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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5423, 2022 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361815

RESUMO

Interspecific hybridization has been suggested to occur frequently in Rumex (Polygonaceae). Several hypothesized combinations of parental species of hybrids based on their intermediate morphology have been suggested in the genus, but few of them have been phylogenetically tested. We analyzed nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequence data of a putative natural hybrid between Rumex crispus and Rumex obtusifolius from Korea to confirm its hybrid status and to determine the maternal parent. Analysis of the nuclear DNA pgiC region revealed that R. crispus and R. obtusifolius have contributed to the nuclear genome of the putative hybrids. The haplotype distribution pattern inferred from the combined sequence data set of five chloroplast DNA regions (matK, rbcL-accD IGS, trnK-rps16 IGS, ycf6-psbM IGS and psbA-trnH IGS) indicated bidirectional hybridization events between R. crispus and R. obtusifolius. This paper provides the first molecular evidence for interspecific hybridization between R. crispus and R. obtusifolius. In addition, our findings strongly suggested that Korean populations of Rumex japonicus have a hybrid origin, and R. crispus may represent one of the parental taxa.


Assuntos
Polygonaceae , Rumex , DNA de Cloroplastos/genética , Hibridização Genética , República da Coreia , Rumex/genética
2.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 106(7): 2603-2617, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35262787

RESUMO

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important staple foods consumed in many countries of the world. It is mostly consumed in developing countries where different chemical fertilizers are used to improve the productivity of the crop plant. In the present study, endophytic actinomycetes isolated from Rumex dentatus were identified morphologically and by scanning electron microscopy. Butyl isobutyl phthalate (BIBP) was isolated from the root endophyte Streptomyces sp. JR9 using column chromatography and HPLC methods. The compound was tested for its effect on rice seed germination. BIBP, extracts, and isolates were evaluated for their plant growth effect on rice in a growth chamber. Isolates were also screened in vitro for phosphate solubilization activity and enzyme production. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and BIBP produced in extracts were quantified and detected using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods, respectively. BIBP was found to increase the germination of rice seeds by 6 to 12% in treated samples and displayed potent effect at lowest concentration (0.437 µM). Both the compound and the extract depicted significant increases in almost all growth parameters at lowest concentration of 0.125 µg/mL and 62.5 µg/mL, respectively. BIBP also increased significantly shoot length, fresh root, fresh shoot, and dried shoot weight at high concentrations and was more potent than the standard phytohormone IAA. HPLC quantification showed 7.952 µg/mg and 0.371 µg/mg of IAA in extracts of Streptomyces sp. JR9 and the stem endophyte Streptomyces sp. KS3, respectively. IAA containing extract of JR9 increased significantly most growth parameters at lowest concentration (125 µg/mL). The extract of KS3 depicted significant increases in almost all growth parameters at high concentration (500 µg/mL). Our investigation showed that streptomycetes isolated from R. dentatus and BIBP are potent growth promoting agents and can be used in agriculture as bio-fertilizer to improve the growth and productivity of rice. KEY POINTS: • Butyl isobutyl phthalate (BIBP) isolated from endophytic Streptomyces sp. JR9 is a potent rice seed germination activator and promotes significantly the growth of rice • Isolated endophytes showed the ability to produce enzymes and phytohormone IAA • Isolates enhanced significantly the growth of rice.


Assuntos
Oryza , Rumex , Streptomyces , Endófitos , Ácidos Ftálicos , Extratos Vegetais , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas
3.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 377(1850): 20210226, 2022 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35306892

RESUMO

There is growing evidence from diverse taxa for sex differences in the genomic landscape of recombination, but the causes and consequences of these differences remain poorly understood. Strong recombination landscape dimorphism between the sexes could have important implications for the dynamics of sex chromosome evolution because low recombination in the heterogametic sex can favour the spread of sexually antagonistic alleles. Here, we present a sex-specific linkage map and revised genome assembly of Rumex hastatulus and provide the first evidence and characterization of sex differences in recombination landscape in a dioecious plant. We present data on significant sex differences in recombination, with regions of very low recombination in males covering over half of the genome. This pattern is evident on both sex chromosomes and autosomes, suggesting that pre-existing differences in recombination may have contributed to sex chromosome formation and divergence. Our analysis of segregation distortion suggests that haploid selection due to pollen competition occurs disproportionately in regions with low male recombination. We hypothesize that sex differences in the recombination landscape have contributed to the formation of a large heteromorphic pair of sex chromosomes in R. hastatulus, but more comparative analyses of recombination will be important to investigate this hypothesis further. This article is part of the theme issue 'Sex determination and sex chromosome evolution in land plants'.


Assuntos
Rumex , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Plantas/genética , Recombinação Genética , Rumex/genética , Caracteres Sexuais , Cromossomos Sexuais/genética
4.
Plant Signal Behav ; 17(1): 2050628, 2022 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35318884

RESUMO

Belowground plant-plant interactions can affect the concentrations of leaf chemicals, but the mechanism is not clear. Here, we investigated the effects of intra- and interspecific root exudates on the growth and leaf chemical content of Rumex obtusifolius. Seedlings of R. obtusifolius were grown with exposure to root exudates collected from other R. obtusifolius plants or from Trifolium repens, Festuca ovina, or Plantago asiatica plants, and the total phenolic, condensed tannin, dry biomass, and chlorophyll contents of the leaves were examined. The root exudates from conspecific plants had no effect on the total phenolic, condensed tannin, and chlorophyll contents of the leaves but did significantly reduce the dry leaf biomass. Root exudates from heterospecific plants had different effects depending on the species. These results were different from the results of a previous study that examined the effects of direct plant-plant interaction in R. obtusifolius. Thus, indirect interaction via root exudates induces different effects in leaves from direct interaction.


Assuntos
Proantocianidinas , Rumex , Clorofila , Exsudatos e Transudatos , Folhas de Planta/química , Poaceae , Rumex/química
5.
Molecules ; 27(4)2022 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35208994

RESUMO

Rumex confertus belongs to the genus Rumex and is classified as an invasive parasitic plant in agriculture. Despite other Rumex species being widely used in herbal medicine due to their antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory effects, there are almost no information about the potential of Rumex confertus for the treatment of various diseases. In this review we analyzed scientific articles revealing properties of Rumex plant's substances against cancer, diabetes, pathogenic bacterial invasions, viruses, inflammation, and oxidative stress for the past 20 years. Compounds dominating in each composition of solvents for extraction were discussed, and common thin layer chromatography(TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) methods for efficient separation of the plant's extract are included. Physico-chemical properties such as solubility, hydrophobicity (Log P), pKa of flavonoids, anthraquinones, and other derivatives are very important for modeling of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics. An overview of clinical studies for abounded selected substances of Rumex species is presented.


Assuntos
Antraquinonas/uso terapêutico , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Rumex/química , Antraquinonas/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Flavonoides/química
6.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163925

RESUMO

Outbreaks and prevalence of infectious diseases worldwide are some of the major contributors to morbidity and morbidity in humans. Pharmacophageous plants are the best source for searching antibacterial compounds with low toxicity to humans. In this study, we identified, for the first time, antibacterial components and action modes of methanol-phase extract from such one edible herbaceous plant Rumex madaio Makino. The bacteriostatic rate of the extract was 75% against 23 species of common pathogenic bacteria. The extract was further purified using the preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (Prep-HPLC) technique, and five separated componential complexes (CC) were obtained. Among these, the CC 1 significantly increased cell surface hydrophobicity and membrane permeability and decreased membrane fluidity, which damaged cell structure integrity of Gram-positive and -negative pathogens tested. A total of 58 different compounds in the extract were identified using ultra-HPLC and mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) techniques. Comparative transcriptomic analyses revealed a number of differentially expressed genes and various changed metabolic pathways mediated by the CC1 action, such as down-regulated carbohydrate transport and/or utilization and energy metabolism in four pathogenic strains tested. Overall, the results in this study demonstrated that the CC1 from R. madaio Makino are promising candidates for antibacterial medicine and human health care products.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Metanol/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rumex/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
7.
J Chem Ecol ; 48(2): 165-178, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35015177

RESUMO

The Polygonaceae weed, Rumex dentatus L. grows in association with wheat, mustard and potato, while Polygonum glabrum Willd. grows in association with rice in India. Both larvae and adults of Galerucella placida Baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) voraciously consume these weeds. Applications of synthetic herbicides to control weeds are harmful to the environment including beneficial organisms. We propose to find volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from both weeds causing attraction of the biocontrol agent, G. placida, in order to attempt to use the insect as a biological weed control. Behavioral responses of G. placida towards volatile blends characteristic of undamaged (UD), insect-damaged (ID), jasmonic acid-treated (JA) or mechanically-damaged (MD) plants were conducted by Y-tube olfactometer bioassays. Cuminaldehyde was predominant in VOCs of UD R. dentatus, ID P. glabrum, and both JA and MD R. dentatus and P. glabrum. Geraniol was predominant in VOCs of UD P. glabrum, while 1,3-diethylbenzene predominated in VOCs of ID R. dentatus. Females were more attracted towards volatile blends of ID plants compared to UD or JA plants. Females did not show attraction towards volatile blends of JA plants. We identified two bioactive synthetics blends, one comprised of seven compounds - 16.65 µg 1,3-diethylbenzene, 10.72 µg acetophenone, 6.52 µg 2,6-(E,Z)-nonadienal, 2.46 µg 1-nonanol, 4.19 µg decanal, 9.86 µg 4-ethylacetophenone and 3.34 µg 1-hexadecene dissolved in 25 µl CH2Cl2 and the other containing five compounds - 2.50 µg 2-octanol, 6.84 µg limonene, 0.64 µg dodecane, 6.63 µg 4-ethylacetophenone and 0.24 µg geranyl acetone dissolved in 25 µl CH2Cl2. These two blends of volatile compounds could be used to attract the biocontrol agent during early vegetative period of these two weeds, which could lead to eradication of weeds from crop fields.


Assuntos
Besouros , Polygonum , Rumex , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Animais , Besouros/fisiologia , Plantas Daninhas , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(8): 11524-11533, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537939

RESUMO

Rumex vesicarius (RV) is an edible wild annual plant, and it is reported that it contains a good source of minerals, protein, and ascorbic acid. Several studies have indicated the anti-liver damage, anticancer, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties of the RV plant. There are currently no reports regarding the effect of RV on fertility. Therefore, this study focuses on the impact of RV water seed extracts on mice fertility. RV plants were collected, and water seed extracts were prepared; 50 mg/kg body weight (BW) of this was then injected into the mice (male and female) using an oral feeding tube 5 days before mating (group I) or during caging of the females with the males for 1 week to detect their fertility rate. In the different female groups, no significant difference between their BW and their newborn's BW in the treated and control groups was found. Female fertility, pregnancy, and offspring rates showed some variation within each female group and between the different female groups. In comparing the fertility and offspring rate between the different groups, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between groups I and III females and between groups I and IV females, while the other groups showed no significant differences. In contrast, the other groups showed no significant differences. Regarding the impact of the water seed extract on males, the BW was approximately the same in control and treated males.


Assuntos
Rumex , Animais , Fertilidade , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes , Água
9.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(3): 2011-2024, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34955261

RESUMO

Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Staphylococcus aureus and its biofilm formation have been challenging to control in milk and dairy industries. Biofilms formed by Staph. aureus may result in the failure of antibacterial agents and disinfectants to penetrate the biofilm in an attempt to control contamination. Novel natural antibacterial agents are required to combat MDR bacteria and biofilms. In this study, we evaluated the bactericidal, antibiofilm, and antimotility effects of Rumex japonicus Houtt. (RJH) extract on MDR Staph. aureus isolated from milk. The RJH extract exhibited good antibacterial activity against MDR strains with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.78 to 6.25 mg/mL and minimum bactericidal concentrations ranging from 3.125 to 12.5 mg/mL. The extract showed strong inhibition of biofilm formation (81.9%) at sub-MIC value and eradication of biofilm at higher concentrations. The motility of Staph. aureus was effectively blocked by the extract. Major compounds emodin, chrysophanol, and physcion were identified in RJH extract using HPLC-linear trap quadrupole (LTQ)/Orbitrap-mass spectrometry. The extract was nontoxic to human epithelial cell lines such as Caco-2 and HT-29 cell lines at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 mg/mL, and from 0.1 to 0.75 mg/mL, respectively. These findings suggest that RJH extract could be an alternative to synthetic preservatives in milk and dairy products.


Assuntos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Rumex , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Células CACO-2 , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Leite , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus
10.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258920, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739485

RESUMO

Weed infestation is a persistent problem for centuries and continues to be major yield reducing issue in modern agriculture. Chemical weed control through herbicides results in numerous ecological, environmental, and health-related issues. Moreover, numerous herbicides have evolved resistance against available herbicides. Plant extracts are regarded as an alternative to herbicides and a good weed management option. The use of plant extracts is environmentally safe and could solve the problem of herbicide resistance. Therefore, laboratory and wire house experiments were conducted to evaluate the phytotoxic potential of three Fabaceae species, i.e., Cassia occidentalis L. (Coffee senna), Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr. (Common sesban) and Melilotus alba Medik. (White sweetclover) against seed germination and seedling growth of some broadleaved weed species. Firstly, N-hexane and aqueous extracts of these species were assessed for their phytotoxic effect against lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). The extracts found more potent were further tested against germination and seedling growth of four broadleaved weed species, i.e., Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Santa-Maria), Trianthema portulacastrum L. (Pigweed), Melilotus indica L (Indian sweetclover). and Rumex dentatus L. (Toothed dock) in Petri dish and pot experiments. Aqueous extracts of all species were more toxic than their N-hexane forms for seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce; therefore, aqueous extracts were assessed for their phytotoxic potential against four broadleaved weed species. Aqueous extracts of all species proved phytotoxic against T. portulacastrum, P. hysterophorus, M. indica and R. dentatus and retarder their germination by 57, 90, 100 and 58%, respectively. Nevertheless, foliar spray of C. occidentalis extract was the most effective against T. portulacastrum as it reduced its dry biomass by 72%, while M. alba was effective against P. hysterophorus, R. dentatus and M. indica and reduced their dry biomass by 55, 68 and 81%, respectively. It is concluded that aqueous extracts of M. alba, S. sesban and C. occidentalis could be used to retard seed germination of T. portulacastrum, P. hysterophorus, M. indica and R. dentatus. Similarly, aqueous extracts of C. occidentalis can be used to suppress dry biomass of T. portulacastrum, and those of M. alba against P. hysterophorus, R. dentatus. However, use of these extracts needs their thorough testing under field conditions.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plântula/metabolismo , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Germinação , Herbicidas/química , Herbicidas/metabolismo , Hexanos/química , Alface/química , Alface/metabolismo , Melilotus/química , Melilotus/metabolismo , Partenogênese , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Rumex/química , Rumex/metabolismo , Sementes , Água/química
11.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 2029507, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608436

RESUMO

Rumex roseus L. (R. roseus) is acknowledged as an aromatic plant. For its excellent biological properties, it was used as a traditional medicine. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the chemical components and their effect as the biological activities of Tunisian extracts of R. roseus. Consecutive extractions by cold maceration of the aerial part with solvents of increasing polarity (cyclohexane (CYH), dichloromethane (DCM), and methanol (MeOH)) were performed, and the different chemical groups (phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, anthocyanins, etc.) were identified. In addition, the volatile compounds of the obtained extracts were identified before and after derivatization. Moreover, their antioxidant and anticancer activities were evaluated. The analysis of HPLC-DAD revealed the identification of 18 components from organic extracts, among them are, for example, chlorogenic acid and shikonin, while GC-MS analysis allowed the detection of 34 volatile compounds. Some of those compounds were identified for the first time in plant extracts such as pyrazolo[3,4-d] pyrimidine-3,4(2H,5H)-dione (1); L-proline (16); 2-amino-3-hydroxybutanoic acid (19); L-(-)-arabitol (23); D-(-)-fructopyranose (25); and D-(+)-talopyranose (27). DPPH tests revealed that the most important antioxidant activity was found in the methanolic extract with 75.2% inhibition at 50 mg/L and that the highest cytotoxic activity against HCT-116 and MCF-7 was recorded in the dichloromethane extract with 62.1 and 80.0% inhibition at 50 mg/L, respectively. The biological activities were fully correlated with the chemical composition of the different extracts. So, we can suggest that R. roseus is a source of bioactive molecules that could be considered potential alternatives for use in dietary supplements for the prevention or treatment of diseases.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Rumex/química , Antioxidantes/química , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Fenóis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
12.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 34(2(Supplementary)): 671-677, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275801

RESUMO

Rumex dentatus has been used traditionally for ailment of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to assess cardiovascular effects in isolated perfused rabbit heart. Aqueous and n-butanolic fractions were assessed for their effect on perfusion pressure (PP), force of contraction (FC) and heart rate (HR) of rabbit heart using Langendorff's method. The possible mechanisms of action of extracts/fraction were assessed with and without application of different agonist/antagonist. Phytochemical, toxicity and anti-oxidant activities were also determined. Both extracts at 1mg/mL dose produced a highly significant decrease in FC and HR but PP remained unchanged. Moreover, aqueous fraction of Rumex dentatus at 0.001mg/mL dose produced a highly significant decrease in FC and HR but no significant change in PP was observed. Atropine 10-5 M did not inhibit the cardiac depressant response of both fractions. Furthermore, both fractions blocked the positive ionotropic and chronotropic effects of adrenaline and calcium chloride. Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of some phytochemicals. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies demonstrated that test extracts are safe and produced no significant changes in haematological and biochemical parameters. Crude extract showed significant antioxidant activity like ascorbic acid. This study revealed that this plant have good cardiac depressant effect.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/farmacologia , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Preparação de Coração Isolado , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rumex/química , Animais , Atropina/farmacologia , Cloreto de Cálcio/farmacologia , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/efeitos adversos , Epinefrina/farmacologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Preparação de Coração Isolado/métodos , Masculino , Camundongos , Contração Miocárdica/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Coelhos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Rumex/efeitos adversos
13.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 164, 2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance has contributed to the burden of infectious diseases both in the hospital and community setting, and represents a great threat to public health. Previous studies have revealed the role of reactive oxygen species as intermediate mediators of tissue damage, following antibiotherapies, indicating the need of associating antioxidants to these treatments. Therefore, the present work was designed to study the antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of extracts and compounds from Rumex abyssinicus Jacq. (Polygonaceae), as well as to investigate the antibacterial mechanisms of action of the most effective agents. METHODS: The plant extracts were prepared by maceration in organic solvents followed by column chromatography of the EtOAc fraction and purification of different fractions which led to the isolation and characterization of pure compounds. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts/compounds and their combinations with ciprofloxacin and fluconazole were evaluated using the broth microdilution method by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum microbicidal concentration (MMC). The effects of the extracts on the bacterial cell membrane and microbial respiratory chain dehydrogenase enzyme activity were determined by spectrophotometric methods. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and gallic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (GAEAC) assays. RESULTS: Chrysophanol (1), physcion (2), Ergosta-6,22-diene-3,5,8-triol (3), emodin (4), 6-hydroxyemodin (citreorosein) (5), chrysophanein (6) and physcionin (7) were isolated from EtOAc fraction of R. abyssinicus and displayed different degrees of antimicrobial activities (MIC = 8-256 µg/mL). The MeOH extract and compounds 2 and 4 exhibited synergistic effects with ciprofloxacin and fluconazole. Compounds 1, 2 and the combined mixture of 6 + 7 displayed the highest antioxidant activity (GAEAC = 83.38-106.03 µg/mL). CONCLUSION: R. abyssinicus is a potential source of antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant agents. The antibacterial mechanisms of action of the MeOH extract and compound 2 are due to disruption of the cytoplasmic membrane and inhibition of the microbial respiratory chain dehydrogenase enzyme activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of test samples and ciprofloxacin / fluconazole association against MDR strains. The observed activity of the isolated compounds against bacteria and fungi including MDR strains deserves further exploration.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rumex/química , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Bifenilo/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Picratos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
14.
Protoplasma ; 258(6): 1277-1290, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990860

RESUMO

The pseudometallophyte Rumex acetosella L. occupies habitats with normal and high soil concentrations of zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and copper (Cu). It remains unclear if the plants respond to the toxic metals by altering their morphology and increasing the resilience of their cells. We compared plants growing on soils contaminated with Zn/Pb (populations Terézia, Lintich), or Cu (populations Spania Dolina, Staré Hory), with those from non-contaminated soil (Dúbravka) in Slovakia, and analysed leaf structure, physiology, and metal contents by light and electron microscopy, element localization by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) in scanning electron microscope, and by specific fluorescence dyes. In control population, the epidermis of the amphistomatic leaves of R. acetosella contained capitate glandular trichomes, consisting of four head (secretory), two stalk, and two basal cells. The ultrastructure of secretory cells revealed fine wall ingrowths bordered by plasma membrane protruding into the cytoplasm. The metallicolous populations had higher contents of Zn and Cu in the epidermal and glandular cells, and a higher density of both stomata and trichomes. Extensive cell wall labyrinth was present in the trichome secretory cells. Their abnormal number and elevated metal contents might indicate effects of heavy metals, especially of Cu, on mitosis and cell plate formation. Differences in leaf physiology were indicated by significantly higher cytoplasmic tolerance to Zn and Cu in metallicolous populations and by structural properties of glandular heads suggesting secretion of toxic metals. Our findings are suggestive of plant reactions to metal stress, which facilitate the populations to occupy the metal-contaminated sites.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Rumex , Poluentes do Solo , Cobre/toxicidade , Epiderme , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/química , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
15.
Chem Biodivers ; 18(6): e2100185, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860977

RESUMO

The genus Rumex (Polygonaceae) is distributed worldwide and the different species belonging to it are used in traditional medicine. The present study aimed at the evaluation of the phytochemical profile and the biochemical properties of methanolic extracts from different parts (roots, stems, and leaves) of Rumex roseus, a wild local Tunisian plant traditionally used as food. The phytochemical analysis on the extracts was performed using standard colorimetric procedures, HPLC-DAD, and HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS; then, several in vitro cell-free assays have been used to estimate their antioxidant/free radical scavenging capability (TAC-PM, DPPH, TEAC, FRAP, ORAC, SOD-like activity, and HOCl-induced albumin degradation). Additionally, anti-inflammatory effect of these extracts was evaluated in an in vitro model of acute intestinal inflammation in differentiated Caco-2 cells. The results showed that the methanolic extracts from stems and, especially, leaves contain substantial amounts of flavones (apigenin and luteolin, together with their derivatives), while the extract from roots is characterized by the presence of tannins and quinic acid derivatives. All the extracts appeared endowed with excellent antioxidant/free radical scavenging properties. In particular, the extract from roots was characterized by a remarkable activity, probably due to its different and peculiar polyphenolic composition. Furthermore, both Rumex roseus roots and stems extracts demonstrated an anti-inflammatory effect in intestinal epithelial cells, reducing TNF-α-induced gene expression of IL-6 and IL-8. In conclusion, R. roseus methanolic extracts have shown to be potential sources of bioactive compounds to be used in the prevention and treatment of pathologies related to oxidative stress and inflammation.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Metanol/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Rumex/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Células CACO-2 , Bovinos , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Soroalbumina Bovina/antagonistas & inibidores
16.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 107, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rumex rothschildianus is the sole member of a unique section of the genus Rumex, in the family Polygonaceae. This species is a very rare small dioecious annual, endemic to Palestine that is traditionally used as food and for the treatment of various diseases. Therefore, the current investigation aimed to screen the chemical constituents, antioxidants, anti-α-amylase, anti-α-glucosidase, antilipase, and cytotoxic effects of four solvents fractions of R. rothschildianus leaves. METHODS: Dried powder of R. rothschildianus leaves was extracted in four solvents with different polarities. Several qualitative and quantitative phytochemical tests were performed to determine the components of the extracts. The colorimetric analysis was used for the quantitative determination of phenols, flavonoids, and tannins. In-vitro assays were performed to evaluate the extracts for antioxidant, anti-α-amylase, anti-α-glucosidase, and antilipase inhibitory activities, as well as cytotoxicity by MTS assay against cervical carcinoma cells line (HeLa) and breast cancer cell line (MCF7). RESULTS: The acetone fraction of R. rothschildianus leaves showed the most significant antioxidant activity, due to having the highest content of flavonoids and phenolics, with an IC50 value of 6.3 ± 0.4 µg/ml, compared to 3.1 ± 0.9 µg/ml for Trolox, and regarding lipase inhibition activity the acetone fraction showed the most potent activity with an IC50 value of 26.3 ± 0.6 µg/ml, in comparison with orlistat positive control IC50 12.3 µg/ml. The same extract was the most potent inhibitor of α-amylase and α-glucosidase, with IC50 values of 19.1 ± 0.7 µg/ml and 54.9 ± 0.3 µg/ml, respectively, compared to 28.8, 37.1 ± 0.3 µg/ml of acarbose, respectively. The hexane fraction showed 99.9% inhibition of HeLa cells and 97.4% inhibition for MCF7 cells. CONCLUSION: The acetone fraction of R. rothschildianus leaves might provide a source of bioactive compounds for the treatment of oxidative stress. Similarly, the hexane fraction indicates the promising antitumor potential of R. rothschildianus. Clearly, these initial indications need further purification of potentially active compounds, and ultimately, in-vivo studies to determine their effectiveness.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rumex/química , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Células MCF-7 , Fenóis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Folhas de Planta/química
17.
Daru ; 29(1): 101-115, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rumex crispus L. (Polygonaceae), known as "Labada" in Turkey, was reported to be used for the treatment of gynecological diseases such as postpartum complications and infertility in folk medicine. Earlier studies on R. crispus have shown that leaf, fruit and root extracts have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities and are used for the treatment of tumors in the uterus. The hypothesis of this study is that R. crispus may generate potential anti-adhesive activity against complex factors such as inflammation, oxidation and fibrosis. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the potential anti-adhesive activity of aqueous methanol extracts of leaves, fruits and roots of R. crispus. METHODS: Abdominal adhesion model was performed in 72 female Wistar Albino rats. In the first step of the experiment, the rats were divided into six groups namely, Sham, Control, Reference and Experimental Groups (consisting of three sub-groups in which R. crispus leaf, fruit and root extracts were applied at 100 mg/kg dose). The test samples were administered once to the peritoneal cavity and the rats were sacrificied at the end of the 14th day. Root extract showed prominent activity, therefore this extract was subjected to fractionation to obtain 3 fractions (30-60-100% methanol fractions) by using vacuum-liquid chromatography. In the second stage, animals were divided into 6 groups as Sham, Control, Reference and Experimental Groups (R30, R60, R100 at 100 mg/kg dose). Adhesion scoring, tissue total antioxidant and oxidant levels, histopathological and immunohistochemical (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8) analyzes were performed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Adhesion scores, inflammatory cytokines and inflammation cells decreased by the application of R. crispus root extract. The fractions also showed similar anti-inflammatory effects, but R60 was found to be more effective in prevention of intra-abdominal adhesions and uterine fibrosis. R60 fraction, possessing potential bioactivity, was investigated in terms of phenolic composition by HPLC.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Rumex , Doenças Uterinas/tratamento farmacológico , Abdome/cirurgia , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Frutas , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta , Raízes de Plantas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/metabolismo , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/patologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Aderências Teciduais/tratamento farmacológico , Aderências Teciduais/metabolismo , Aderências Teciduais/patologia , Doenças Uterinas/metabolismo , Doenças Uterinas/patologia , Útero/patologia , Útero/cirurgia
18.
Biomolecules ; 11(2)2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562880

RESUMO

The elimination of broadleaf weeds from agricultural fields has become an urgent task in plant and environment protection. Allelopathic control is considered a potential approach because of its exclusive and ecological safety measures. Plant secondary metabolites also called allelochemicals are released from plant leaves, roots, stem, bark, flowers and play significant roles in soil rhizosphere signaling, chemical ecology, and plant defense. The present study was carried out to evaluate the impact of two allelochemicals; ferulic acid (FA) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (pHBA) on photosynthetic characteristics; Fv/Fm: efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry in the dark-adapted state; ΦPSII: photosynthetic quantum yield; NPQ, non-photochemical quenching; qP, photochemical quenching, and photon energy dissipation (1-qP)/NPQ in Rumex acetosa following 6 days exposure. R. acetosa seedlings were grown in perlite culture, irrigated with Hoagland solution and treated with allelopathic compounds FA and pHBA and were evaluated against the photosynthetic attributes. Both compounds behaved as potent inhibitors of photosynthetic traits such as Fv/Fm, ΦPSII, qP, and NPQ in R. acetosa. Photon energy dissipation (1-qP)/NPQ increased significantly from days 3 to 6. Higher dissipation of absorbed energy indicates the inactivation state of reaction centers and their inability to effectively use the absorbed energy in photosynthesis. These results indicated the potential allelopathic application of FA and pHBA for control of broadleaf weed, Rumex acetosa.


Assuntos
Ácidos Cumáricos/farmacologia , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/antagonistas & inibidores , Plantas Daninhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Rumex/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Agentes de Controle Biológico/farmacologia , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Luz , Feromônios/farmacologia , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Plantas Daninhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Daninhas/metabolismo , Teoria Quântica , Rumex/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rumex/metabolismo , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo
19.
Ann Bot ; 127(1): 33-47, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Dioecious species with well-established sex chromosomes are rare in the plant kingdom. Most sex chromosomes increase in size but no comprehensive analysis of the kind of sequences that drive this expansion has been presented. Here we analyse sex chromosome structure in common sorrel (Rumex acetosa), a dioecious plant with XY1Y2 sex determination, and we provide the first chromosome-specific repeatome analysis for a plant species possessing sex chromosomes. METHODS: We flow-sorted and separately sequenced sex chromosomes and autosomes in R. acetosa using the two-dimensional fluorescence in situ hybridization in suspension (FISHIS) method and Illumina sequencing. We identified and quantified individual repeats using RepeatExplorer, Tandem Repeat Finder and the Tandem Repeats Analysis Program. We employed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to analyse the chromosomal localization of satellites and transposons. KEY RESULTS: We identified a number of novel satellites, which have, in a fashion similar to previously known satellites, significantly expanded on the Y chromosome but not as much on the X or on autosomes. Additionally, the size increase of Y chromosomes is caused by non-long terminal repeat (LTR) and LTR retrotransposons, while only the latter contribute to the enlargement of the X chromosome. However, the X chromosome is populated by different LTR retrotransposon lineages than those on Y chromosomes. CONCLUSIONS: The X and Y chromosomes have significantly diverged in terms of repeat composition. The lack of recombination probably contributed to the expansion of diverse satellites and microsatellites and faster fixation of newly inserted transposable elements (TEs) on the Y chromosomes. In addition, the X and Y chromosomes, despite similar total counts of TEs, differ significantly in the representation of individual TE lineages, which indicates that transposons proliferate preferentially in either the paternal or the maternal lineage.


Assuntos
Rumex , Cromossomos de Plantas , Evolução Molecular , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Retroelementos , Rumex/genética , Cromossomos Sexuais
20.
Nat Prod Res ; 35(21): 4089-4093, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999211

RESUMO

Seedlings of Rumex acetosa L. (sorrel) were grown in floating system and two consecutive cuts took place: 15 (C1) and 30 (C2) days after sowing. An untargeted metabolomics approach was utilised to fingerprint phenolics and other health-related compounds in sorrel leaves, as well as to unveil differences between the two cuts. The untargeted approach allowed to putatively identify 458 metabolites considering both the cuts. Three new terpenoids and two new phenylpropanoid glycosides (dihydrosyringin and dihydroconiferin) with antifungal and anti-inflammatory activity were annotated. Overall, leaves from C2 had lower level of secondary metabolites (44 were down-accumulated), especially sesquiterpenes and stilbenes. Conversely, anthocyanins showed a relevant increase in C2 than in C1 leaves. The dataset suggests that sorrel leaves represent a good source of nutraceutical compounds and unveils the pivotal effect of pre-harvest factor in secondary metabolite profile.


Assuntos
Rumex , Antocianinas , Metabolômica , Folhas de Planta , Plântula
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