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2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(46): e23063, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181671

RESUMO

HIV-1 persists indefinitely in multiple cellular reservoirs despite antiretroviral therapy. We previously demonstrated HIV-1 compartmentalization in kidney and urine. Here, we further characterized viruses in urine and when available, compared them to those present in semen from HIV-1 positive participants with detectable plasma viremia to further understand the viral dynamics in the upper and lower genitourinary tract.Blood and urine samples were obtained from 19 HIV-1 positive participants. Simultaneous semen samples were obtained from 16 of the 19 participants. HIV-1 envelope (env) gene sequences were obtained by single-genome amplification (SGA) and neighbor-joining trees were constructed using the Kimura 2-parameter model.HIV-1 env gene sequences were amplified from blood in 19/19 (100%) participants, urine in 18/19 (95%) participants, and semen in 12/16 (75%). In individuals from which both urine and semen samples were obtained, differences in viral shedding between the 2 sources were observed, where HIV-1 env sequences could only be amplified from either urine or semen. Longitudinal phylogenetic analysis of urine-derived env sequences from 1 participant demonstrated that urine clusters distinct from blood are maintained over time (20 weeks), consistent with viral compartmentalization and local replication. Comparison of urine and semen derived sequences demonstrated either virus compartmentalization or equilibration.Our results demonstrate that when present, viral compartmentalization in urine persists over time. Comparison of timing of viral shedding in urine and semen samples from our cohort suggest different viral kinetics between the upper and lower genitourinary tract and sequence analysis suggests that HIV-1 populations in urine and semen can either be imported from blood or produced locally.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , Sêmen/virologia , Soro/virologia , Urina/virologia , Viremia/virologia , Adulto , Feminino , Amplificação de Genes , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/urina , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , Carga Viral , Viremia/sangue , Viremia/urina , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008556, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925964

RESUMO

Sexual transmission of Ebola virus (EBOV) is well established and has been implicated in multiple resurgences during the West African Ebola epidemic. Given the persistence of viral RNA in semen, guidelines from the World Health Organization (WHO) recommend abstinence or condom use for at least 1 year or until two semen PCR tests are negative. To better understand the impact of semen testing on sexual behavior, male EVD survivors were surveyed regarding their sexual behavior before and after semen testing. Of the 171 men who enrolled, 148 reported being sexually active following discharge from an ETU with 59% reporting episodes of condomless sex. At least one semen sample for testing was provided by 149 men and 13 of these men had EBOV RNA detected in their semen. When comparing sexual behaviors before and after semen testing, a positive semen test result had limited impact on behavior. Of those with seminal EBOV RNA detected, 61% reported no change in behavior pre- and post-semen testing with 46% engaging in condomless sex before and after testing and only 1 adopted safer sex behaviors following receipt of a positive result. Similarly, among men with undetectable EBOV in their semen, 66% reported no change in sexual behaviors with semen testing, with 55% forgoing condoms during sex. In only 11% was a negative semen result followed by abandoning condoms. There were no known sexual transmission events of Ebola virus in this cohort despite viral presence in semen during periods of condomless sex. This highlights the need to better understand the infectious potential of viral RNA persistence and determine what constitutes effective counseling for survivors and their partners.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento , RNA Viral/análise , Sêmen/virologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Portador Sadio , Criança , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Ebolavirus , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/transmissão , Humanos , Libéria/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sobreviventes
4.
Rev. int. androl. (Internet) ; 18(3): 117-123, jul.-sept. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192625

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: El objetivo de esta revisión es resumir la evidencia disponible sobre los posibles efectos adversos del SARS-CoV-2 en el sistema reproductor masculino y proporcionar una declaración de posición oficial de la Asociación Española de Andrología, Medicina Sexual y Reproductiva (ASESA). MÉTODOS: Se realizó una búsqueda exhaustiva en las bibliotecas Pubmed, Web of Science, Embase, Medline, Cochrane y MedRxiv. RESULTADOS: No se ha confirmado la orquitis como una posible complicación de la infección por SARS-CoV-2. Un estudio informó que el 19% de los hombres con COVID-19 presentaban molestias escrotales sugestivas de orquitis viral, que no se pudo confirmar. Es posible que el virus no infecte los testículos directamente, si no que desencadene una respuesta autoinmune secundaria y que cause una orquitis autoinmune. COVID-19 se ha asociado con anormalidades en la coagulación por lo que la orquitis podría ser el resultado de una vasculitis segmentaria. Los datos disponibles sobre la presencia del virus en semen son contradictorios. Sólo un estudio informó de la presencia de ARN en el 15,8% de enfermos de COVID-19. La presencia de ácido nucleico o antígeno en el semen no implica la existencia de virus con capacidad de replicación o infección. En hombres con COVID-19 se ha observado un incremento significativo de LH en suero y una drástica disminución de la ratio T/LH y FSH/LH, congruente con un hipogonadismo subclínico. CONCLUSIONES: Los datos disponibles y los hallazgos de los estudios recientes se basan en tamaños de muestra pequeños y proporcionan informaciones contradictorias. Existe la posibilidad teórica de que pueda producirse daño testicular y posterior infertilidad después de la infección por COVID-19, por lo que especialmente para aquellos hombres en edad reproductiva, se debe sugerir consulta y evaluación de la función gonadal y análisis de semen. En cuanto a la posibilidad de transmisión sexual, no hay evidencia suficiente para respaldar la necesidad de que las parejas asintomáticas eviten las relaciones sexuales para protegerse contra la transmisión del virus. Se necesita más investigación para comprender los impactos a largo plazo del SARS-CoV-2 en la función reproductiva masculina, incluidos sus posibles efectos sobre la fertilidad y la función endocrina testicular


OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this revision is to summarize the current existing evidence of the potential adverse effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the male reproductive system and provide the recommendations of the Asociación Española de Andrología, Medicina Sexual y Reproductiva (ASESA) concerning the implications of COVID-19 infection in the management of male infertilty patients and testicular endocrine dysfunction. METHODS: A comprehensive systematic literature search of the databases of PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Medline, Cochrane and MedRxiv, was carried out. RESULTS: The presence of orchitis as a potential complication of the infection by SARS-CoV-2 has not yet been confirmed. One study reported that 19% of males with COVID-19 infection had scrotal symptoms suggestive of viral orchitis which could not be confirmed. It is possible that the virus, rather than infecting the testes directly, may induce a secondary autoimmune response leading to autoimmune orchitis. COVID-19 has been associated with coagulation disorders and thus the orchitis could be the result of segmental vasculitis. Existing data concerning the presence of the virus in semen are contradictory. Only one study reported the presence of RNA in 15.8% of patients with COVID-19. However, the presence of nucleic acid or antigen in semen is not synonyms of viral replication capacity and infectivity. It has been reported an increase in serum levels of LH in males with COVID-19 and a significant reduction in the T/LH and FSH/LH ratios, consistent with subclinical hypogonadism. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of recent reports related to the potential effects of COVID-19 infection on the male reproductive system are based on poorly designed, small sample size studies that provide inconclusive, contradictory results. Since there still exists a theoretical possibility of testicular damage and male infertilty as a result of the infection by COVID-19, males of reproductive age should be evaluated for gonadal function and semen analysis. With regard to the sexual transmission of the virus, there is not sufficient evidence to recommend asymptomatic couples to abstein from having sex in order to protect themselves from being infected by the virus. Additional studies are needed to understand the long-term effects of SARS-CoV-2 on male reproductive function, including male fertility potential and endocrine testicular function


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Orquite/epidemiologia , Infertilidade Masculina/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/complicações , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Saúde Sexual e Reprodutiva , Sêmen/virologia
6.
Urol Int ; 104(9-10): 678-683, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781456

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The presence of new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in semen and the possibility of sexual transmission have become new subjects of curiosity. There is a discrepancy regarding this issue in the literature. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 in semen has been investigated in a limited number of studies, and mostly in recovering patients. We aimed to investigate the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in semen of patients with a positive nasopharyngeal swab test for SARS-CoV-2 in the acute stage. METHODS: We enrolled adult male patients who were hospitalized with confirmed SARS-COV-2 infection in the study. In addition to routine laboratory and radiological tests, semen sample was obtained from volunteers and transferred to the Turkish Public Health Institution, National Virology Laboratory. The samples were processed for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA on the day of collection. RESULTS: Sixteen patients were included in the study. The median age was 33.5 years (18-54). All but one had respiratory symptoms. None of the patients had a history or symptoms of urogenital disease. All semen samples were obtained during hospitalization and in the acute stage of the infection. The median time to obtain a semen sample after positive nasopharyngeal test was 1 day (0-7). All semen samples were detected as negative for SARS-CoV-2 PCR. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Although all semen samples were obtained in acute stage of the infection when the nasopharyngeal swab test was positive, we did not detect SARS-CoV-2 in semen. The results of our study support the thought that sexual transmission via semen does not have an important role in the person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2. We think that our study will provide new information to fill the gap in the literature.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Sêmen/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/genética , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Rev Int Androl ; 18(3): 117-123, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660697

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this revision is to summarize the current existing evidence of the potential adverse effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the male reproductive system and provide the recommendations of the Asociación Española de Andrología, Medicina Sexual y Reproductiva (ASESA) concerning the implications of COVID-19 infection in the management of male infertilty patients and testicular endocrine dysfunction. METHODS: A comprehensive systematic literature search of the databases of PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Medline, Cochrane and MedRxiv, was carried out. RESULTS: The presence of orchitis as a potential complication of the infection by SARS-CoV-2 has not yet been confirmed. One study reported that 19% of males with COVID-19 infection had scrotal symptoms suggestive of viral orchitis which could not be confirmed. It is possible that the virus, rather than infecting the testes directly, may induce a secondary autoimmune response leading to autoimmune orchitis. COVID-19 has been associated with coagulation disorders and thus the orchitis could be the result of segmental vasculitis. Existing data concerning the presence of the virus in semen are contradictory. Only one study reported the presence of RNA in 15.8% of patients with COVID-19. However, the presence of nucleic acid or antigen in semen is not synonyms of viral replication capacity and infectivity. It has been reported an increase in serum levels of LH in males with COVID-19 and a significant reduction in the T/LH and FSH/LH ratios, consistent with subclinical hypogonadism. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of recent reports related to the potential effects of COVID-19 infection on the male reproductive system are based on poorly designed, small sample size studies that provide inconclusive, contradictory results. Since there still exists a theoretical possibility of testicular damage and male infertilty as a result of the infection by COVID-19, males of reproductive age should be evaluated for gonadal function and semen analysis. With regard to the sexual transmission of the virus, there is not sufficient evidence to recommend asymptomatic couples to abstein from having sex in order to protect themselves from being infected by the virus. Additional studies are needed to understand the long-term effects of SARS-CoV-2 on male reproductive function, including male fertility potential and endocrine testicular function.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Saúde Reprodutiva , Saúde Sexual , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Humanos , Hipogonadismo/sangue , Hipogonadismo/etiologia , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Leucócitos , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Masculino , Orquite/etiologia , Orquite/virologia , Próstata/virologia , RNA Viral/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Sêmen/virologia , Preservação do Sêmen , Espanha , Testículo/imunologia , Testículo/patologia , Testículo/virologia , Testosterona/sangue , Vasculite/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Fertil Steril ; 114(2): 233-238, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650948

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the presence of viral RNA in human semen of patients with severe acute-respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and to evaluate its presence and relevance in semen parameters. DESIGN: Pilot cohort study. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENT(S): Thirty-four men were distributed as: 1) patients in convalescence (patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in pharyngeal swab according to reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction [RT-PCR] or antibodies); 2) negative control group (no antibodies); and 3) patients with an acute infection (detection of SARS-CoV-2 in pharyngeal swab). INTERVENTION: Semen and a blood sample were collected from each individual. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Analysis of semen quality according to the World Health Organization standards. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR in the native semen sample and after density gradient preparation. Confirmation of immunoglobulin (Ig) A und IgG antibodies in the blood. RESULT(S): Eighteen semen samples from recovered men were obtained 8-54 days after absence of symptoms, 14 from control subjects, and 2 from patients with an active COVID-19 infection. No RNA was detected by means of RT-PCR in the semen, including semen samples from two patients with an acute COVID-19 infection. Subjects with a moderate infection showed an impairment of sperm quality. CONCLUSION(S): A mild COVID-19 infection is not likely to affect testis and epididymis function, whereas semen parameters did seem impaired after a moderate infection. SARS-CoV-2 RNA could not be detected in semen of recovered and acute COVID-19-positive men. This suggests no viral transmission during sexual contact and assisted reproductive techniques, although further data need to be obtained.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , RNA Viral/sangue , Sêmen/metabolismo , Sêmen/virologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/sangue , Infertilidade Masculina/diagnóstico , Infertilidade Masculina/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Projetos Piloto , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 39(11): 2005-2011, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638221

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiologic agent for the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, has caused a public health emergency. The need for additional research in viral pathogenesis is essential as the number of cases and deaths rise. Understanding the virus and its ability to cause disease has been the main focus of current literature; however, there is much unknown. Studies have revealed new findings related to the full transmission potential of SARS-CoV-2 and its subsequent ability to cause infection by different means. The virus is hypothesized to be of increased virulence compared with previous coronavirus that caused epidemics, in part due to its overall structural integrity and resilience to inactivation. To date, many studies have discussed that the rationale behind its transmission potential is that viral RNA has unexpectedly been detected in multiple bodily fluids, with some samples having remained positive for extended periods of time. Additionally, the receptor by which the virus gains cellular entry, ACE2, has been found to be expressed in different human body systems, thereby potentiating its infection in those locations. In this evidence-based comprehensive review, we discuss various potential routes of transmission of SARS-CoV-2-respiratory/droplet, indirect, fecal-oral, vertical, sexual, and ocular. Understanding these different routes is important as they pertain to clinical practice, especially in taking preventative measures to mitigate the spread of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Aerossóis , Túnica Conjuntiva/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Fezes/virologia , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Boca/virologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Sêmen/virologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
11.
Prog Urol ; 30(10): 484-487, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620366

RESUMO

COVID-19 is the pandemic that hit the world starting December 2019. Recent studies and international statistics have shown an increased prevalence, morbidity as well as mortality of this disease in male patients compared to female patients. The aim of this brief communication is to describe the pathophysiology of this sex-discrepancy, based on the infectivity mechanism of the coronavirus including the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2), the Type II transmembrane Serine Protease (TMPRSS2), and the androgen receptor. This could help understand the susceptibility of urological patients, especially those receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer, and testosterone replacement therapy.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Receptores Androgênicos/fisiologia , Receptores Virais/fisiologia , Serina Endopeptidases/fisiologia , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Androgênios/fisiologia , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Especificidade de Órgãos , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/biossíntese , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/fisiopatologia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia , Sêmen/virologia , Serina Endopeptidases/biossíntese , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Distribuição por Sexo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/fisiologia , Internalização do Vírus
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008335, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511241

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV), a neglected tropical disease until its re-emergence in 2007, causes microcephaly in infants and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Its re-emergence and spread to more than 80 countries led the World Health Organization in 2016 to declare a Public Health Emergency. ZIKV is mainly transmitted by mosquitos, but can persist in infected human male semen for prolonged periods and may be sexually transmitted. Testicular Sertoli cells support ZIKV replication and may be a reservoir for persistent ZIKV infection. Electrical impedance analyses indicated ZIKV infection rapidly disrupted Vero cell monolayers but had little effect upon human Sertoli cells (HSerC). We determined ZIKV-induced proteomic changes in HSerC using an aptamer-based multiplexed technique (SOMAscan) targeting >1300 human proteins. ZIKV infection caused differential expression of 299 proteins during three different time points, including 5 days after infection. Dysregulated proteins are involved in different bio-functions, including cell death and survival, cell cycle, maintenance of cellular function, cell signaling, cellular assembly, morphology, movement, molecular transport, and immune response. Many signaling pathways important for maintenance of HSerC function and spermatogenesis were highly dysregulated. These included IL-6, IGF1, EGF, NF-κB, PPAR, ERK/MAPK, and growth hormone signaling. Down-regulation of the PPAR signaling pathway might impact cellular energy supplies. Upstream molecule analysis also indicated microRNAs involved in germ cell development were downregulated by infection. Overall, this study leads to a better understanding of Sertoli cellular mechanisms used by ZIKV during persistent infection and possible ZIKV impacts on spermatogenesis.


Assuntos
Células de Sertoli/imunologia , Espermatogênese , Junções Íntimas/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humanos , Masculino , Proteômica , Sêmen/virologia , Células de Sertoli/virologia , Transdução de Sinais , Junções Íntimas/virologia , Células Vero , Replicação Viral , Zika virus
13.
Fertil Steril ; 113(6): 1135-1139, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482249

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus 2 (CoV-2) in seminal fluid of patients recovering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to describe the expression profile of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and Transmembrane Serine Protease 2 (TMPRSS2) within the testicle. DESIGN: Observational, cross-sectional study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENT(S): Thirty-four adult Chinese males diagnosed with COVID-19 through confirmatory quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) from pharyngeal swab samples. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Identification of SARS-CoV-2 on qRT-PCR of single ejaculated semen samples. Semen quality was not assessed. Expression patterns of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the human testis are explored through previously published single-cell transcriptome datasets. RESULT(S): Six patients (19%) demonstrated scrotal discomfort suggestive of viral orchitis around the time of COVID-19 confirmation. Severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV-2 was not detected in semen after a median of 31 days (interquartile range, 29-36 days) from COVID-19 diagnosis. Single-cell transcriptome analysis demonstrates sparse expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2, with almost no overlapping gene expression. CONCLUSION(S): Severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV-2 was not detected in the semen of patients recovering from COVID-19 1 month after COVID-19 diagnosis. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-mediated viral entry of SARS-CoV-2 into target host cells is unlikely to occur within the human testicle based on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression. The long-term effects of SARS-CoV-2 on male reproductive function remain unknown.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sêmen/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/genética , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/enzimologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/enzimologia , Pneumonia Viral/genética , RNA-Seq , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Testículo/enzimologia , Testículo/virologia , Fatores de Tempo , Transcriptoma , Internalização do Vírus , Adulto Jovem
14.
Reprod Biomed Online ; 41(3): 365-369, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32565229

RESUMO

The question of whether SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 [SARS-CoV-2], leading to the COVID-19 infection) can be harboured in the testes and/or semen is currently unanswered. It is essential to understand the limitations of both antibody and real-time PCR tests in interpreting SARS-CoV-2 data in relation to analyses of semen and testicular tissue without appropriate controls. This article critically analyses the evidence so far on this, and the possible implications. The limitations of diagnostic tests in both sampling and testing methodologies, their validation and their relevance in interpreting data are also highlighted.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infertilidade Masculina/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Testículo/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , RNA Viral/análise , Receptores de Superfície Celular/análise , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Sêmen/virologia , Serina Endopeptidases/análise , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/virologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Doadores de Tecidos
15.
Andrologia ; 52(9): e13712, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578263

RESUMO

We performed this systematic review to evaluate the possibility of an impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on male fertility. SARS-CoV-2 enters the cells with the help of ACE2; therefore, testicular expression of ACE2 was analysed from transcriptome sequencing studies and our unpublished data. Literature suggested that SARS-CoV-1 (2002-2004 SARS) had a significant adverse impact on testicular architecture, suggesting a high possibility of the impact of SARS-CoV-2 as well. Out of two studies on semen samples from COVID-19 affected patients, one reported the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the semen samples while the other denied it, raising conflict about its presence in the semen samples and the possibility of sexual transmission. Our transcriptome sequencing studies on rat testicular germ cells showed ACE expression in rat testicular germ cells. We also found ACE2 expression in transcriptome sequencing data for human spermatozoa, corroborating its presence in the testicular germ cells. Transcriptome sequencing data from literature search revealed ACE2 expression in the germ, Sertoli and Leydig cells. The presence of ACE2 on almost all testicular cells and the report of a significant impact of previous SARS coronavirus on testes suggest that SARS-CoV-2 is highly likely to affect testicular tissue, semen parameters and male fertility.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infertilidade Masculina/virologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Testículo/metabolismo , Animais , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/patologia , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Ratos , Sêmen/virologia , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Testículo/patologia
16.
Biosci Trends ; 14(3): 209-211, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418947

RESUMO

Recently, an increasing number of reports have indicated that a few patients who were believed to have recovered from COVID-19 initially tested negative but later tested positive. Several hospitals in different countries have detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the semen and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with severe COVID-19. Given the fact that the testes and central nervous system are both immune privilege sites and the fact that Ebola virus and Zika virus can avoid immune clearance and continue proliferating and spreading by hiding in those sites, the question of whether SARS-CoV-2 is present in immune privilege sites, it attacks those sites, and it spreads again after proliferating in those sites needs to be investigated.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , RNA Viral/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Infecções por Coronavirus/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Humanos , Privilégio Imunológico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Sêmen/virologia
17.
J Virol ; 94(15)2020 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434884

RESUMO

If strategies currently in development succeed in eradicating HIV reservoirs in peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues, residual sources of virus may remain in anatomic compartments. Paired blood and semen samples were collected from 12 individuals enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled therapeutic vaccine clinical trial in people with HIV (PWH) who began antiretroviral therapy (ART) during acute or early infection (ClinicalTrials registration no. NCT01859325). After the week 56 visit (postintervention), all participants interrupted ART. At the first available time points after viral rebound, we sequenced HIV-1 env (C2-V3), gag (p24), and pol (reverse transcriptase) regions amplified from cell-free HIV RNA in blood and seminal plasma using the MiSeq Illumina platform. Comprehensive sequence and phylogenetic analyses were performed to evaluate viral population structure, compartmentalization, and viral diversity in blood and seminal plasma. Compared to that in blood, HIV RNA rebound in semen occurred significantly later (median of 66 versus 42 days post-ART interruption, P < 0.01) and reached lower levels (median 164 versus 16,090 copies/ml, P < 0.01). Three of five participants with available sequencing data presented compartmentalized viral rebound between blood and semen in one HIV coding region. Despite early ART initiation, HIV RNA molecular diversity was higher in semen than in blood in all three coding regions for most participants. Higher HIV RNA molecular diversity in the genital tract (compared to that in blood plasma) and evidence of compartmentalization illustrate the distinct evolutionary dynamics between these two compartments after ART interruption. Future research should evaluate whether the genital compartment might contribute to viral rebound in some PWH interrupting ART.IMPORTANCE To cure HIV, we likely need to target the reservoirs in all anatomic compartments. Here, we used sophisticated statistical and phylogenetic methods to analyze blood and semen samples collected from 12 persons with HIV who began antiretroviral therapy (ART) during very early HIV infection and who interrupted their ART as part of a clinical trial. First, we found that HIV RNA rebound in semen occurred significantly later and reached lower levels than in blood. Second, we found that the virus in semen was genetically different in some participants compared to that in blood. Finally, we found increased HIV RNA molecular diversity in semen compared to that in blood in almost all study participants. These data suggest that the HIV RNA populations emerging from the genital compartment after ART interruption might not be the same as those emerging from blood plasma. Future research should evaluate whether the genital compartment might contribute to viral rebound in some people with HIV (PWH) interrupting ART.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV , HIV-1/metabolismo , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Sêmen/metabolismo , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sêmen/virologia
19.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 43(12): 1819-1822, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329026

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The recent appearance of SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan in 2019 has started a pandemic which has involved over a million people worldwide. A matter of debate is the possible viral detection in different body fluids than respiratory droplets. Thus, we evaluated the possible presence of SARS-CoV-2 in semen and urine samples of a volunteer with confirmed COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 31-year-old man with fever, myalgia, anosmia, and ageusia was tested and found positive for SARS-CoV-2 through a pharyngeal swab. Eight days after he provided semen and urine samples in which viral RNA presence was measured using a Real time RT PCR system (RealStar SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR, Altona Diagnostics) targeting E and S viral genes. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Semen and urine samples search for SARS-CoV-2 RNA was negative. Although this should be interpreted cautiously, it may be possible that either the viral clearance kinetics in these matrices matches the progressive clinical recovery of the patient or that the virus was never present in these fluids at the time of the laboratory diagnosis.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , RNA Viral/análise , Sêmen/virologia , Manejo de Espécimes/normas , Urinálise/métodos , Adulto , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
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