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9.
Water Res ; 168: 115104, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639592

RESUMO

The use of molecular probe technology is demonstrated for routine identification and tracking of cultured and uncultured microorganisms in an activated sludge bioreactor treating domestic wastewater. A key advantage of molecular probe technology is that it can interrogate hundreds of microbial species of interest in a single measurement. In environmental niches where a single genus (such as Competibacteraceae) dominates, it can be difficult and expensive to identify microorganisms that are present at low relative abundance. With molecular probe technology, it is straightforward. Members of the Competibacteraceae family, none of which have been grown in pure culture, are abundant in an activated sludge system in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, USA. Molecular probe ensembles with and without Competibacteraceae probes were constructed. Whereas the probe ensemble with Competibacteraceae probes identified a total of ten bacteria, the molecular probe ensemble without Competibacteraceae probes identified 29 bacteria, including many at low relative abundance and including some species of public health significance.


Assuntos
Sondas Moleculares , Esgotos , Reatores Biológicos , RNA Ribossômico 16S , São Francisco , Águas Residuárias
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 700: 134392, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704513

RESUMO

Estuaries worldwide are undergoing changes to patterns of aquatic productivity because of human activities that alter flow, impact sediment delivery and thus the light field, and contribute nutrients and contaminants like pesticides and metals. These changes can influence phytoplankton communities, which in turn can alter estuarine food webs. We used multiple approaches-including high-resolution water quality mapping, synoptic sampling, productivity and nitrogen uptake rates, Lagrangian parcel tracking, enclosure experiments and bottle incubations-over a short time period to take a "spatial snapshot" of conditions in the northern region of the San Francisco Estuary (California, USA) to examine how environmental drivers like light availability, nutrients, water residence time, and contaminants affect phytoplankton abundance and community attributes like size distribution, taxonomic structure, and nutrient uptake rates. Zones characterized by longer residence time (15-60 days) had higher chlorophyll-a concentrations (9 ±â€¯4 µg L-1) and were comprised primarily of small phytoplankton cells (<5 µm, 74 ±â€¯8%), lower ammonium concentrations (1 ±â€¯0.8 µM), higher nitrate uptake rates, and higher rates of potential carbon productivity. Conversely, zones characterized by shorter residence time (1-14 days) had higher ammonium concentration (13 ±â€¯5 µM) and lower chlorophyll-a concentration (5 ±â€¯1 µg L-1) with diatoms making up a larger percent contribution. Longer residence time, however, did not result in the accumulation of large (>5 µm) cells considered important to pelagic food webs. Rather, longer residence time zones had a phytoplankton community comprised primarily of small cells, particularly picocyanobacteria that made up 38 ±â€¯17% of the chlorophyll-a - nearly double the concentration seen in shorter residence time zones (22 ±â€¯7% picocyanobacterial of chlorophyll-a). Our results suggest that water residence time in estuaries may have an effect as large or larger than that experimentally demonstrated for light, contaminants, or nutrients.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos de Amônio , Clorofila A , Diatomáceas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estuários , Água Doce , Nitrogênio/análise , São Francisco , Qualidade da Água
11.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1440, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: San Francisco has implemented several programs addressing the needs of two large vulnerable populations: people living with HIV and those who are homeless. Assessment of these programs on health outcomes is paramount for reducing preventable deaths. METHODS: Individuals diagnosed with HIV/AIDS and reported to the San Francisco Department of Public Health HIV surveillance registry, ages 13 years or older, who resided in San Francisco at the time of diagnosis, and who died between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2016 were included in this longitudinal study. The primary independent variable was housing status, dichotomized as ever homeless since diagnosed with HIV, and the dependent variables were disease-specific causes of death, as noted on the death certificate. The Cochran-Armitage test measured changes in the mortality rates over time and unadjusted and adjusted Poisson regression models measured prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for causes of death. RESULTS: A total of 4158 deceased individuals were included in the analyses: the majority were male (87%), ages 40-59 years old at the time of death (64%), non-Hispanic White (60%), men who have sex with men (54%), had an AIDS diagnosis prior to death (87%), and San Francisco residents at the time of death (63%). Compared to those who were housed, those who were homeless were more likely to be younger at time of death, African American, have a history of injecting drugs, female or transgender, and were living below the poverty level (all p values < 0.0001). Among decedents who were SF residents at the time of death, there were declines in the proportion of deaths due to AIDS-defining conditions (p < 0.05) and increases in accidents, cardiomyopathy, heart disease, ischemic disease, non-AIDS cancers, and drug overdoses (p < 0.05). After adjustment, deaths due to mental disorders (aPR = 1.63, 95% CI 1.24, 2.14) were more likely and deaths due to non-AIDS cancers (aPR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.44, 0.89) were less likely among those experiencing homelessness. CONCLUSIONS: Additional efforts are needed to improve mental health services to homeless people with HIV and prevent mental-health related mortality.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte/tendências , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Habitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , São Francisco/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(21): 12774-12783, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566957

RESUMO

This study estimated annual average ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations at 1 km resolution using satellite Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) aerosol optical depth (AOD), land use parameters, and meteorology in California for the year 2016 (cross-validation R2 = 0.73 (site-based) and 0.81 (observation-based)). Using these high-resolution PM2.5 estimates, regionally varying urban enhancements of PM2.5 concentrations, 1.43-2.77 µg/m3 (23.9-36.2%), were identified in the densely populated air basins of San Francisco Bay Area, San Joaquin Valley, and South Coast. On the other hand, within-urban PM2.5 variability was found to be 31.4-35.6% of between-urban variability across California. However, this pattern was not consistent from region to region, even showing higher within-urban variability (e.g., San Francisco Bay Area). In addition, satellite-based PM2.5 concentrations were statistically significantly associated with demographic factors (i.e., % people of color, % poverty, and % low education) with the strongest positive association with % people of color (1.05 and 2.72 µg/m3 increases per interquartile range (IQR) and range increases, respectively). The fine-scale PM2.5 estimates enabled the assessment of long-term PM2.5 exposures for all populations particularly benefiting rural populations and socially vulnerable populations widely distributed in each urban area. This study provided evidence of regionally varying exposure misclassification that would arise without accounting for rural and within-urban exposure variabilities.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Aerossóis , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado , São Francisco
13.
Gynecol Oncol ; 155(1): 93-97, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492539

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare postoperative outcomes by primary payer status for patients with gynecologic malignancies. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent elective surgery for gynecologic malignancies between 2015 and 2019. Patient outcomes were compared by payer status using logistic regression. Sociodemographic and clinical covariates were selected a priori and included age, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification, body mass index, smoking status, malignancy site, surgery type, race, estimated income, marital status, and medical interpreter requirement. RESULTS: A total of 1894 patients comprised the study sample. In the multivariate model, compared to patients with private insurance, Medicaid and Medicare patients were more likely to mobilize >24 h after surgery (OR 1.9, p < 0.05 and OR 3.2, p < 0.001, respectively), to require ICU admission (OR 4.0, p < 0.05 and OR 5.0, p < 0.05, respectively), and to have longer lengths of stay (OR 1.8, p < 0.05 and OR 2.2, p < 0.001, respectively). Medicaid patients were also more likely to have higher total hospital costs (OR 1.7, p < 0.05). Payer status was not associated with postoperative pain, postoperative opiate use, or 30-day readmission rates. CONCLUSIONS: Medicaid and Medicare payer status are associated with worse postoperative outcomes in patients with gynecologic malignancies. The poor outcomes of Medicaid patients - a cohort defined by limited income - are noteworthy. The etiology is likely multifactorial, arising from a complex interplay of factors ranging from system issues such as access to care to the unique health status of a population bearing a high burden of disease and socioeconomic adversity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/economia , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/cirurgia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/economia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos Hospitalares , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Pós-Operatória/economia , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , São Francisco , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
14.
J Bus Contin Emer Plan ; 13(1): 40-51, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462362

RESUMO

The East Bay Municipal Utility District provides drinking water to 1.4 million customers and treats wastewater for 685,000 customers on the east side of San Francisco Bay in Northern California. The district's products and services are vital for public health, fire protection, economic development and quality of life. The district's award-winning business continuity programme is considered a model for the water and wastewater industry. This article discusses how the district approaches succession planning - the process of identifying and developing designated individuals who can replace critical roles in leadership or critical positions when those staff members become unavailable for any reason - with particular respect to the elected board of directors.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Qualidade de Vida , Sobreviventes , Comércio , Humanos , São Francisco
15.
AIDS Behav ; 23(9): 2326-2336, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324996

RESUMO

While poverty is an established barrier to achieving success at each step of the HIV care continuum, less is known about specific aspects of poverty and how they overlap with behavior in exceptionally low-income individuals who live in well-resourced areas. We considered unsuppressed viral load over 3 years among women living with HIV in San Francisco who used homeless shelters, low-income hotels and free meal programs. One-hundred twenty study participants were followed; 60% had > 1 unsuppressed viral load and 19% were unsuppressed at every visit. Across six-month intervals, the odds of unsuppressed viral load were 11% higher for every 10 nights spent sleeping on the street [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 1.11, 95% CI 1.02-1.20]; 16% higher for every 10 nights spent sleeping in a shelter (AOR/10 nights 1.16, 95% CI 1.06-1.27); 4% higher for every 10 nights spent sleeping in a single-room occupancy hotel (AOR/10 nights 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.07); and over threefold higher among women who experienced any recent incarceration (AOR 3.56, 95% CI 1.84-6.86). Violence and recent use of outpatient health care did not significantly predict viral suppression in adjusted analysis. While strategies to promote retention in care are important for vulnerable persons living with HIV, they are insufficient to ensure sustained viral suppression in low-income women experiencing homelessness and incarceration. Results presented here in combination with prior research linking incarceration to homelessness among women indicate that tailored interventions, which not only consider but prioritize affordable housing, are critical to achieving sustained viral suppression in low-income women living with HIV.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Habitação Popular/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/psicologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Pobreza , São Francisco/epidemiologia , Testes Sorológicos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(16): 9636-9645, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347357

RESUMO

California methane (CH4) emissions are quantified for three years from two tower networks and one aircraft campaign. We used backward trajectory simulations and a mesoscale Bayesian inverse model, initialized by three inventories, to achieve the emission quantification. Results show total statewide CH4 emissions of 2.05 ± 0.26 (at 95% confidence) Tg/yr, which is 1.14 to 1.47 times greater than the anthropogenic emission estimates by California Air Resource Board (CARB). Some of differences could be biogenic emissions, superemitter point sources, and other episodic emissions which may not be completely included in the CARB inventory. San Joaquin Valley (SJV) has the largest CH4 emissions (0.94 ± 0.18 Tg/yr), followed by the South Coast Air Basin, the Sacramento Valley, and the San Francisco Bay Area at 0.39 ± 0.18, 0.21 ± 0.04, and 0.16 ± 0.05 Tg/yr, respectively. The dairy and oil/gas production sources in the SJV contribute 0.44 ± 0.36 and 0.22 ± 0.23 Tg CH4/yr, respectively. This study has important policy implications for regulatory programs, as it provides a thorough multiyear evaluation of the emissions inventory using independent atmospheric measurements and investigates the utility of a complementary multiplatform approach in understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of CH4 emissions in the state and identifies opportunities for the expansion and applications of the monitoring network.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Metano , Aeronaves , Teorema de Bayes , California , São Francisco
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242684

RESUMO

Gentrification may play an important role in influencing health outcomes, but few studies have examined these associations. One major barrier to producing empirical evidence to establish this link is that there is little consensus on how to measure gentrification. To address this barrier, we compared three gentrification classification methodologies in relation to their ability to identify neighborhood gentrification in nine San Francisco Bay Area counties: the Freeman method, the Landis method, and the Urban Displacement Project (UDP) Regional Early Warning System. In the 1580 census tracts, 43% of the population had a bachelor's degree or higher. The average median household income was $79,671 in 2013. A comparison of gentrification methodologies revealed that the Landis and Freeman methodologies characterized the vast majority of census tracts as stable, and only 5.2% and 6.1% of tracts as gentrifying. UDP characterized 46.7% of tracts at risk, undergoing, or experiencing advanced stages of gentrification and displacement. There was substantial variation in the geographic location of tracts identified as gentrifying across methods. Given the variation in characterizations of gentrification across measures, studies evaluating associations between gentrification and health should consider using multiple measures of gentrification to examine the robustness of the study findings across measures.


Assuntos
Características de Residência , Mudança Social , Saúde da População Urbana , Humanos , São Francisco
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(7): 467, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243605

RESUMO

Utility vaults and underground structures house essential telecommunications, gas, and electric al infrastructure (e.g., transformers, copper wiring) that could contaminate water which accumulates in them. Water is removed from utility vaults during routine infrastructure maintenance. That water is typically released to the storm drain system, raising concerns that polluted water could reach receiving waters. However, no one has measured pollutants in utility vault water. The State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) has mandated such measurements as a condition of renewing the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Utility Vault Permit. We analyzed 126 priority pollutants in 20 utility vault water samples collected throughout California by Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E). We also estimated the volume of utility vault water discharged and calculated loads. Twenty-one priority pollutants were detected. Metals were commonly found. Only copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) exceeded water quality criteria. Their maximum concentrations were 791 and 386 µg/L, respectively. Median Cu and Zn concentrations of 9.66 and 81.6 µg/L were representative of urban stormwater, suggesting runoff is a source of metals in utility vault water. For San Francisco Bay, Cu and Zn loads from PG&E's utility vault water (0.06 and 0.5 kg/year) were inconsequential compared to previously reported total loads (74,000 and 320,000 kg/year) from stormwater, wastewater treatment plants, etc. For California, utility vault water loads were 5 and 40 kg/year of Cu and Zn. We are the first to report pollutant concentrations in utility vault water. Utility vaults are not a major source of pollutants to receiving waters.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/análise , Chuva/química , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água , São Francisco , Movimentos da Água
19.
IEEE Pulse ; 10(3): 24-25, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135348

RESUMO

A tiny cockroach no bigger than a large paper clip scurries across the floor of my bio-engineering lab at the University of Connecticut, Mansfield, CT, USA. It is a robot-roach hybrid, a hardwired biological insect, a cyborg if you will, and its future high-tech brethren may one day save your life. The use of insects as platforms for small robots has an incredible number of useful applications from search and rescue to national defense.


Assuntos
Baratas , Locomoção , Robótica , Animais , Congressos como Assunto , Humanos , São Francisco
20.
Environ Manage ; 64(1): 20-26, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049645

RESUMO

Seagrasses are highly productive, but human nearshore activities have reduced their global distribution by >29% since the twentieth century. In the United States and Canada, the native seagrass Zostera marina (eelgrass) provides habitat for many species and multiple ecosystem services. By supplying spawning surface for fish and substrate for invertebrates, eelgrass creates foraging areas for high densities of migratory birds. Eelgrass beds stabilize sediment, protect adjacent shorelines, improve water quality, and sequester carbon in their underlying substrate. San Francisco Bay (California, USA) is a significant estuary for eelgrass, and recent surveys show that eelgrass beds are in decline. Protecting eelgrass is a conservation priority for federal, state, and local agencies, yet few studies have documented the extent of eelgrass loss due to human impacts such as boat anchoring. The purpose of our study was to provide factual evidence for policy makers by quantifying damage to eelgrass caused by illegal anchor-outs in San Francisco Bay, an issue that has been disputed for decades. Using aerial imagery and GIS analyses, we determined the amount of direct damage to eelgrass caused by anchor-outs. We found that boats damage up to 41% of the eelgrass bed, and each boat may cause up to 0.3 ha of damage. These results can be used to inform decisions about anchor-outs by stakeholders and government agencies. Furthermore, our efficient analytical approach could be implemented in other coastal regions.


Assuntos
Zosteraceae , Animais , Baías , Canadá , Ecossistema , São Francisco , Navios
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