids also changed with storage and by color reversion. The untargeted metabolomics analyses indicated that red drupelets were generally differentiated from berries at harvest or black drupelets at metabolite level. The results of this study help better understand the red drupelet disorder. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating red drupelet disorder by comparing black and red drupelets at metabolite level.


Assuntos
Metabolômica/métodos , Rubus/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Cor , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/química , Glucosídeos/análise , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Lipídeos/análise , Rubus/química
19.
Food Chem ; 298: 125093, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260960

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of ozonation process on the level of oxidative stress markers in raspberries stored at room temperature. Raspberry fruit was ozonated with an ozone concentration of 8-10 ppm for 30 min, every 12 h, for 72 h of storage at room temperature. Research showed that ozonated raspberries were characterized by higher activity of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. In turn, the ability to generate superoxide anion radical and hydrogen peroxide by ozone-treated fruit was significantly lower than in the control sample due to higher activities of ROS detoxification systems.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Ozônio/química , Rubus/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/química , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Rubus/química , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Superóxidos/química , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Temperatura
20.
Food Chem ; 296: 160-166, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202300

RESUMO

Vitamin E is a family of related compounds with different vitamin E activities and antioxidant properties that includes tocopherols, tocotrienols and plastochromanol-8. Plant oils could serve as an industrial source not only of tocopherols, but also tocotrienols and plastochromanol-8, which exhibit much stronger antioxidant activities than tocopherols. The aim of this study was a quantitative and qualitative analysis of vitamin E in certain plant oils. We demonstrated the presence of vitamin E derivatives in all the plant oils tested. The highest tocopherol contents were in pomegranate, wheat germ and raspberry seed oils. In general, γ-tocopherol was the predominant tocopherol homologue. Tocotrienols were also identified in most of the oils, but their content was much lower. The highest concentration of tocotrienols was in coriander seed oil. Plastochromanol-8 was present in most of the oils, but wheat germ oil was the richest source.


Assuntos
Óleos Vegetais/química , Vitamina E/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Rubus/química , Rubus/metabolismo , Tocotrienóis/análise , gama-Tocoferol/análise
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