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3.
Kardiologiia ; 60(9): 38-45, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131473

RESUMO

Aim        To study gender aspects of comorbidity in evaluating the risk of in-hospital death for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) after a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).Material and methods        The presented results are based on data of two ACS registries, the city of Sochi and RECORD-3. 986 patients were included into this analysis by two additional criteria, age <70 years and PCI. 80% of the sample were men. Analysis of comorbidity severity was performed for all patients and included 9 indexes: type 2 diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, atrial fibrillation, anemia, stroke, arterial hypertension, obesity, and peripheral atherosclerosis. Group 1 (minimum comorbidity) consisted of patients with not more than one disease (n=367); group 2 (moderate comorbidity) consisted of patients with 2 or 3 diseases (n=499), and group 3 (pronounced comorbidity) consisted of patients with 4 or more diseases (n=120). In-hospital mortality was 2.7 % (n=27).Results   Significant data on the effect of comorbidity on the in-hospital prognosis were obtained only for men of the compared groups: 0.6, 1.8, and 8.8 %, respectively (χ2=21.6; р<0.0001). At the same time, among 44 women with minimum comorbidity, there were no cases of in-hospital death, and the presence of moderate (n=110) and pronounced comorbidity (n=40) was associated with a similar death rate (7.3 and 7.5 %, respectively). Noteworthy, in moderate comorbidity, the female gender was associated with a 4-fold increase in the risk of in-hospital death (odd ratio, OR 4.3 at 95 % confidence interval, CI from 1.5 to 12.1; р=0.003). In addition, both in men and women with minimum comorbidity, even a high risk by the GRACE scale (score ≥140) was not associated with increased in-hospital mortality, which was minimal (0 for women and 1 % for men). At the same time, in the patient subgroup with moderate and pronounced comorbidity, a GRACE score ≥140 resulted in a 6-fold increase in the risk of in-hospital death for men (OR 6.0 at 95 % CI from 1.7 to 21.9; р=0.002) and a 16-fold increase for women (OR 16.2 at 95 % CI from 2.0 to 130.4; р=0.0006).Conclusion            This study identified gender-related features in predicting the risk of in-hospital death for ACS patients with comorbidities after PCI, which warrants reconsideration of existing approaches to risk stratification.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/cirurgia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco
4.
Herz ; 45(7): 663-667, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several observational studies have suggested a worrying reduction in hospitalisations for acute coronary syndromes in the emergency cardiology department in the last few months all over the world. The aim of the present study is to assess the impact of the current COVID-19 health crisis on admission for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the cardiology department of a tertiary general hospital in Germany with a COVID-19 ward. METHODS AND RESULTS: The authors retrieved clinical data evaluating consecutive patients with ACS admitted to their emergency cardiology department. Data from January to June 2020, as well as for a 5-week period corresponding to this year's COVID-19 outbreak in south-west Germany (23rd March-26th April), were analysed and compared to data from equivalent weeks in the previous 2 years. A trend of reduction in admissions for ACS was observed from the beginning of the outbreak in the region at the end of March 2020. This trend continued and even intensified after a fall in COVID-19 cases in the area; the number of ACS patients in April 2020 was 25% and in June 29% lower than in January 2020 (p-value for linear trend <0.001). An even more consistent reduction was observed as compared with the equivalent weeks in the previous 2 years (38% and 30% lower than in 2019 and 2018, respectively; p = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 health and social crisis has caused a worrying trend of reduced cardiological admissions for ACS, without evidence of a decrease in its incidence. Understanding and counteracting the causes appears to be crucial to avoiding major long-term consequences for healthcare systems worldwide.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
5.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 21(11): 869-873, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009170

RESUMO

AIMS: The purpose of this study was to verify the impact on the number and characteristics of coronary invasive procedures for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) of two hub centers with cardiac catheterization facilities, during the first month of lockdown following the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Procedural data of ACS patients admitted between 10 March and 10 April 2020 were compared with those of the same period of 2019. RESULTS: We observed a 23.4% reduction in ACS admissions during 2020, with a decrease for both ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) (-5.6%) and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (-34.5%), albeit not statistically significant (P = 0.2). During the first 15 days of the examined periods, the reduction in ACS admissions reached 52.5% (-25% for STEMI and -70.3% for non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction, P = 0.04). Among STEMI patients, the rate of those with a time delay from symptoms onset longer than 180 min was significantly higher during the lockdown period (P = 0.01). Radiograph exposure (P = 0.01) was higher in STEMI patients treated in 2020 with a slightly higher amount of contrast medium (P = 0.1) and number of stents implanted (P = 0.1), whereas the number of treated vessels was reduced (P = 0.03). Percutaneous coronary intervention procedural success and in-hospital mortality were not different between the two groups and in STEMI patients (P NS for all). CONCLUSION: During the early phase, the COVID-19 outbreak was associated with a lower rate of admissions for ACS, with a substantial impact on the time delay presentation of STEMI patients, but apparently without affecting the in-hospital outcomes.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Infecções por Coronavirus , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Infarto do Miocárdio , Pandemias , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Pneumonia Viral , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/etiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Diagnóstico Tardio/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/cirurgia , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
N Engl J Med ; 383(14): 1305-1316, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in the management of atrial fibrillation, patients with this condition remain at increased risk for cardiovascular complications. It is unclear whether early rhythm-control therapy can reduce this risk. METHODS: In this international, investigator-initiated, parallel-group, open, blinded-outcome-assessment trial, we randomly assigned patients who had early atrial fibrillation (diagnosed ≤1 year before enrollment) and cardiovascular conditions to receive either early rhythm control or usual care. Early rhythm control included treatment with antiarrhythmic drugs or atrial fibrillation ablation after randomization. Usual care limited rhythm control to the management of atrial fibrillation-related symptoms. The first primary outcome was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, stroke, or hospitalization with worsening of heart failure or acute coronary syndrome; the second primary outcome was the number of nights spent in the hospital per year. The primary safety outcome was a composite of death, stroke, or serious adverse events related to rhythm-control therapy. Secondary outcomes, including symptoms and left ventricular function, were also evaluated. RESULTS: In 135 centers, 2789 patients with early atrial fibrillation (median time since diagnosis, 36 days) underwent randomization. The trial was stopped for efficacy at the third interim analysis after a median of 5.1 years of follow-up per patient. A first-primary-outcome event occurred in 249 of the patients assigned to early rhythm control (3.9 per 100 person-years) and in 316 patients assigned to usual care (5.0 per 100 person-years) (hazard ratio, 0.79; 96% confidence interval, 0.66 to 0.94; P = 0.005). The mean (±SD) number of nights spent in the hospital did not differ significantly between the groups (5.8±21.9 and 5.1±15.5 days per year, respectively; P = 0.23). The percentage of patients with a primary safety outcome event did not differ significantly between the groups; serious adverse events related to rhythm-control therapy occurred in 4.9% of the patients assigned to early rhythm control and 1.4% of the patients assigned to usual care. Symptoms and left ventricular function at 2 years did not differ significantly between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Early rhythm-control therapy was associated with a lower risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes than usual care among patients with early atrial fibrillation and cardiovascular conditions. (Funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research and others; EAST-AFNET 4 ISRCTN number, ISRCTN04708680; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01288352; EudraCT number, 2010-021258-20.).


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Ablação por Cateter , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Idoso , Antiarrítmicos/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Risco , Prevenção Secundária , Método Simples-Cego , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 113(10): 617-629, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus characteristically display an atherogenic lipid profile with high triglyceride concentrations, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations not always elevated. It is unclear if patients with diabetes who present with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) receive different or more-potent lipid-lowering therapy (LLT). AIMS: To investigate lipid abnormalities in patients with and without type 2 diabetes hospitalised for an ACS, and use of LLT before admission and 4 months after the event. METHODS: Patients were included in the observational DYSIS II study if they were hospitalised for an ACS and had a full lipid profile. RESULTS: Of 3803 patients, diabetes was documented in 1344 (54.7%). Compared to patients without diabetes, those with diabetes had a lower mean LDL-C (101.2 vs. 112.0mg/dL; 2.6 vs. 2.9mmol/L; P<0.0001), with a greater proportion attaining concentrations<70mg/dL (1.8mmol/L) (23.9% vs. 16.0%; P<0.0001) and<55mg/dL (1.4mmol/L) (11.3% vs. 7.3%; P<0.0001), a higher mean triglyceride concentration (139.0 vs. 121.0mg/dL; 1.6 vs. 1.4mmol/L; P<0.0001) and a lower HDL-C concentration. LLT was more commonly given to patients with diabetes (77.5% vs. 58.8%; P<0.0001); there were no differences in types of therapy prescribed. Four months after hospitalisation, most patients from both groups were being treated with LLT (predominantly statin monotherapy). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the different lipid profiles, the type of LLT prescribed did not vary depending on the presence or absence of type 2 diabetes. There was no difference in LLT in patients with and without diabetes at 4-month follow-up, except for fibrates, which were used in 2% of patients with and 1% of patients without diabetes. Statin monotherapy of intermediate potency was the predominant treatment in both groups.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Lipídeos/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Admissão do Paciente , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(33): e20805, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871971

RESUMO

Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have an increased serum level of calprotectin. The purpose of present study was to analyze the prognostic significance of serum calprotectin levels in elderly diabetic patients underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) due to ACS.A total of 273 consecutive elderly diabetic patients underwent PCI for primary ACS were enrolled. Serum calprotectin levels were measured before PCI, and baseline clinical characteristics of all patients were collected. All patients were followed up at regular interval for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) during 1 year after PCI. MACEs include cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization (TVR). The predicting value of serum calprotectin for MACEs was analyzed by using univariate and multivariate analysis and receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC).At the endpoint of this study, 47 patients of all 273 patients had MACEs. According to optimal cutoff value of calprotectin for predicting MACEs by ROC analysis, all patients were stratified into a high calprotectin group and a low calprotectin group. The incidence rate of MACEs and TVR in high calprotectin group was prominently higher than that in low calprotectin group (21.9% vs 11.5%, P = .02). In multivariable COX regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders, serum calprotectin level remains as an independent risk predictor of MACE (hazard ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-4.62; P = .01).In diabetic patients with a comorbidity of ACS, a high serum level of calprotectin is associated to a higher MACE rate after PCI.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/cirurgia , Complicações do Diabetes/sangue , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/sangue , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Prognóstico
12.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 50(4): 809-813, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734526

RESUMO

The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a public health emergency of international concern. During this time, the management of people with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and COVID-19 has become a global issue, especially since preexisting cardiovascular disease is a risk factor for the presence and the severity of COVID-19. The number of people with ST- elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has decreased during the pandemic and delays in the time looking for medical care have been reported. In addition, the diagnosis of ACS may have been difficult due to possible underlying myocarditis or other clinical entities. Regarding management of people with STEMI, although the superiority of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) over thrombolysis is well established, the notable exposure risks due to absence of negative pressure in catheterization rooms and the increased difficulty in fine manipulation on guidewires under proper protection equipment may contribute to the relatively secondary role of PCI during the COVID-19 pandemic; thus, fibrinolytic therapy or robotic-assisted PCI in early presenting STEMI patients may have an alternative role during this period if prevention measures cannot be taken. Healthcare stuff should take the proper measures to avoid the spread of and their exposure to the virus.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Robótica , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Terapia Trombolítica , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Atividade Motora , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/instrumentação , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Fatores de Risco , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
N Z Med J ; 133(1519): 41-54, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concomitant atrial fibrillation (AF) and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) present the difficult therapeutic dilemma of balancing bleeding, cardio-embolic and coronary thrombotic risks with appropriate combinations of antithrombotic medications. We aim to evaluate current New Zealand practice by identifying the incidence of AF in ACS; describe the population characteristics; and assess our antithrombotic management. METHODS: Consecutive patients ≥18y presenting with ACS who had coronary angiography (2017-2018) were identified from the All New Zealand ACS Quality Improvement (ANZACS-QI) registry. The cohort was divided into three groups: 1) patients with pre-existing AF; 2) new-onset AF; and 3) no AF. Antithrombotic regimens included dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT), dual antithrombotic therapy (DAT-single antiplatelet plus an oral anticoagulant (OAC)) and triple antithrombotic therapy (TAT). RESULTS: There were 9,489 patients, 9.6% with pre-existing AF, 4.4% new AF and 86% without AF. Both AF groups were older (median 74 vs 71 vs 65y, p=0.001), had poorer renal function, were more likely to present with heart failure (16% vs 19% vs 8%, p=0.001) and have left ventricular ejection fraction <40% (22% vs 28% vs 13%, p<0.001). They received less percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (53% vs 59% vs 70%, p=0.001). In the cohort, 25 different combinations of antithrombotic agents were utilised. Ninety-six percent of patients with any AF had a CHA2DS2VASC stroke risk score of ≥2, of whom 48% did not receive OAC. Twenty-four percent received TAT and 19% DAT. OAC use increased slightly with increasing stroke risk but were independent of CRUSADE bleeding risk. Of patients with AF treated with PCI, 53% received DAPT, 11% DAT and 35% TAT. 51% of those at high stroke risk were discharged on DAPT only. In contrast, 19% at low stroke risk received TAT. CONCLUSION: In New Zealand, one in seven patients presenting with ACS have AF, a third being new-onset AF. Antithrombotic management is inconsistent, with underutilisation of anticoagulants, particularly the DAT regimen, and is inadequately informed by stroke and bleeding risk scores.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Fibrilação Atrial , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
14.
Am J Cardiol ; 133: 7-14, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828524

RESUMO

According to the latest European Society of Cardiology Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of chronic coronary syndromes, patients who suffered an acute coronary syndrome fall into a chronic stable phase after 1 year. In these patients, the estimated 10-year risk for recurrent cardiovascular events varies considerably. We applied the SMART (Second Manifestations of Arterial Disease) risk score in 281 patients 1 year after an acute coronary syndrome to estimate the 10-year risk for recurrent cardiovascular events (subsequent nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or cardiovascular death). We assessed the distribution of the estimated risk and the potential risk reduction that might be achieved with optimal guideline-directed management of modifiable risk factors (systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking, and body mass index). In our cohort, the median SMART score was 16.1% (interquartile range [IQR] 9.7 to 27.3), particularly increased in patients with older age, diabetes, polyvascular disease or chronic kidney disease (median 28.6%, IQR 20.8 to 52.9; 23.8%, 4.8 to 41.6; 29.4%, 18.8 to 49.7; 53.8%, 26.5 to 71.6, respectively). If all modifiable risk factors met guideline-recommended targets, the median SMART risk score would be 9.6% (IQR 6.3 to 20.9), with 51% of the patients at a 10-year risk <10%, while 11% and 15% at 20% to 30% and >30% risk, respectively. In conclusion, the SMART score had a wide distribution in patients with chronic coronary syndromes. A quarter of patients remained at a >20% 10-year risk, even with optimal risk factor management, clearly underlining that residual risk is an unmet clinical challenge.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Indian Heart J ; 72(3): 192-193, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768020

RESUMO

There has been a huge impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on global healthcare systems. Advisories across the world have appealed to people to stay at home and observe social distancing to slow down the pandemic. However it is important to realize as to how this is affecting acute cardiovascular care. Recent studies from Europe and USA have reported > 50% reduction in hospital admissions for ACS and declining rates of coronary interventions. The possible reasons for this noticeable reduction in patients with ACS/STEMI during the COVID-19 pandemic are multi-factorial. On one hand, it is due to change in thresholds for referring patients of ACS/STEMI for cardiac catheterization, with fibrinolysis being acceptable for many stable STEMI patients and conservative management being preferred for NSTEMI patients. Theories abound on how "staying at home" strategy may have led to an reduction in acute coronary events due to healthier lifestyle, better compliance and reduced stress. Realistically however, a more disquieting reason would be a "pseudo-reduction" ie. the incidence of ACS/STEMI is actually the same, but these patients are staying away from hospitals due to fear of contracting the infection. Lockdown restrictions have also limited transport options for patients seeking to reach hospitals in time. Healthcare systems need to be prepared for an anticipated downstream deluge of such untreated patients who may present with sequelae like heart failure, reinfarction, arrhythmias, mechanical complications etc. Scientific societies should have proactive campaigns to alleviate patient concerns, and encourage them to seek timely medical attention despite the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Estados Unidos
16.
J Hypertens ; 38(11): 2237-2244, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649637

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In addition to high blood pressure variability (BPV), low BPV was associated with adverse cardiovascular prognosis in selected high-risk patients. We explored this issue in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) using a nonlinear approach with BPV as a continuous variable. METHODS: Long-term systolic BPV (SBPV) (coefficient of variation, CoV %) was calculated on quarterly visits until a fatal/nonfatal cardiovascular event or all-cause mortality, excluding titration period and patients with missing visits. We used Cox proportional hazard models with penalized smoothing splines to shape the risk of outcomes against the continuum of SBPV (independent variable). Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR, 95% CI) were calculated using the reference range derived from the nonlinear model. Sensitivity analysis based on propensity score matching (PSM) was performed. RESULTS: The association of SBPV with fatal/nonfatal cardiovascular events was J-shaped, whereas that with all-cause mortality was linear. After multivariate adjustment, however, the only significant associations remained that of low SBPV (CoV <5%) with cardiovascular events (hazard ratio 1.85, 95% CI 1.24-2.75, P = 0.003), and of high SBPV (CoV >10%) with the composite of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 1.35, 95% CI 1.02-1.80; P = 0.037). Low SBPV was associated with ischemic heart disease (hazard ratio 2.76, 95% CI 1.55-4.91; P < 0.001). There was a significant U-shaped association of SBPV with cardiovascular events in the PSM cohort. CONCLUSION: Nonlinear modeling indicates that low and high long-term SBPV have prognostic relevance in high-risk hypertensive individuals from SPRINT. Randomized trials are needed to test these findings and their potential therapeutic implications.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Sístole , Fatores de Tempo
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(7): e2014780, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32644140

RESUMO

Importance: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in severe psychological, social, and economic stress in people's lives. It is not known whether the stress of the pandemic is associated with an increase in the incidence of stress cardiomyopathy. Objective: To determine the incidence and outcomes of stress cardiomyopathy during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with before the pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study at cardiac catheterization laboratories with primary percutaneous coronary intervention capability at 2 hospitals in the Cleveland Clinic health system in Northeast Ohio examined the incidence of stress cardiomyopathy (also known as Takotsubo syndrome) in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome who underwent coronary arteriography. Patients presenting during the COVID-19 pandemic, between March 1 and April 30, 2020, were compared with 4 control groups of patients with acute coronary syndrome presenting prior to the pandemic across 4 distinct timelines: March to April 2018, January to February 2019, March to April 2019, and January to February 2020. Data were analyzed in May 2020. Exposures: Patients were divided into 5 groups based on the date of their clinical presentation in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incidence of stress cardiomyopathy. Results: Among 1914 patient presenting with acute coronary syndrome, 1656 patients (median [interquartile range] age, 67 [59-74]; 1094 [66.1%] men) presented during the pre-COVID-19 period (390 patients in March-April 2018, 309 patients in January-February 2019, 679 patients in March-April 2019, and 278 patients in January-February 2020), and 258 patients (median [interquartile range] age, 67 [57-75]; 175 [67.8%] men) presented during the COVID-19 pandemic period (ie, March-April 2020). There was a significant increase in the incidence of stress cardiomyopathy during the COVID-19 period, with a total of 20 patients with stress cardiomyopathy (incidence proportion, 7.8%), compared with prepandemic timelines, which ranged from 5 to 12 patients with stress cardiomyopathy (incidence proportion range, 1.5%-1.8%). The rate ratio comparing the COVID-19 pandemic period to the combined prepandemic period was 4.58 (95% CI, 4.11-5.11; P < .001). All patients during the COVID-19 pandemic had negative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction test results for COVID-19. Patients with stress cardiomyopathy during the COVID-19 pandemic had a longer median (interquartile range) hospital length of stay compared with those hospitalized in the prepandemic period (COVID-19 period: 8 [6-9] days; March-April 2018: 4 [3-4] days; January-February 2019: 5 [3-6] days; March-April 2019: 4 [4-8] days; January-February: 5 [4-5] days; P = .006). There were no significant differences between the COVID-19 period and the overall pre-COVID-19 period in mortality (1 patient [5.0%] vs 1 patient [3.6%], respectively; P = .81) or 30-day rehospitalization (4 patients [22.2%] vs 6 patients [21.4%], respectively; P = .90). Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that there was a significant increase in the incidence of stress cardiomyopathy during the COVID-19 pandemic when compared with prepandemic periods.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo/epidemiologia , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ohio/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2020: 5936748, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636924

RESUMO

Background: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder characterized by high levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Because of underdiagnosis, acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is often the first clinical manifestation of FH. In Japan, there are few reports on the prevalence and diagnostic ratios of FH and the proportion of ACS among FH patients in clinical settings. Methods: This retrospective, observational study used anonymized data from electronic healthcare databases between April 2001 and March 2015 of patients who had ≥2 LDL-C measurements recorded after April 2009. The index date was defined as the date of the first LDL-C measurement after April 2009. The primary endpoint was the prevalence of definite or suspected FH; secondary endpoints included the proportion of FH patients hospitalized for ACS, the proportion of patients using lipid-lowering drugs (LLDs), and LDL-C levels. Results: Of the 187,781 patients screened, 1547 had definite or suspected FH (0.8%) based on data from the entire period; 832 patients with definite (n = 299, 0.16%) or suspected FH (n = 533, 0.28%) before the index date were identified in the main analysis cohort. LLDs were used in 214 definite FH patients (71.6%) and 137 suspected FH patients (25.7%). Among definite or suspected FH patients with ACS (n = 84) and without ACS (n = 748), 32.1% and 30.1% with definite FH and 3.2% and 2.4% with suspected FH had LDL-C levels < 2.6 mmol/L (<100 mg/dL), respectively. Sixty patients (7.2%) were hospitalized due to ACS at the index date. Conclusions: The prevalence of FH in this Japanese cohort of patients with ≥2 LDL-C measurements at hospitals was 0.8%, which is higher than that currently reported in epidemiological studies (0.2-0.5%). Patients with suspected FH, with or without ACS, had poorly controlled LDL-C levels and were undertreated. The proportion of FH patients who were hospitalized due to ACS was 7.2%.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/epidemiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Bases de Dados Factuais , Regulação para Baixo , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/sangue , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/diagnóstico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/tratamento farmacológico , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Admissão do Paciente , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Am J Cardiol ; 130: 15-23, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693918

RESUMO

Patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are frequently co-morbid. However, there is limited data on how co-morbidity burden impacts their receipt of invasive management and subsequent outcomes. We analyzed all patients with a discharge diagnosis of ACS from the National Inpatient Sample (2004 to 2014), stratified by Charlson Co-morbidity Index (CCI) into 4 classes (CCI 0, 1, 2, and ≥3). Regression analyses were performed to examine associations between co-morbidity burden and receipt of invasive intervention and in-hospital clinical outcomes. Of all 6,613,623 ACS patients analyzed, the prevalence of patients with severe co-morbidity (CCI ≥3) increased from 10.8% (2004) to 18.1% (2014). CCI class negatively correlated with receipt of invasive management, with CCI ≥3 group being the least likely to receive coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (odds ratio (OR) 0.42 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.41 to 0.43 and OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.48, respectively). CCI class was independently associated with an increased risk of mortality and complications, especially CCI ≥3 that was associated with significantly increased odds of Major Acute Cardiovascular & Cerebrovascular Events (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.66 to 1.75), mortality (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.68 to 1.79), acute ischemic stroke (OR 2.35, 95% CI 2.23 to 2.46), and major bleeding (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.59 to 1.69). Co-morbidity burden has significantly increased amongst those presenting with ACS over an 11-year period and correlates with reduced likelihood of receipt of invasive management and increased odds of mortality and adverse outcomes. In conclusion, objective assessment of co-morbidities using CCI score identifies high-risk ACS patients in whom targeted risk reduction strategies may reduce their inherent risk of mortality and complications.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/cirurgia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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