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1.
JAMA ; 324(16): 1640-1650, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107944

RESUMO

Importance: Current guidelines recommend ticagrelor as the preferred P2Y12 platelet inhibitor for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), primarily based on a single large randomized clinical trial. The benefits and risks associated with ticagrelor vs clopidogrel in routine practice merits attention. Objective: To determine the association of ticagrelor vs clopidogrel with ischemic and hemorrhagic events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ACS in clinical practice. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study of patients with ACS who underwent PCI and received ticagrelor or clopidogrel was conducted using 2 United States electronic health record-based databases and 1 nationwide South Korean database from November 2011 to March 2019. Patients were matched using a large-scale propensity score algorithm, and the date of final follow-up was March 2019. Exposures: Ticagrelor vs clopidogrel. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was net adverse clinical events (NACE) at 12 months, composed of ischemic events (recurrent myocardial infarction, revascularization, or ischemic stroke) and hemorrhagic events (hemorrhagic stroke or gastrointestinal bleeding). Secondary outcomes included NACE or mortality, all-cause mortality, ischemic events, hemorrhagic events, individual components of the primary outcome, and dyspnea at 12 months. The database-level hazard ratios (HRs) were pooled to calculate summary HRs by random-effects meta-analysis. Results: After propensity score matching among 31 290 propensity-matched pairs (median age group, 60-64 years; 29.3% women), 95.5% of patients took aspirin together with ticagrelor or clopidogrel. The 1-year risk of NACE was not significantly different between ticagrelor and clopidogrel (15.1% [3484/23 116 person-years] vs 14.6% [3290/22 587 person-years]; summary HR, 1.05 [95% CI, 1.00-1.10]; P = .06). There was also no significant difference in the risk of all-cause mortality (2.0% for ticagrelor vs 2.1% for clopidogrel; summary HR, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.81-1.16]; P = .74) or ischemic events (13.5% for ticagrelor vs 13.4% for clopidogrel; summary HR, 1.03 [95% CI, 0.98-1.08]; P = .32). The risks of hemorrhagic events (2.1% for ticagrelor vs 1.6% for clopidogrel; summary HR, 1.35 [95% CI, 1.13-1.61]; P = .001) and dyspnea (27.3% for ticagrelor vs 22.6% for clopidogrel; summary HR, 1.21 [95% CI, 1.17-1.26]; P < .001) were significantly higher in the ticagrelor group. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with ACS who underwent PCI in routine clinical practice, ticagrelor, compared with clopidogrel, was not associated with significant difference in the risk of NACE at 12 months. Because the possibility of unmeasured confounders cannot be excluded, further research is needed to determine whether ticagrelor is more effective than clopidogrel in this setting.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/cirurgia , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/efeitos adversos , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Causas de Morte , Clopidogrel/administração & dosagem , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Dispneia/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Isquemia/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Metanálise em Rede , Pontuação de Propensão , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/administração & dosagem , Recidiva , República da Coreia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Ticagrelor/administração & dosagem , Estados Unidos
2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238775, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886697

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Findings regarding the prognostic value of soluble suppression of tumorigenecity-2 (sST2) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) remain inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to investigate the long-term prognostic value of sST2 in patients with CAD. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted across the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases up to June 3, 2020. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiac events (MACEs). The secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality, cardiovascular (CV) death, heart failure (HF), and myocardial infarction (MI). Pooled estimations and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were assessed using a random-effects model. RESULTS: Twenty-two articles that enrolled a total of 17,432 patients with CAD were included in the final analysis. CAD patients in the highest categories of baseline sST2 had a significantly higher risk of MACEs (HR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.09-1.76), all-cause mortality (HR: 2.00, 95% CI: 1.54-2.46), and CV death (HR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.15-1.68), HF (HR: 2.41, 95% CI: 1.87-2.94), but not that of MI (HR: 1.15, 95% CI: -0.73-3.04), than those in the lowest categories. These results were consistent when baseline sST2 was presented as continuous values in one unit increments. Moreover, subgroup analysis showed that elevated baseline sST2 levels increased the long-term risk of MACEs in the acute coronary syndrome (ACS) population (HR: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.39-2.09) but only showed a trend toward higher risk of MACEs in the non-ACS population (HR: 1.09, 95% CI: 0.87-1.30). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that a higher concentration of baseline sST2 is associated with a higher risk of MACEs, all-cause mortality, CV death, and HF in patients with CAD. Elevated sST2 levels could significantly predict future MACEs in the ACS population but not in the non-ACS population.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Proteína 1 Semelhante a Receptor de Interleucina-1/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Interleucina-33/sangue , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Prognóstico
3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD006680, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Symptomatic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) has several treatment options, including angioplasty, stenting, exercise therapy, and bypass surgery. Atherectomy is an alternative procedure, in which atheroma is cut or ground away within the artery. This is the first update of a Cochrane Review published in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of atherectomy for peripheral arterial disease compared to other established treatments. SEARCH METHODS: The Cochrane Vascular Information Specialist searched the Cochrane Vascular Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED) databases, and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov trials registers to 12 August 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all randomised controlled trials that compared atherectomy with other established treatments. All participants had symptomatic PAD with either claudication or critical limb ischaemia and evidence of lower limb arterial disease. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors screened studies for inclusion, extracted data, assessed risk of bias and used GRADE criteria to assess the certainty of the evidence. We resolved any disagreements through discussion. Outcomes of interest were: primary patency (at six and 12 months), all-cause mortality, fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events, initial technical failure rates, target vessel revascularisation rates (TVR; at six and 12 months); and complications. MAIN RESULTS: We included seven studies, with a total of 527 participants and 581 treated lesions. We found two comparisons: atherectomy versus balloon angioplasty (BA) and atherectomy versus BA with primary stenting. No studies compared atherectomy with bypass surgery. Overall, the evidence from this review was of very low certainty, due to a high risk of bias, imprecision and inconsistency. Six studies (372 participants, 427 treated lesions) compared atherectomy versus BA. We found no clear difference between atherectomy and BA for the primary outcomes: six-month primary patency rates (risk ratio (RR) 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94 to 1.20; 3 studies, 186 participants; very low-certainty evidence); 12-month primary patency rates (RR 1.20, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.84; 2 studies, 149 participants; very low-certainty evidence) or mortality rates (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.10 to 2.66, 3 studies, 210 participants, very low-certainty evidence). One study reported cardiac failure and acute coronary syndrome as causes of death at 24 months but it was unclear which arm the participants belonged to, and one study reported no cardiovascular events. There was no clear difference when examining: initial technical failure rates (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.22 to 1.08; 6 studies, 425 treated vessels; very low-certainty evidence), six-month TVR (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.06 to 4.42; 2 studies, 136 treated vessels; very low-certainty evidence) or 12-month TVR (RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.25 to 1.42; 3 studies, 176 treated vessels; very low-certainty evidence). All six studies reported complication rates (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.28 to 1.68; 6 studies, 387 participants; very low-certainty evidence) and embolisation events (RR 2.51, 95% CI 0.64 to 9.80; 6 studies, 387 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Atherectomy may be less likely to cause dissection (RR 0.28, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.54; 4 studies, 290 participants; very low-certainty evidence) and may be associated with a reduction in bailout stenting (RR 0.26, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.74; 4 studies, 315 treated vessels; very low-certainty evidence). Four studies reported amputation rates, with only one amputation event recorded in a BA participant. We used subgroup analysis to compare the effect of plain balloons/stents and drug-eluting balloons/stents, but did not detect any differences between the subgroups. One study (155 participants, 155 treated lesions) compared atherectomy versus BA and primary stenting, so comparison was extremely limited and subject to imprecision. This study did not report primary patency. The study reported one death (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.04 to 3.23; 155 participants; very low-certainty evidence) and three complication events (RR 7.04, 95% CI 0.80 to 62.23; 155 participants; very low-certainty evidence) in a very small data set, making conclusions unreliable. We found no clear difference between the treatment arms in cardiovascular events (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.04 to 3.23; 155 participants; very low-certainty evidence). This study found no initial technical failure events, and TVR rates at six and 24 months showed little difference between treatment arms (RR 2.27, 95% CI 0.95 to 5.46; 155 participants; very low-certainty evidence and RR 2.05, 95% CI 0.96 to 4.37; 155 participants; very low-certainty evidence, respectively). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This review update shows that the evidence is very uncertain about the effect of atherectomy on patency, mortality and cardiovascular event rates compared to plain balloon angioplasty, with or without stenting. We detected no clear differences in initial technical failure rates or TVR, but there may be reduced dissection and bailout stenting after atherectomy although this is uncertain. Included studies were small, heterogenous and at high risk of bias. Larger studies powered to detect clinically meaningful, patient-centred outcomes are required.


Assuntos
Angioplastia com Balão/métodos , Aterectomia/métodos , Doença Arterial Periférica/terapia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Angioplastia com Balão/mortalidade , Aterectomia/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Doença Arterial Periférica/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Stents
4.
Lancet ; 396(10257): 1079-1089, 2020 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A potent P2Y12 inhibitor-based dual antiplatelet therapy is recommended for up to 1 year in patients with acute coronary syndrome receiving percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The greatest benefit of the potent agent is during the early phase, whereas the risk of excess bleeding continues in the chronic maintenance phase. Therefore, de-escalation of antiplatelet therapy might achieve an optimal balance between ischaemia and bleeding. We aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of a prasugrel-based dose de-escalation therapy. METHODS: HOST-REDUCE-POLYTECH-ACS is a randomised, open-label, multicentre, non-inferiority trial done at 35 hospitals in South Korea. We enrolled patients with acute coronary syndrome receiving PCI. Patients meeting the core indication for prasugrel were randomly assigned (1:1) to the de-escalation group or conventional group using a web-based randomisation system. The assessors were masked to the treatment allocation. After 1 month of treatment with 10 mg prasugrel plus 100 mg aspirin daily, the de-escalation group received 5 mg prasugrel, while the conventional group continued to receive 10 mg. The primary endpoint was net adverse clinical events (all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, repeat revascularisation, stroke, and bleeding events of grade 2 or higher according to Bleeding Academic Research Consortium [BARC] criteria) at 1 year. The absolute non-inferiority margin for the primary endpoint was 2·5%. The key secondary endpoints were efficacy outcomes (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, and ischaemic stroke) and safety outcomes (bleeding events of BARC grade ≥2). The primary analysis was in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02193971. RESULTS: From Sept 30, 2014, to Dec 18, 2018, 3429 patients were screened, of whom 1075 patients did not meet the core indication for prasugrel and 16 were excluded due to randomisation error. 2338 patients were randomly assigned to the de-escalation group (n=1170) or the conventional group (n=1168). The primary endpoint occurred in 82 patients (Kaplan-Meier estimate 7·2%) in the de-escalation group and 116 patients (10·1%) in the conventional group (absolute risk difference -2·9%, pnon-inferiority<0·0001; hazard ratio 0·70 [95% CI 0·52-0·92], pequivalence=0·012). There was no increase in ischaemic risk in the de-escalation group compared with the conventional group (0·76 [0·40-1·45]; p=0·40), and the risk of bleeding events was significantly decreased (0·48 [0·32-0·73]; p=0·0007). INTERPRETATION: In east Asian patients with acute coronary syndrome patients receiving PCI, a prasugrel-based dose de-escalation strategy from 1 month after PCI reduced the risk of net clinical outcomes up to 1 year, mainly driven by a reduction in bleeding without an increase in ischaemia. FUNDING: Daiichi Sankyo, Boston Scientific, Terumo, Biotronik, Qualitech Korea, and Dio.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla/métodos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/administração & dosagem , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/cirurgia , Idoso , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/efeitos adversos
5.
Am J Cardiol ; 133: 1-6, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807385

RESUMO

The 2018 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol guidelines for secondary prevention identified a group of "very high risk" (VHR) patients, those with multiple major atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events or 1 major ASCVD event with multiple high-risk features. A second group, "high risk" (HR), was defined as patients without any of the risk features in the VHR group. The incidence and relative risk differences of these 2 groups in a nontrial population has not been well characterized. Using the Northwestern Medicine Enterprise Data Warehouse, we compared the incidence of VHR and HR patients as well as their relative risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in a single-center, large, academic, retrospective cohort study. Total 1,483 patients with acute coronary events from January 2014 to December 2016 were risk stratified into VHR and HR groups. International Classification of Diseases versions 9 and 10 were used to assess for composite events of unstable angina pectoris, non-ST elevation myocardial infarction, or ST-elevation myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or all-cause death with a median follow-up of 3.3 years. VHR patients were found to have 87 ± 5.4 composite events per 1,000 patient-years compared with HR patients who had 33 ± 5.1 events per 1,000 patient-years (p <0.001). VHR group had increased risk of future events as compared to the HR group (multivariable adjusted hazard ratio 1.66 [1.01 to 2.74], p = 0.047). In conclusion, these results support the stratification of patients into the VHR and HR risk groups for secondary prevention.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/prevenção & controle , Hipercolesterolemia/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Secundária , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/complicações , Hipercolesterolemia/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos
6.
Am J Cardiol ; 132: 22-28, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771221

RESUMO

Prasugrel and ticagrelor are preferred over clopidogrel for patients with acute coronary syndrome who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. We sought to determine the relative merits of 1 agent over the other. Multiple databases were queried to identify relevant randomized control trials (RCTs) and observational cohort studies. Random-effects model was used to calculate an unadjusted odds ratio (OR) for major adverse cardiovascular and cerbrovascular events (MACCE) and its components. A total of 27 (7 RCTs, 20 observational cohort studies) studies comprising 118,266 (prasugrel 62,716, ticagrelor 51,196) patients were included. At 30 days, prasugrel was associated with a significantly lower odds of MACCE (OR 0.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.67 to 0.85, p ≤0.0001) and mortality (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.71, p ≤0.0001). At 1 year, the overall odds of mortality favored prasugrel (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.92, p = 0.002), but no significant interdrug difference was seen in terms of MACCE (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.05, p = 0.16). There was no significant difference in the odds of overall myocardial infarction, revascularization, stent thrombosis, stroke, and major bleeding events between the 2 groups on both 30-day and 1-year follow-up. A subgroup analysis of RCTs data showed no significant difference between prasugrel and ticagrelor in terms of any end point at all time points. In conclusion, prasugrel might have lower odds of MACCE and mortality at 30 days. However, there was no difference in the safety and efficacy end points of 2 drugs at 1 year. The observed transient prasugrel-related mortality benefits were subject to the bias of nonrandomized assignment.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/uso terapêutico , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/cirurgia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Saúde Global , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238288, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of copeptin in predicting mortality including both short-term and long-term mortality in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). METHODS: Potential studies were searched and selected through PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases up to December 2019. The predictive performance was evaluated by the pooled sensitivity and specificity, and summary receiver operating characteristic curves. Cochran's Q test and I2 index were used to assess between-study heterogeneity, and Deek's test and funnel plots were used to assess publication bias. RESULTS: Total six studies comprising 2269 patients were included in this meta-analysis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of copeptin in predicting mortality in patients with ACS was 0.73 (95% CI: 0.69-0.77). The pooled sensitivity and specificity of copeptin were 0.77 (95% CI: 0.59-0.89) and 0.60 (95% CI: 0.47-0.71), respectively. Significant between-study heterogeneity was identified in both sensitivity (P = 0.01; I2 = 69.76%) and specificity (P<0.001; I2 = 97.32%) among the six included studies. The meta-regression analysis indicated that the number of study centers was significantly associated with the heterogeneity of sensitivity (P = 0.03), whereas the study design (P = 0.03) and duration of follow-up (P<0.001) were significantly associated with the heterogeneity of specificity. CONCLUSIONS: Copeptin has acceptable prognostic value for mortality in patients with ACS. Further studies based on multimarker strategy are needed to evaluate the prognostic value of copeptin for ACS in conjunction with other well-established biomarkers.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/metabolismo , Glicopeptídeos/metabolismo , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Humanos , Prognóstico
8.
Angiology ; 71(10): 886-893, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757765

RESUMO

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) showed comparable survival results in patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). However, there is lack of evidence of the comparative effectiveness in preserved LVEF patients after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the selection between ACEi and ARB in preserved LVEF after an ACS confers a prognostic benefit, based on real life results. We analyzed a cohort of 3006 contemporary patients with LVEF ≥40% after an ACS. A propensity score matching and Cox regression analysis were performed to assess the association between treatment and events (death, acute myocardial infarction [AMI], HF, and combined event) for a mean follow-up of 3.6 ± 2.1 years. We found no significant differences between ACEi/ARB for all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] for ARB: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.70-1.29), AMI (HR for ARB: 1.34, 95% CI: 0.95-1.89), HF (HR for ARB: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.85-1.45), or combined end point (death, AMI and HF: HR for ARB: 1.14, 95% CI: 0.92-1.40). In conclusion, there are no prognostic differences between the use of ACEi and ARB in patients with LVEF ≥40% after ACS. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm our results.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(30): e21321, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791726

RESUMO

The CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores were initially developed to assess the risk of stroke or systemic embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Recently, these two scoring systems have been demonstrated to predict long- and short-term cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in many patient cohorts. However, to the best of our knowledge, their prognostic value has not been fully elucidated in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This study aimed to investigate the association of CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores with CV outcomes in such patients.We included a total of 915 ACS patients undergoing PCI in this study. CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores were calculated from data collected before discharge. The primary endpoint was defined as a composite of major adverse CV events (MACE) including overall death, nonfatal stroke, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) and unplanned repeat revascularization. We assessed MACE's relationship to CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores using Cox proportional-hazard regression analyses.Mean follow-up duration was 918 days. MACE occurred in 167 (18.3%) patients. A higher CHADS2 score was associated with reduced event-free survival (EFS) from MACE (logrank test, P = .007) with differences potentiated if stratified by CHA2DS2-VASc score (logrank test, P < .001). Univariate analysis showed that both CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores were good predictors of MACE. In the multivariate Cox proportional-hazard regression analysis, CHA2DS2-VASc score (hazard ratio [HR], 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.27; P = .007) remained a useful predictor of MACE; however, CHADS2 score was no longer associated with increased risk of MACE. C-statistics for CHA2DS2-VASc score, GRACE (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events) hospital discharge risk score (GRACE Score) and SYNTAX (Synergy between PCI with TAXUS and Cardiac Surgery) Score II (SS II) in predicting MACE were 0.614, 0.598, and 0.609, respectively.CHA2DS2-VASc score was an independent and significant predictor of MACE in ACS patients undergoing PCI, and its discriminatory performance was not inferior to those of GRACE Score and SS II.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Assistência ao Convalescente , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Embolia/epidemiologia , Embolia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Alta do Paciente/tendências , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
10.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 108, 2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between triglyceride-glucose index (TyG index) and the prevalence and prognosis of cardiovascular disease has been confirmed by former studies. However, it remains uncertain whether TyG index has a prognostic impact in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: The study retrospectively enrolled 798 patients (mean age: 60.9 ± 8.3 years; 68.3% men) with T2DM and NSTE-ACS who underwent PCI at Beijing Anzhen Hospital from January to December 2015. TyG index was calculated as previously reported: ln [fasting TGs (mg/dL) * FBG (mg/dL)/2]. The primary endpoint was a composite of adverse events as follows: all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemia-driven revascularization. RESULTS: TyG index was significantly higher in patients with a primary endpoint event compared with those without. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that 1-unit increase of TyG index was independently associated with higher risk of primary endpoint, independent of other risk factors [hazard ratio (HR) 3.208 per 1-unit increase, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.400-4.289, P < 0.001]. The addition of TyG index to a baseline risk model had an incremental effect on the predictive value for adverse prognosis [AUC: baseline risk model, 0.800 vs. baseline risk model + TyG index, 0.856, P for comparison < 0.001; category-free net reclassification improvement (NRI) 0.346, P < 0.001; integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) 0.087, P < 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS: Increased TyG index is a significant predictor of adverse prognosis in patients with T2DM and NSTE-ACS undergoing PCI. Further studies need to be performed to determine whether interventions for TyG index have a positive impact on improving clinical prognosis.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Idoso , Pequim/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Causas de Morte , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Revascularização Miocárdica , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(10): 1685-1696, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: It is recognized that malnutrition increases risk of worse prognosis in patients with various diseases. The present study investigated if poor nutritional status predicts adverse outcomes in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS AND RESULTS: The study enrolled 2299 patients (mean age: 60.01 ± 8.95 years; 71.8% male) with NSTE-ACS who underwent PCI at Beijing Anzhen Hospital from January to December 2015. The entire cohort was divided into training set (n = 1519) and testing set (n = 780) at a ratio of approximate 2 : 1. Nutritional status was assessed by geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI). The primary endpoint was a composite of adverse events as follows: all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) and any revascularization. Multivariate Cox analysis showed that GNRI significantly associated with primary endpoint, independent of other risk factors [hazard ratio (HR) 1.159 per 1-point decrease of GNRI, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.130-1.189, p < 0.001]. The addition of GNRI to a baseline model had an incremental effect on the predictive value for adverse prognosis in training set [AUC: from 0.821 to 0.873, p < 0.001; category-free net reclassification improvement (NRI): 0.313, p < 0.001; integrated discrimination improvement (IDI): 0.108, p < 0.001]. The incremental effect of GNRI was further validated and confirmed in testing set. CONCLUSION: Lower GNRI is a significant predictor of adverse prognosis in patients with NSTE-ACS undergoing PCI. Further studies need to be performed to determine whether nutritional interventions have a positive impact on improving clinical prognosis.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Pequim , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/mortalidade , Desnutrição/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Albumina Sérica Humana/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e21272, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702916

RESUMO

There are limited data regarding the association between brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels obtained after weaning from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and the outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS)-associated cardiogenic shock.We prospectively obtained data regarding patients (aged ≥ 19 years) with ACS-associated cardiogenic shock who received ECMO and were subsequently weaned off the treatment. BNP levels were collected at 5 time points: pre-ECMO implantation, post-ECMO implantation, pre-ECMO weaning, day 1 after ECMO weaning, and day 5 after ECMO weaning.Of 48 patients with ACS-related cardiogenic shock, 33 were included in this analysis. Mean patient age was 59.0 (50.0-66.5) years, and 5 patients (15.2%) were women. Eight patients had asystole/pulseless electrical activity before ECMO and 14 (42.4%) had 3-vessel disease on coronary angiography. During the 6-month follow up, 12 (36.4%) patients died. BNP levels after ECMO weaning were significantly different between 6-month survivors and non-survivors. Cox proportional hazards model revealed that BNP levels (tertiles) on days 1 and 5 after ECMO weaning were significantly associated with 6-month mortality (hazard ratio, 7.872; 95% confidence interval, 1.870-32.756; 8.658 and 1.904-39.365, respectively). According to the Kaplan-Meier curves, the first tertile had significantly longer survival compared to the third tertile for both days 1 and 5 after ECMO weaning.Post-ECMO weaning BNP levels (days 1 and 5) were significantly associated with increased 6-month mortality in patients with ACS complicated by refractory cardiogenic shock who were weaned off ECMO.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Choque Cardiogênico/mortalidade , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Choque Cardiogênico/sangue , Choque Cardiogênico/etiologia , Choque Cardiogênico/terapia
13.
Angiology ; 71(9): 831-839, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638621

RESUMO

Individual parameters of complete blood count (CBC) have been associated with worse outcome in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, the prognostic role of CBC taken as a whole has never been evaluated for long-term incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). Patients were grouped according to their hematopoietic cells' inflammatory response at different time points during hospital stay. Patients with admission white blood cell count >10 × 109/L, discharge hemoglobin <120 g/L, and discharge platelet count >250 × 109/L were defined as "high-risk CBC." Among 1076 patients with ACS discharged alive, 129 (12%) had a "high-risk CBC" and 947 (88%) had a "low-risk CBC." Patients with "high-risk CBC" were older and had more comorbidities. Over a median follow-up of 665 days, they experienced a higher incidence of MACE compared to "low-risk CBC" patients (18.6% vs 8.1%). After adjustment for age, age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index, female sex, cardiac arrest, suboptimal discharge therapy, coronary artery bypass, and ejection fraction, a high-risk CBC was significantly associated with increased MACE occurrence (adjusted hazard ratio 1.80; 95% CI: 1.09-3.00). The CBC was a prognostic marker in patients with ACS, and its evaluation at admission and discharge could better classify patient's risk and improve therapeutic management.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
15.
J Hypertens ; 38(11): 2237-2244, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649637

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In addition to high blood pressure variability (BPV), low BPV was associated with adverse cardiovascular prognosis in selected high-risk patients. We explored this issue in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) using a nonlinear approach with BPV as a continuous variable. METHODS: Long-term systolic BPV (SBPV) (coefficient of variation, CoV %) was calculated on quarterly visits until a fatal/nonfatal cardiovascular event or all-cause mortality, excluding titration period and patients with missing visits. We used Cox proportional hazard models with penalized smoothing splines to shape the risk of outcomes against the continuum of SBPV (independent variable). Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR, 95% CI) were calculated using the reference range derived from the nonlinear model. Sensitivity analysis based on propensity score matching (PSM) was performed. RESULTS: The association of SBPV with fatal/nonfatal cardiovascular events was J-shaped, whereas that with all-cause mortality was linear. After multivariate adjustment, however, the only significant associations remained that of low SBPV (CoV <5%) with cardiovascular events (hazard ratio 1.85, 95% CI 1.24-2.75, P = 0.003), and of high SBPV (CoV >10%) with the composite of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 1.35, 95% CI 1.02-1.80; P = 0.037). Low SBPV was associated with ischemic heart disease (hazard ratio 2.76, 95% CI 1.55-4.91; P < 0.001). There was a significant U-shaped association of SBPV with cardiovascular events in the PSM cohort. CONCLUSION: Nonlinear modeling indicates that low and high long-term SBPV have prognostic relevance in high-risk hypertensive individuals from SPRINT. Randomized trials are needed to test these findings and their potential therapeutic implications.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Sístole , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Angiology ; 71(10): 894-902, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643400

RESUMO

The prevalence of coronary artery disease is increasing in young adults. We evaluated the outcomes of different types of acute coronary syndrome in 917 patients undergoing coronary angiography aged ≤45 years. Male sex, smoking, dyslipidemia were the most important risk factors. ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI; 54.8%) predominated. The STEMI patients had higher risk of hospital mortality (3.6% vs 0.6%; P = .004) and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE; 13.8% vs 3.3%; P < .001, hazard ratio [HR], 4.65; 95% CI, 2.45-8.82). Presentation heart rate, blood pressure, heart failure, shock, arrhythmia, ejection fraction (EF), diabetes, contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), and elevated troponin were associated with hospital mortality and MACCE. But only heart failure (HR, 5.816; 95% CI, 2.254-15.008) and CIN (HR, 6.241; 95% CI, 2.340-16.641) were independent risk factors for hospital MACCE. There was no difference in long-term mortality between the 2 groups, but non-STEMI patients had higher risk for MACCE after 3 years (14.4% vs 9.9%, P = .033). Although shock (HR, 0.814; 95% CI, 0.699-0.930), Killip class ≥2 (HR, 0.121; 95% CI, 0.071-0.170), CIN (HR, 0.323; 95% CI, 0.265-0.380), and EF (HR, 0.917; 95% CI, 0.854-0.984) were independent predictors of hospital death, only EF was the independent predictor of long-term mortality (HR, 0.897; 95% CI, 0.852-0.944).


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Angiografia Coronária , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia
17.
Angiology ; 71(10): 903-908, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677445

RESUMO

In patients with unstable angina pectoris (UAP) or non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), long-term mortality remains high despite improvements in the diagnosis and treatment. In this study, we investigated whether serum albumin level is a useful predictor of long-term mortality in patients with UAP/NSTEMI. Consecutive patients (n = 403) who were hospitalized with a diagnosis of UAP/NSTEMI were included in the study. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on the presence of hypoalbuminemia and the relationship between hypoalbuminemia and mortality was analyzed. Hypoalbuminemia was detected in 34% of the patients. The median follow-up period was 35 months (up to 45 months). Long-term mortality rate was 32% in the hypoalbuminemia group and 8.6% in the group with normal serum albumin levels (P < .001). On multivariate analysis, hypoalbuminemia, decreased left ventricular ejection fraction, and increased age were found to be independent predictors of mortality (P < .05). The cutoff value of 3.10 g/dL for serum albumin predicted mortality with a sensitivity of 74% and specificity of 67% (receiver-operating characteristic area under curve: 0.753, 95% CI: 0.685-0.822). All-cause long-term mortality rates were significantly increased in patients with hypoalbuminemia. On-admission albumin level was an independent predictor of mortality in patients with UAP/NSTEMI.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Angina Instável/sangue , Angina Instável/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angina Instável/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoalbuminemia/diagnóstico , Hipoalbuminemia/etiologia , Hipoalbuminemia/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
18.
Indian Heart J ; 72(2): 128-130, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-115850

RESUMO

COVID-19 pandemic is creating havoc in the world. It is also spreading in India creating a massive healthcare problem. Few major hospitals were closed down because of the spread among healthcare personnel. Management of several commonly occurring diseases needed modifications to a lesser or greater extent because of this pandemic. Management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) also requires certain modifications. In this opinion paper an attempt has been made to give an outline of ACS management in this changed scenario.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida
19.
Cardiovasc J Afr ; 31(4): 201-204, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Implementation of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in sub-Saharan Africa remains a challenging issue. The aim of this study was to report the results of primary PCI and outcomes in the catheterisation laboratory of the Abidjan Heart Institute. METHODS: Between April 2010 and March 2019, all patients aged 18 years presenting to the Abidjan Heart Institute for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) over the study period and who underwent primary PCI were included. We considered primary PCI when it was performed within 48 hours of the onset of symptoms. Baseline data, PCI characteristics and outcomes were analysed. RESULTS: Among a total of 780 patients hospitalised for STEMI, 471 were admitted within 48 hours of the onset of symptoms. One-hundred and sixty six patients underwent primary PCI, with a ratio of primary PCI/STEMI of up to 21.3%. One hundred and six patients (63.9%) were admitted within 12 hours of the onset of symptoms. The femoral approach was the most commonly used (78.3%). Primary PCI was performed with stent implantation in 84.3% of patients. Drug-eluting stents (DES) were used in 42.1% of patients. In most cases, angiographic success was observed (157/166, 94.6%). Non-fatal complications were mainly haematomas (3.6%). Peri-procedural mortality rate was 1.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Primary PCI can be performed safely in some small-volume centres in sub-Saharan Africa. Healthcare policies and regional networks must be encouraged in order to improve management of STEMI patients.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Angiografia Coronária , Costa do Marfim , Stents Farmacológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/instrumentação , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Indian Heart J ; 72(2): 128-130, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534687

RESUMO

COVID-19 pandemic is creating havoc in the world. It is also spreading in India creating a massive healthcare problem. Few major hospitals were closed down because of the spread among healthcare personnel. Management of several commonly occurring diseases needed modifications to a lesser or greater extent because of this pandemic. Management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) also requires certain modifications. In this opinion paper an attempt has been made to give an outline of ACS management in this changed scenario.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida
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