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1.
Food Chem ; 328: 126833, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480265

RESUMO

Raspberries are rich in polyphenols but the impact of organic versus conventional agricultural practices on their phytochemical composition is not well known. This study aimed to analyse and compare the polyphenol accumulation in raspberries grown under both agricultural practices in the same edaphoclimatic conditions. Two raspberry cultivars 'Kweli' and 'Tulameen' were used. Under organic agricultural practices, the polyphenols levels increased for the 'Kweli' cultivar but decreased for the 'Tulameen' cultivar. 'Tulameen' cultivar grown under conventional agricultural practices contained higher anthocyanins levels than grown under organic agricultural practices while for the 'Kweli' cultivar no significant differences were observed between the two agricultural practices. 'Kweli' cultivar presented a significantly higher amount of ellagitannins and ellagic acid derivatives when compared to the 'Tulameen' cultivar under both agricultural practices. The effect of the agricultural practices on the raspberries' chemical profile was dependent on the cultivar and cannot be generalised.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Rubus/química , Antocianinas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácido Elágico/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/química , Rubus/metabolismo
2.
Food Chem ; 322: 126783, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305870

RESUMO

The cultivar BRS Xingu was launched by EMBRAPA in 2015 with the intention of presenting higher productivity. Due to the lack of studies on this cultivar, the objective was to present the physical-chemical, centesimal, and phenolic composition of the BRS Xingu blackberry, its antioxidant capacity, protection against ROS generation, and compare it with other commercialized cultivars such as Guarani, Tupy, and Xavante. The BRS Xingu was prominent regarding anthocyanin and condensed tannin content and superior to the other cultivars. Moreover, BRS Xingu presented higher antioxidant capacity, protection of C. elegans from ROS generation, and soluble solid content when compared to Tupy, which is the most cultivated variety in the world. In the new cultivar, five anthocyanins, five phenolic acids, and ten non-anthocyanin flavonoids were identified. BRS Xingu is presented as an alternative blackberry with potential for industrialization and in natura consumption.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Frutas/química , Fenóis/análise , Rubus/química , Animais , Antocianinas/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Brasil , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Flavonoides/análise , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Proantocianidinas/análise , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
3.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230993, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298275

RESUMO

Considering a growing demand for medicinal/cosmetic products with natural actives, this study focuses on the low-energy nanoemulsions (LE-NEs) prepared via the Phase inversion composition (PIC) method at room temperature as potential carriers for natural oil. Four different red raspberry seed oils (ROs) were tested, as follows: cold-pressed vs. CO2-extracted, organic vs. non-organic, refined vs. unrefined. The oil phase was optimized with Tocopheryl acetate and Isostearyl isostearate, while water phase was adjusted with either glycerol or an antioxidant hydro-glycolic extract. This study has used a combined approach to formulation development, employing both conventional methods (pseudo-ternary phase diagram - PTPD, electrical conductivity, particle size measurements, microscopical analysis, and rheological measurements) and the methods novel to this area, such as textural analysis and Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy has detected fine differences in chemical composition among ROs, and it detected the interactions within nanoemulsions. It was shown that the cold-pressed, unrefined, organic grade oil (RO2) with 6.62% saturated fatty acids and 92.25% unsaturated fatty acids, was optimal for the LE-NEs. Textural analysis confirmed the existence of cubic gel-like phase as a crucial step in the formation of stable RO2-loaded LE-NEs, with droplets in the narrow nano-range (125 to 135 nm; PDI ≤ 0.1). The DPPH test in methanol and ABTS in aqueous medium have revealed a synergistic free radical scavenging effect between lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants in LE-NEs. The nanoemulsion carrier has improved the biological effect of raw materials on HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma cells, while exhibiting good safety profile, as confirmed on MRC-5 normal human lung fibroblasts. Overall, this study has shown that low-energy nanoemulsions present very promising carriers for topical delivery of natural bioactives. Raman spectroscopy and textural analysis have proven to be a useful addition to the arsenal of methods used in the formulation and characterization of nanoemulsion systems.


Assuntos
Rubus/química , Administração Tópica , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Composição de Medicamentos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Condutividade Elétrica , Emulsões , Ácidos Graxos/química , Frutas/química , Humanos , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Nanoestruturas , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Reologia , Sementes/química , Análise Espectral Raman
4.
Food Chem ; 316: 126297, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044703

RESUMO

Strawberry (cv. Senga Sengana) and raspberry (cv. Veten) were processed into jams at 60, 85 or 93 °C and stored at 4 or 23 °C for 8 and 16 weeks. High processing temperature reduced ascorbic acid, total monomeric anthocyanins (TMA) and total phenolics (TP) in strawberries (p<0.05), but not in raspberries. Processing temperature had minor effect on bioactive compounds in the jams during storage (<10% explained variance), but influenced color (L*, °Hue, Chroma), especially L* of the strawberry jams (73.3%). Storage period explained most of the variance in ascorbic acid (>90%), TMA (>42%) and TP (>69%). Storage temperature affected stability of anthocyanins, but had minor effect on ascorbic acid, which declined rapidly independent of storage temperature. Storage temperature also explained most of the variance (>40%) in Chroma of the jams and L* of raspberry jams (53%). Bioactive compounds and color were more stable in raspberry jams than in strawberry jams.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Ácido Ascórbico/química , Alimentos em Conserva/análise , Fragaria/química , Rubus/química , Cor , Frutas , Fenóis , Temperatura
5.
Food Chem ; 312: 126072, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893552

RESUMO

In this study supercritical carbon dioxide (SFE-CO2) and pressurized liquid (PLE) extractions were optimized for the recovery of valuable fractions from blackberry pomace. Consecutively applied SFE-CO2 and PLE at optimized parameters yielded 9.9, 26.3 and 5.1 g/100 g of CO2, ethanol (EtOH) and water-soluble extracts, respectively. Oil of lipophilic fraction was composed mainly of healthy polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic 64.1%, α-linolenic 12.9%), while polar solvents effectively recovered antioxidants (up to 29.1 mg gallic acid and 168.7 mg Trolox equivalents from g pomace). PLE-EtOH extract contained 12.2 mg/g of cyanidin-3-glucoside, while other anthocyanins were detected in significantly lower quantities (0.5-0.7 mg/g). SFE-CO2 and PLE reduced the antioxidant capacity of starting plant material by 86-93%. In terms of extraction time, solvent consumption, total yields, and phytochemical characteristics, high-pressure fractionation was more efficient for obtaining valuable pomace constituents as compared to conventional and enzyme-assisted extractions.


Assuntos
Rubus/química , Antocianinas/química , Antioxidantes/química , Fracionamento Químico , Glucosídeos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Pressão , Solventes/química
6.
Mol Carcinog ; 59(2): 168-178, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763724

RESUMO

It is reported that black raspberry (BRB) anthocyanins could act as a potential chemopreventive agent for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the underlying mechanism by which BRB anthocyanins inhibits the carcinogenesis of CRC cells has not been elucidated. The abnormal expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) that target important tumor suppressor genes is usually associated with CRC development. In this study, we explored whether BRB anthocyanins could affect the expression of certain miRNAs in an azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced CRC mouse model and human CRC cell lines. miRNA microarray analysis was used to determine the differences in miRNA expression between AOM/DSS-induced mice fed with a diet supplemented without or with BRB anthocyanins. The expression of one particular miRNA, miR-483-3p, was found to decrease dramatically in AOM/DSS-induced mice that were fed with a diet supplemented with BRB anthocyanins. Subsequent quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses showed that the reduced expression of miR-483-3p was accompanied by an increased expression of Dickkopf 3 (DKK3), a potential target of miR-483-3p as predicted by bioinformatic analysis. The protein and messenger RNA levels of DKK3 were significantly upregulated when the miR-483-3p level was reduced by a miR-483-3p-specific inhibitor, suggesting that DKK3 might be the target gene of miR-483-3p. In addition, the downstream factors of the DKK3 signaling pathway, which included Wnt/ß-catenin, also played a role in the miR-483-3p-mediated anticancer effect of BRB anthocyanins. Thus, miR-483-3p might be a potential target in BRB anthocyanin-mediated prevention of CRC.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Antocianinas/administração & dosagem , Azoximetano , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Quimioprevenção/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Sulfato de Dextrana , Células HCT116 , Células HT29 , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Rubus/química , Análise de Sobrevida , Regulação para Cima
7.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(6): 872-875, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30345814

RESUMO

Raspberry, the fruit of Rubus Chingji Hu, is a widely distributed economic staple food in China. It has long been used as a traditional medicine in mainland China to treat kidney enuresis, nocturnal emission and premature ejaculation in clinic. In this paper, six known compounds (1 - 6) were purified from the fruits of Rubus chingji. Their structures were elucidated as (16α)-16,17-dihydroxy-ent-kauran-2-one17-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (1), (16R) -16,17-dihydroxy-ent-kaurane-2-one (2), 3,3'-di-O-methylellagic acid 4-(5''-acetyl)-α-L-arabinofuranoside (3), quercilicoside A (4), esculetine (5) and ethyl-ß-D-glucoside (6). All the compounds were isolated from Rubus Chingji Hu for the first time. Compounds 3 and 5 shown distinctive free radical scavenging activities in DPPH and FRAP assays. In addition, no cytotoxicity was observed for compounds 3 and 5 against different cancer cells, suggesting that they might be useful as potential antioxidant agents against various reactive oxygen species.[Formula: see text].


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Frutas/química , Rubus/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , China , Ácido Elágico/análogos & derivados , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/isolamento & purificação , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química
8.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 102-109, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The combination of sugar osmotic dehydration and microwave vacuum drying is an effective method for the dehydration of blackberries, the retention of their antioxidant properties, and the extension of their shelf life. Mass transfer during the osmotic dehydration of blackberries in sugar solution was investigated together with its influence on microwave vacuum drying characteristics, and the retention rate of anthocyanins in dried frozen blackberries. RESULTS: The concentrations of the osmotic solutions that were tested contained 40%, 50%, and 60% sugar, and the osmotic solution temperatures were 30 °C, 40 °C, and 50 °C. The solution-to-blackberry mass ratio was 10:1 (w/w) and the process duration varied from 0 to 5 h. A two-parameter mathematical model was used to describe mass transfer in the osmotic dehydration of blackberry samples and estimate moisture loss and solid gain in the final equilibrium. The results showed that the dehydration rate and solid gain rate of the blackberries increased with an increase in osmotic concentration, osmotic time, and the temperature of the solution under certain experimental conditions. The effective diffusivity of moisture and solute were estimated using the analytical solution of Fick's second law of diffusion. The moisture and effective diffusivities of sugar in the above osmotic dehydration conditions were in the range of 1.77 × 10-9 -2.10 × 10-9 and 1.36 × 10-9 -1.60 × 10-9 m2 .s-1 , respectively. CONCLUSION: The pretreatment of sugar osmosis greatly reduced the microwave vacuum drying time in the latter part of the dehydration period and increased anthocyanin retention. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Dessecação/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Rubus/química , Dessecação/instrumentação , Manipulação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Frutas/química , Micro-Ondas , Osmose , Temperatura , Vácuo , Água/análise
9.
Food Chem ; 309: 125572, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732246

RESUMO

A sample preparation method, QuEChERS extraction combined with a magnetic micro dispersive solid phase extraction (MµdSPE), was optimized and evaluated for the trace analysis of 9 brominated flame retardants in red fruit samples (strawberries, blueberries, and raspberries) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Magnetic nanomaterials were used as sorbents providing an extraction of the target compounds. Linearity was established for all the analytes (from 10 to 200 µg kg-1). Seven concentration levels were analyzed with three measurements at each concentration. Linear responses (R2 > 0.99) were obtained, recoveries of all target analytes were within the range of 65-141%, relative standard deviations were <20% at all three spiking levels, while intraday and interday precisions were below 20%. This study demonstrated that the new sample preparation with magnetic nanoparticles could potentially be expanded to extract and pre-concentrate the BFRs in different red fruit samples. The method has been successfully applied to study BFRs in 12 samples from conventional and organic farming.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama/análise , Frutas/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/química , Fragaria/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Magnetismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Rubus/química
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(1): 138-146, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31873011

RESUMO

Chronic exposure to minute doses of endotoxin elicits intestinal inflammation and impairs the gut barrier function, potentially resulting in systemic inflammation with elevated concentrations of biomarkers associated with metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the preventive effects of the Rubus suavissimus S. Lee leaf extract in a model of low-grade systemic inflammation. The predominant compounds found in the leaf extract are gallic acids, ellagic acid, and rubusoside. Results of the present study showed that R. suavissimus leaf extract supplementation could help preserve intestinal barrier integrity by upregulating the expression of the tight junction proteins [e.g., zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1) and junctional adhesion molecule-1 (JAMA)] and mucin (MUC)-4 and also suppress the release of plasmatic proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, while restoring the production of anti-inflammatory adiponectin. We subsequently determined that the leaf extract contributes to restoring glucose metabolic homeostasis through maintaining insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, our mechanistic finding demonstrated that the R. suavissimus leaf extract supplementation prevented systemic inflammation-driven impaired insulin sensitivity in white adipose tissues (WATs) by modulating the expression of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and insulin receptor subset-1 (IRS-1). Altogether, our findings suggest that the above supplementation contributes to restoring immune and metabolic homeostasis to enhance the overall health of the host thereby preventing the early onset of metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Rubus/química , Animais , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/genética , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo
11.
Food Chem ; 309: 125694, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706673

RESUMO

Despite the numerous studies that have shown a wide range of biological activities to berry fruits, scientific data focusing on modern, rapid and simple extraction methods followed by a clean-up step is still lacking. Therefore, the present work was aimed at investigating the use of a fast one-step solid-liquid extraction procedure followed by a dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up step to evaluate the phenolic composition, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities from three of the principal berries found in Brazil, pomegranate (Punica granatum L.), blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius Schott.), and strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.). Under the optimized extraction conditions, sixteen phenolic compounds were determined by UHPLC-MS/MS analysis and all berry extracts showed antioxidant activity and antiproliferative effects on cervical (HeLa) and colon (HT-29) cancer cells. Overall, these results highlight the importance of the clean-up step for more reliable data in studies of health-promoting proprieties from berry fruits.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rosaceae/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fragaria/química , Fragaria/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Romã (Fruta)/química , Romã (Fruta)/metabolismo , Rosaceae/metabolismo , Rubus/química , Rubus/metabolismo , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
12.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226152, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815966

RESUMO

In this investigation, two previously reported precipitation δ2H isoscapes for New Zealand were used to develop a δ2H isoscape for blackberry (Rubus sp.) leaf. These isoscapes were calibrated using the measured δ2H values of 120 authentic blackberry leaf samples collected from across the country. A regression model based on environmental variables available for New Zealand was also determined to predict δ2H values measured from blackberry leaves without initially modelling the precipitation δ2H values. The three models were compared for their accuracy and precision when assigning 10 samples of blackberry leaves for their geographic location based on their measured δ2H values. One of the models based on a precipitation isoscape was similar in accuracy and precision of assignment to the model determined from the environmental variables and provides an approach for determining valid isoscapes for future plant materials.


Assuntos
Deutério/análise , Rubus/química , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Modelos Estatísticos , Nova Zelândia , Folhas de Planta/química , Análise de Regressão
13.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 995, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flavonoids are produced in all flowering plants in a wide range of tissues including in berry fruits. These compounds are of considerable interest for their biological activities, health benefits and potential pharmacological applications. However, transcriptomic and genomic resources for wild and cultivated berry fruit species are often limited, despite their value in underpinning the in-depth study of metabolic pathways, fruit ripening as well as in the identification of genotypes rich in bioactive compounds. RESULTS: To access the genetic diversity of wild and cultivated berry fruit species that accumulate high levels of phenolic compounds in their fleshy berry(-like) fruits, we selected 13 species from Europe, South America and Asia representing eight genera, seven families and seven orders within three clades of the kingdom Plantae. RNA from either ripe fruits (ten species) or three ripening stages (two species) as well as leaf RNA (one species) were used to construct, assemble and analyse de novo transcriptomes. The transcriptome sequences are deposited in the BacHBerryGEN database (http://jicbio.nbi.ac.uk/berries) and were used, as a proof of concept, via its BLAST portal (http://jicbio.nbi.ac.uk/berries/blast.html) to identify candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid compounds. Genes encoding regulatory proteins of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway (MYB and basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors and WD40 repeat proteins) were isolated using the transcriptomic resources of wild blackberry (Rubus genevieri) and cultivated red raspberry (Rubus idaeus cv. Prestige) and were shown to activate anthocyanin synthesis in Nicotiana benthamiana. Expression patterns of candidate flavonoid gene transcripts were also studied across three fruit developmental stages via the BacHBerryEXP gene expression browser (http://www.bachberryexp.com) in R. genevieri and R. idaeus cv. Prestige. CONCLUSIONS: We report a transcriptome resource that includes data for a wide range of berry(-like) fruit species that has been developed for gene identification and functional analysis to assist in berry fruit improvement. These resources will enable investigations of metabolic processes in berries beyond the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway analysed in this study. The RNA-seq data will be useful for studies of berry fruit development and to select wild plant species useful for plant breeding purposes.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/biossíntese , Frutas/genética , Genes de Plantas , Rubus/genética , Transcriptoma , Antocianinas/biossíntese , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Magnoliopsida/classificação , Magnoliopsida/genética , Fenóis/análise , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , RNA-Seq , Rubus/química , Rubus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rubus/metabolismo
14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(48): 44978-44988, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722170

RESUMO

Near-infrared (NIR) persistent luminescence (PersL) nanoparticles based on trivalent chromium-doped gallates (ZGO) as nanocarriers show great potential for theranostics, owing to their autofluorescence-free background and deep tissue penetration. However, high drug loading capacity of ZGO nanocarriers remains a big challenge. Herein, raspberry-like mesoporous Zn1.07Ga2.34Si0.98O6.56:Cr0.01 (designated as Si-ZGO) is first developed via a unique silica-assisted targeted etching strategy. The composition, morphology, NIR PersL capacities, and drug loading/releasing abilities of Si-ZGO have been explored. These results exhibit that Si-ZGO possess multiple inspiring characteristics including (i) spherical raspberry-like mesoporous morphology with a large cavity (total pore size ∼5.0 nm) and high specific surface area (∼80.653 m2·g-1), promising excellent drug loading capacity (∼62 wt %); (ii) tunable sizes from 80 to 180 nm and improved aqueous-dispersibility, facilitating cellular uptake and permeation and retention (EPR) effect; (iii) new deep traps related to oxygen vacancies, achieving the brighter NIR PersL. These outstanding merits enable the further nanosystem (DOX-BSA@Si-ZGO) for proof-of-concept theranostics excellent chemotherapy effect, tumor-specific trackable ability, and pronounced NIR afterglow imaging in vivo. This work demonstrates the great potentials of Si-ZGO nanorasperries as a multifunctional theranostics platform, even more it hopefully could inspire other constructions of advanced functional materials.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Cromo/química , Gálio/química , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Dióxido de Silício/química , Zinco/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/química , Humanos , Raios Infravermelhos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Nanopartículas/química , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Porosidade , Rubus/química
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(45): 12428-12440, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668067

RESUMO

In the present study, the digestion and fermentation of blackberry polysaccharides (BBPs) with different molecular weights (Mw) were investigated. The results showed that the Mw decrease rates of BBP, BBP-8, BBP-16, and BBP-24 were 77.48, 69.61, 56.87, and 52.89%, respectively. The antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of BBPs were decreased under gastrointestinal condition, which might be due to the variation of Mw during digestion. The bile acid-binding ability of BBPs showed an Mw-dependent manner for higher Mw polysaccharides with higher viscosity. Through fermentation, the BBPs affected the ecosystem of the intestinal tract by promoting the production of short-chain fatty acids, lowering the pH of colon, and decreasing the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes. All BBPs showed almost a similar modulation effect on the gut bacteria, but the lower Mw polysaccharide was more easily utilized by bacteria.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Rubus/metabolismo , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Digestão , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Masculino , Peso Molecular , Rubus/química , Estômago/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Molecules ; 24(21)2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683568

RESUMO

In this work, an efficient method for the rapid extraction and separation of antioxidant phenols was developed and optimized. The method was then applied to extract and separate nine phenols from 37 varieties of raspberry, in which their antioxidant activities were further investigated. First, the extraction was conducted using ultra-sonication, which was then further separated using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet (RP-HPLC/UV) analysis. In this step, several key parameters (volume of the extraction reagent, time of extraction, and the temperature of extraction) affecting its efficiency were investigated and optimized using the response surface methodology (RSM) combined with the Box-Behnken design (BBD) so that the optimal conditions were obtained. According to the overall results of the optimization study, the optimal conditions were chosen as follows: volume of extraction reagent = 2.0 mL, time of extraction = 50.0 min, and temperature of extraction = 50 °C. The optimal conditions were then applied to extract nine phenols, including gallic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, cumaric acid, ferulic acid, rosemary acid, and quercetin from 37 raspberry varieties. The extracted phenols were characterized and their antioxidant activities, including DPPH- and ABTS- free radical scavenging and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity, using HepG2 cells as the model, were subsequently studied. The findings suggested that although their contents varied among most raspberry varieties, these phenols significantly contributed toward their antioxidant capacity and scavenging intracellular ROS activities. This study provides a scientific and theoretical basis for the selection of raspberry varieties and product development in Qinghai province.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Fenóis/análise , Rubus/química , Rubus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Benzotiazóis/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Fenóis/química , Picratos/química , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ácidos Sulfônicos/química , Tibet
17.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698695

RESUMO

Research with young adults has previously indicated flavonoid-rich berry interventions facilitate improved executive function (EF) and positive affect 20 min-2 h post-dosing. There has been little consideration of the impact of a berry intervention over a working day and interventions have also tended to consider only a single berry type. This study investigated the temporal profile of EF and mood changes over a 6 h period following a mixed-berry intervention. We hypothesized berry-related benefits would be most evident when participants were cognitively compromised on demanding elements of the task or during periods of fatigue. The study employed a single-blind, randomized, placebo controlled, between-subjects design. Forty participants aged 20-30 years consumed a 400 mL smoothie containing equal blueberry, strawberry, raspberry, and blackberry (n = 20) or matched placebo (n = 20). Mood was assessed using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule; EF was tested using the Modified Attention Network (MANT) and Task Switching (TST) Tasks. Testing commenced at baseline then 2, 4 and 6 h post-dosing. As expected, following placebo intervention, performance decreased across the day as participants became cognitively fatigued. However, following berry intervention, participants maintained accuracy on both cognitive tasks up to and including 6 h, and demonstrated quicker response times on the MANT at 2 and 4 h, and TST at 6 h. This study demonstrates the efficacy of flavonoid rich berries in maintaining or improving cognitive performance across the 6 h day.


Assuntos
Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Frutas , Adulto , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/química , Função Executiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Fragaria/química , Humanos , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Rubus/química , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614689

RESUMO

Chronic and extensive exposure of ultraviolet (UV)-irradiation causes human skin sunburn, inflammation, or photoaging, which is associated with downregulated collagen synthesis. This study investigated the effects of fermented blackberry (Rubus fruticosus B., FBB) by Lactobacillus plantarum JBMI F5 (LP) on UVB-induced photoaging in human foreskin fibroblast (Hs68) as well as in SKH-1 hairless mice. FBB pretreatment inhibited UVB-mediated type-1 procollagen degradation, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-2 protein expression, and suppressed nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation as well as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation in Hs68. In addition, FBB administration diminished the wrinkle formation in dorsal skin and epidermal thickening in UVB-irradiated hairless mice. Moreover, UVB-induced Type-1 procollagen reduction and antioxidant enzyme inactivation were reversed by FBB administration. These results suggest that FBB may have antiphotoaging effects on UVB-induced wrinkle formation by maintaining the extracellular matrix density in the dermis, which occurs via regulation of reactive oxygen species and related MAPK and NF-κB signaling. Therefore, FBB can be a potential candidate for protecting skin aging against UV irradiation.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rubus/química , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Feminino , Fermentação , Fibroblastos/efeitos da radiação , Prepúcio do Pênis/citologia , Frutas/química , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Pelados , Extratos Vegetais/química , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos da radiação
19.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 133: 110796, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472226

RESUMO

Effects of red raspberry extract (RRE) intake on hyperlipidemia mice induced by high-fat diet (HFD) were investigated in this study. After intragastric gavage of RRE for 8 weeks, the body weight and the adipose tissue mass of mice in RRE administration groups significantly (p < 0.05) decreased compared to the group without RRE treatment. RRE treatment significantly (p < 0.05) lowered triglyceride and total cholesterol levels of hyperlipidemia mice. Pparα, Hmgcr, Ldlr, Cyp7a1, Acsl3, Pnpla2 and Pin4 were confirmed as the regulatory genes by transcriptome analysis and qRCR validation. According to KEGG pathway analysis, target genes such as Cyp7a1 and Pin4 were further regulated by the activation of PPARα resulting from RRE supplementation. Meanwhile, liver cholesterol synthesis and conversion were inhibited by the expressions of Hmgcr and Cyp7a1 genes regulated by RRE intake, and Ldlr gene was down-regulated to limit the transport of cholesterol. In addition, RRE treatment could accelerate the conversion from triglyceride to fatty acid. To conclusion, RRE intake would be a protection against diet-induced hypertriglyceridemia.


Assuntos
Hiperlipidemias/dietoterapia , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rubus/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Colesterol/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Frutas/química , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/metabolismo , Lipólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
20.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509935

RESUMO

The alteration of white adipose tissue (WAT) "browning", a change of white into beige fat, has been considered as a new therapeutic strategy to treat obesity. In this study, we investigated the browning effect of black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel) using in vitro and in vivo models. Black raspberry water extract (BRWE) treatment inhibited lipid accumulation in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and zebrafish. To evaluate the thermogenic activity, BRWE was orally administered for 2 weeks, and then, the mice were placed in a 4 °C environment. As a result, BRWE treatment increased rectal temperature and inguinal WAT (iWAT) thermogenesis by inducing the expression of beige fat specific markers such as PR domain zinc-finger protein 16 (PRDM16), uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α), and t-box protein 1 (TBX1) in cold-exposed mice. Furthermore, ellagic acid (EA), a constituent of BRWE, markedly promoted beige specific markers: UCP1, PGC1α, TBX1, and nuclear respiratory factor 1 in beige differentiation media (DM)-induced 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our findings indicate that BRWE can promote beige differentiation/activation, and EA is the active compound responsible for such effect. Thus, we suggest the nature-derived agents BRWE and EA as potential agents for obesity treatment.


Assuntos
Adipócitos Bege/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos Brancos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Bege/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo Branco/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Termogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos Bege/metabolismo , Adipócitos Brancos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Bege/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura Baixa , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Rubus/química , Transdução de Sinais , Peixe-Zebra
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