Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 801
Filtrar
1.
Molecules ; 26(3)2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573121

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a global public health problem affecting nearly 25.9% of the world population characterised by a cluster of disorders dominated by abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high fasting plasma glucose, hypertriacylglycerolaemia and low HDL-cholesterol. In recent years, marine organisms, especially seaweeds, have been highlighted as potential natural sources of bioactive compounds and useful metabolites, with many biological and physiological activities to be used in functional foods or in human nutraceuticals for the management of MetS and related disorders. Of the three groups of seaweeds, brown seaweeds are known to contain more bioactive components than either red and green seaweeds. Among the different brown seaweed species, Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus have the highest antioxidant values and highest total phenolic content. However, the evidence base relies mainly on cell line and small animal models, with few studies to date involving humans. This review intends to provide an overview of the potential of brown seaweed extracts Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus for the management and prevention of MetS and related conditions, based on the available evidence obtained from clinical trials.


Assuntos
Ascophyllum/química , Fucus/química , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Alga Marinha/química
2.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(4): 1156-1165, 2021 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Wholegrain cereals have been implicated in the reduction of lifestyle-related chronic diseases risk including cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Molecular mechanisms responsible for the beneficial health effects are not entirely understood. The aims of this study were 1) to identify new potential plasma biomarker candidate metabolites of wholegrain cereal foods intake and 2) to examine whether some putative metabolites associated with wholegrain foods intake may play a role in the improvement of cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: Analysis have been conducted in 54 individuals with metabolic syndrome of both genders, age 40-65 years, randomly assigned to 2 dietary interventions lasting 12-week: 1) wholegrain enriched diet (n = 28), and 2) refined-wheat cereals diet (control diet) (n = 26). Nontargeted metabolite profiling analysis was performed on fasting plasma samples collected at baseline and at the end of the experimental diets. Our data show that, at the end of the intervention, a higher intake of wholegrain (tertile 3) was significantly associated with a marked increase in several lipid compounds, as PC (20:4/16:1), LPC (20:4), LPC (22:6), LPC (18:3), LPC (22:5), and a phenolic compound (P < .05 for all). In the wholegrain group, higher concentrations of these metabolites (tertile 3 vs tertile 1 of each metabolite) were significantly associated with lower postprandial insulin and triglyceride responses (P < .05) by 29% and 37%, respectively. CONCLUSION: These observations suggest a possible role of lipid and polyphenol metabolites in the postprandial metabolic benefits of wholegrains in subjects at high risk of cardiovascular disease. In addition, they provide insight into the role of these metabolites as potential candidate biomarkers of wholegrain foods. The study was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT00945854).


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Metabolismo Energético , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Metabolômica , Valor Nutritivo , Grãos Integrais/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Itália , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polifenóis/sangue , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0236693, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870909

RESUMO

The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing worldwide, and diet therapy plays a key role in treating this disease. Since most patients show difficulties in adhering to nutritional interventions, research on the association of positive psychological characteristics with greater engagement in physical health is relevant to this field. The present study aimed to evaluate the association between positive psychology attributes (optimism, hope, self-esteem, positive/negative affect and life satisfaction) and changes in diet quality and anthropometric parameters of individuals with MetS who received nutritional counseling. The study assessed 63 patients at a nutrition outpatient clinic. Anthropometric parameters and 24-hour food recall data (for evaluation of the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised-BHEI-R) were collected at the first visit and subsequent return visit (on average five months later). Psychological data were collected at the first visit using validated and standardized scales. The results were adjusted in relation to the depression scores of the patients, which were evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Changes in anthropometric factors and in the BHEI-R were assessed, and their associations with the psychological attributes were investigated. The results indicated that positive affect and hope were associated with improvement in the BHEI-R scores (Cohen effect sizes -0.65 and -0.58; p = 0.012 and 0.025, respectively). A significant association was also observed between optimism and a reduction in abdominal circumference (Cohen effect size 0.56; p = 0.031). The associations remained significant even after adjusting for the BDI-II scores (p = 0.022, p = 0.037 and p = 0.05, respectively). No statistically significant associations were observed for the other attributes assessed.The study suggests that some attributes may have a greater influence on the nutritional treatment of MetS and that future studies should be conducted in order to enable effective multidisciplinary interventions to treat MetS.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Síndrome Metabólica/psicologia , Otimismo , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Brasil/epidemiologia , Dieta , Dieta Saudável , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Circunferência da Cintura
4.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(11): 751-758, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485778

RESUMO

We investigated early effects of Whole-Body Electromyostimulation added to hypocaloric diet on metabolic syndrome features in sedentary middle-aged individuals. We randomly assigned 25 patients to Whole-Body Electromyostimulation plus caloric restriction or caloric restriction alone for 26 weeks. Anthropometrics, blood pressure, fasting glucose and insulin, HOMA-IR, glycated hemoglobin, lipids, uric acid, creatinphosphokynase, C-reactive protein were assessed. Body composition was evaluated with direct-segmental, multi-frequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis. Both groups lost approximately 10% of weight, with similar effects on waist circumference and fat mass. Change in free-fat mass was significantly different between groups (caloric restriction -1.5±0.2 vs. Whole-Body Electromyostimulation plus caloric restriction +1.1±0.4 kg, p=0.03). Whole-Body Electromyostimulation plus caloric restriction group experienced greater percent reductions in insulin (-45.5±4.4 vs. -28.2±3.6%, p=0.002), HOMA-IR (-51.3±3.2 vs. -25.1±1.8%, p=0.001), triglycerides (-22.5±2.9 vs. -4.1±1.6%, p=0.004) and triglycerides/HDL (p=0.028). Subjects trained with Whole-Body Electromyostimulation had also significant improvement in systolic pressure (138±4 vs. 126±7 mmHg, p=0.038). No discontinuations for adverse events occurred. In middle-aged sedentary subjects with the metabolic syndrome, Whole-Body Electromyostimulation with caloric restriction for 26 weeks can improve insulin-resistance and lipid profile compared to diet alone. Further studies are needed to ascertain long-term efficacy and feasibility of this approach in individuals with the metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Antropometria , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Dieta Redutora , Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/enzimologia , Músculo Esquelético/lesões , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Perda de Peso
5.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(3): 465-473, mayo-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-193853

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: the composition of snack foods likely influences the overall effect that snacking has on metabolism and obesity. The objective of the current study was to assess the responses to two different snacks, one of them supplemented with wakame and carobs, on cardiovascular risk factors, satiety, and subsequent food intake in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: forty patients were randomized in a clinical trial (NCT03420989, clinicaltrial.gov) to group I (enriched snack, n = 16) or group II (control snack, n = 16). At baseline and after 8 weeks biochemical parameters, dietary intakes, and nutritional status were assessed. The subjects also rated their feelings of satiety/hunger with a test meal. RESULTS: no differences were detected in anthropometric parameters between both snacks. Changes in other parameters were detected in patients with enriched snacks, with a significant decrease in LDL-cholesterol by 7.4 % (intervention snack, -8.9 ± 2.3 mg/dL vs control snack, -0.9 ± 3.3 mg/dL; p = 0.03), in total cholesterol by 5.8 % (intervention snack, -10.4 ± 2.9 mg/dL vs control snack, -1.4 ± 3.2 mg/dL; p = 0.02), and in resistin level by 15.9 % (intervention snack, -1.0 ± 0.2 mg/dL vs control snack, -0.1 ± 0.3 mg/dL: p = 0.03). After the test meal, satiety scores (after 20 min and 40 min) were higher than fasting levels in both groups. The same results were obtained with the 100-mm, 5-point visual satiety scale. CONCLUSION: our study indicates that a wakame- and carob-enriched snack induces a significant decrease in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and resistin levels when compared to a control snack, without effects on food consumption, other cardiovascular parameters, or anthropometric parameters


INTRODUCCIÓN: la composición de los "snacks" probablemente influya en el efecto que produce su consumo sobre los marcadores metabólicos y la obesidad. El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar las respuestas a dos snacks, uno de ellos suplementado con wakame y algarroba, sobre factores de riesgo cardiovascular, saciedad y posterior ingesta de alimentos, en sujetos obesos con síndrome metabólico. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: se aleatorizaron 40 pacientes en el ensayo clínico NCT03420989 (clinicaltrial.gov) para participar en el grupo I (snack enriquecido, n = 16) o el grupo II (snack de control, n = 16). Antes y después de 8 semanas se determinaron los parámetros bioquímicos, las ingestas dietéticas y el estado nutricional. A los sujetos también se les evaluó la saciedad y el apetito con una comida de prueba. RESULTADOS: no se detectaron diferencias en los parámetros antropométricos con ambos snacks. Se detectaron cambios en los parámetros bioquímicos de los pacientes que recibieron snacks enriquecidos, con una disminución significativa del colesterol-LDL del 7,4 % (snack de intervención, -8,9 ± 2,3 mg/dl vs. snack de control, -0,9 ± 3,3 mg/dl; p = 0,03), del colesterol total del 5,8 % (snack de intervención, -10,4 ± 2,9 mg/dl vs. snack de control, -1,4 ± 3,2 mg/dl; p = 0,02) y de los niveles de resistina del 15,9 % (snack de intervención, -1,0 ± 0,2 mg/dl vs. snack de control, -0,1 ± 0,3 mg/dl; p = 0,03). Después de la comida de prueba, las puntuaciones de saciedad (a los 20 min y 40 min) fueron más altas que el nivel de ayuno en ambos grupos. Los resultados fueron similares con la escala de saciedad visual de 5 puntos y 100 mm. CONCLUSIÓN: nuestro estudio muestra que un snack enriquecido con wakame y algarroba produce una disminución significativa de los niveles de colesterol total, colesterol-LDL y resistina frente a un snack de control, sin efectos sobre el consumo de alimentos, otros parámetros cardiovasculares y los parámetros antropométricos


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lanches/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Undaria , Método Duplo-Cego , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Antropometria , Receptores de Adipocina/administração & dosagem , Undaria/química , Galactanos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
6.
Acta Diabetol ; 57(7): 853-860, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114641

RESUMO

AIMS: Gut microbiota significantly impacts human health and is influenced by dietary changes. We evaluated the effects of diets naturally rich in polyphenols (PP) and/or long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn3) on microbiota composition in an ancillary analysis of a randomized controlled trial in individuals at high cardiometabolic risk. METHODS: Seventy-eight individuals with high waist circumference and at least one additional component of the metabolic syndrome were randomized to an isoenergetic 8-week diet: (a) low LCn3 and PP; (b) high LCn3; (c) high PP; or (d) high LCn3 and PP. Microbiota analysis was performed on feces collected before and after the intervention. DGGE analysis of the predominant bacteria, Eubacterium rectale and Blautia coccoides group (Lachnospiraceae, EREC), Clostridium leptum (Ruminococcaceae, CLEPT), Bacteroides spp., Bifidobacteria, and Lactobacillus group was performed. A quantitative real-time PCR was performed for the same group, additionally including Atopobium cluster (Coriobatteriaceae). Before and after the intervention, participants underwent a 75 g OGTT and a high-fat test meal to evaluate glucose and lipid response. RESULTS: Adherence to the four diets was optimal. PP significantly increased microbial diversity (p = 0.006) and CLEPT (p = 0.015), while it reduced EREC (p = 0.044). LCn3 significantly increased the numbers of Bifidobacteria (p = 0.041). Changes in CLEPT numbers correlated with changes in early insulin secretion (r = 0.263, p = 0.030). Changes in Atopobium numbers correlated with postprandial triglycerides in plasma (r = 0.266, p = 0.026) and large VLDL (r = 0.313, p = 0.009), and cholesterol in large VLDL (r = 0.319, p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Diets naturally rich in PP or LCn3 influenced gut microbiota composition in individuals at high cardiometabolic risk. These modifications were associated with changes in glucose/lipid metabolism.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/microbiologia , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome Metabólica/microbiologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/dietoterapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Risco
7.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(4): 864-876, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A whole-grain (WG)-rich diet has shown to have potential for both prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), which is a cluster of risk factors that increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Different WGs may have different health effects. WG rye, in particular, may improve glucose homeostasis and blood lipids, possibly mediated through fermentable dietary fiber and lignans. Recent studies have also suggested a crucial role of the gut microbiota in response to WG. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to investigate WG rye, alone and with lignan supplements [secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG)], and WG wheat diets on glucose tolerance [oral-glucose-tolerance test (OGTT)], other cardiometabolic outcomes, enterolignans, and microbiota composition. Moreover, we exploratively evaluated the role of gut microbiota enterotypes in response to intervention diets. METHODS: Forty men with MetS risk profile were randomly assigned to WG diets in an 8-wk crossover study. The rye diet was supplemented with 280 mg SDG at weeks 4-8. Effects of treatment were evaluated by mixed-effects modeling, and effects on microbiota composition and the role of gut microbiota as a predictor of response to treatment were analyzed by random forest plots. RESULTS: The WG rye diet (± SDG supplements) did not affect the OGTT compared with WG wheat. Total and LDL cholesterol were lowered (-0.06 and -0.09 mmol/L, respectively; P < 0.05) after WG rye compared with WG wheat after 4 wk but not after 8 wk. WG rye resulted in higher abundance of Bifidobacterium [fold-change (FC) = 2.58, P < 0.001] compared with baseline and lower abundance of Clostridium genus compared with WG wheat (FC = 0.54, P = 0.02). The explorative analyses suggest that baseline enterotype is associated with total and LDL-cholesterol response to diet. CONCLUSIONS: WG rye, alone or with SDG supplementation, compared with WG wheat did not affect glucose metabolism but caused transient LDL-cholesterol reduction. The effect of WG diets appeared to differ according to enterotype. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02987595.


Assuntos
Lignanas/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Secale/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Idoso , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Glicemia/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Colesterol/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/microbiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Grãos Integrais/metabolismo
8.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991592

RESUMO

Many early studies presented beneficial effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on cardiovascular risk factors and disease. However, results from recent meta-analyses indicate that this effect would be very low or nil. One of the factors that may contribute to the inconsistency of the results is that, in most studies, genetic factors have not been taken into consideration. It is known that fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster in chromosome 11 is a very important determinant of plasma PUFA, and that the prevalence of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) varies greatly between populations and may constitute a bias in meta-analyses. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been carried out in other populations and none of them have investigated sex and Mediterranean dietary pattern interactions at the genome-wide level. Our aims were to undertake a GWAS to discover the genes most associated with serum PUFA concentrations (omega-3, omega-6, and some fatty acids) in a scarcely studied Mediterranean population with metabolic syndrome, and to explore sex and adherence to Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) interactions at the genome-wide level. Serum PUFA were determined by NMR spectroscopy. We found strong robust associations between various SNPs in the FADS cluster and omega-3 concentrations (top-ranked in the adjusted model: FADS1-rs174547, p = 3.34 × 10-14; FADS1-rs174550, p = 5.35 × 10-14; FADS2-rs1535, p = 5.85 × 10-14; FADS1-rs174546, p = 6.72 × 10-14; FADS2-rs174546, p = 9.75 × 10-14; FADS2- rs174576, p = 1.17 × 10-13; FADS2-rs174577, p = 1.12 × 10-12, among others). We also detected a genome-wide significant association with other genes in chromosome 11: MYRF (myelin regulatory factor)-rs174535, p = 1.49 × 10-12; TMEM258 (transmembrane protein 258)-rs102275, p = 2.43 × 10-12; FEN1 (flap structure-specific endonuclease 1)-rs174538, p = 1.96 × 10-11). Similar genome-wide statistically significant results were found for docosahexaenoic fatty acid (DHA). However, no such associations were detected for omega-6 PUFAs or linoleic acid (LA). For total PUFA, we observed a consistent gene*sex interaction with the DNTTIP2 (deoxynucleotidyl transferase terminal interacting protein 2)-rs3747965 p = 1.36 × 10-8. For adherence to MedDiet, we obtained a relevant interaction with the ME1 (malic enzyme 1) gene (a gene strongly regulated by fat) in determining serum omega-3. The top-ranked SNP for this interaction was ME1-rs3798890 (p = 2.15 × 10-7). In the regional-wide association study, specifically focused on the FADS1/FASD2/FADS3 and ELOVL (fatty acid elongase) 2/ELOVL 5 regions, we detected several statistically significant associations at p < 0.05. In conclusion, our results confirm a robust role of the FADS cluster on serum PUFA in this population, but the associations vary depending on the PUFA. Moreover, the detection of some sex and diet interactions underlines the need for these associations/interactions to be studied in all specific populations so as to better understand the complex metabolism of PUFA.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Idoso , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Estudos Transversais , Elongases de Ácidos Graxos/genética , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Biochimie ; 169: 133-143, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614170

RESUMO

The increasing prevalence of obesity and metabolic diseases is a worldwide public health concern, and the advent of new analytical technologies has made it possible to highlight the involvement of some molecules, such as sphingolipids (SL), in their pathophysiology. SL are constituents of cell membranes, lipoproteins and lipid droplets (LD), and are now considered as bioactive molecules. Indeed, growing evidence suggests that SL, characterized by diverse families and species, could represent one of the main regulators of lipid metabolism. There is an increasing amount of data reporting that plasma SL profile is altered in metabolic diseases. However, less is known about SL metabolism dysfunction in cells and tissues and how it may impact the lipoprotein metabolism, its functionality and composition. In cardiometabolic pathologies, the link between serum SL concentrations and alterations of their metabolism in various organs and LD is still unclear. Pharmacological approaches have been developed in order to activate or inhibit specific key enzymes of the SL metabolism, and to positively modulate SL profile or related metabolic pathways. Nevertheless, little is known about the long-term impact of such approaches in humans and the current literature still focuses on the decomposition of the different parts of this complex system rather than performing an integrated analysis of the whole SL metabolism. In addition, since SL can be provided from exogenous sources, it is also of interest to evaluate their impact on the homeostasis of endogenous SL metabolism, which could be beneficial in prevention or treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Esfingolipídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/dietoterapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Membrana Celular/química , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Colesterol/química , Colesterol/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Homeostase/fisiologia , Humanos , Absorção Intestinal/fisiologia , Gotículas Lipídicas/química , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Síndrome Metabólica/patologia , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Esfingolipídeos/administração & dosagem , Esfingolipídeos/química
10.
Behav Med ; 46(1): 9-20, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30615583

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome, a prediabetic and precardiovascular pathologic condition that begins early in life, tracks into adulthood and magnifies with age. Randomized controlled trials evaluating efficacy of yoga-based lifestyle vs. dietary intervention on metabolic syndrome are lacking. Here, the efficacy of a 12-week yoga-based lifestyle intervention vs. dietary intervention on cardio-metabolic risk factors and metabolic syndrome risk scores have been assessed in Indian adults with metabolic syndrome. In this two-arm, open label, parallel group, randomized controlled trial, 260 adults (20-45 years) diagnosed with metabolic syndrome as per joint interim statement, 2009 were randomized to yoga-based (including diet) lifestyle or dietary intervention alone (n = 130, each) for 12 weeks. Primary endpoints were the 12-week changes in cardio-metabolic risk factors and metabolic risk scores. The secondary endpoints were the 12-week changes in the proportion of subjects recovered from metabolic syndrome, dietary intake, and physical activity. Intent-to-treat analysis was performed including all the subjects with baseline data with imputed missing data. Treatment × time interaction showed yoga-based lifestyle intervention had a greater treatment effect over dietary intervention by significantly reducing waist circumference, continuous metabolic syndrome z-score, and dietary intake/day while significantly increasing physical activity. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol showed a significantly greater reduction following dietary intervention than yoga-based lifestyle intervention. A significantly greater proportion of subjects recovered from metabolic syndrome in yoga-based lifestyle (45.4%) vs. dietary intervention group (32.3%). A 12-week yoga-based lifestyle intervention is more efficacious than usual dietary intervention in improving cardio-metabolic risk factor and metabolic risk score in Indian adults with metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Adulto , Glicemia/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Dieta , Dietoterapia/métodos , Exercício Físico , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Meditação/métodos , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Ioga/psicologia
11.
J Med Food ; 23(3): 305-311, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663815

RESUMO

The metabolic syndrome (MS) underlies metabolic disorders considered risk factors for the development of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, which are major causes of morbidity and mortality in most of the world. Sterculic acid has been proposed as a potential tool for the treatment of MS since it inhibits the activity of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), a central enzyme in lipid metabolism. We analyzed the effect of sterculic oil (SO) co-administration with 30% fructose in drinking water on the development of MS in male Wistar rats. After 8 weeks, 0.4% SO exerted a protective effect from MS development since parameters altered by fructose (blood pressure, insulin resistance, serum glucose and triglycerides, steatosis, and adiposity) were similar to those of control rats.


Assuntos
Frutose/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/genética , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/metabolismo , Sterculia/química , Sterculia/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/sangue
12.
Nutrients ; 11(12)2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816875

RESUMO

A healthy dietary pattern is associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and reduced inflammation. To explore this at the molecular level, we investigated the effect of a Nordic diet (ND) on changes in the gene expression profiles of inflammatory and lipid-related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of individuals with MetS. We hypothesized that the intake of an ND compared to a control diet (CD) would alter the expression of inflammatory genes and genes involved in lipid metabolism. The individuals with MetS underwent an 18/24-week randomized intervention to compare a ND with a CD. Eighty-eight participants (66% women) were included in this sub-study of the larger SYSDIET study. Fasting PBMCs were collected before and after the intervention and changes in gene expression levels were measured using TaqMan Array Micro Fluidic Cards. Forty-eight pre-determined inflammatory and lipid related gene transcripts were analyzed. The expression level of the gene tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily member 1A (TNFRSF1A) was down-regulated (p = 0.004), whereas the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) subunit, RELA proto-oncogene, was up-regulated (p = 0.016) in the ND group compared to the CD group. In conclusion, intake of an ND in individuals with the MetS may affect immune function.


Assuntos
Dietoterapia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Receptores Tipo I de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores Tipo I de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/genética , Fator de Transcrição RelA/genética , Transcriptoma
13.
Nutrients ; 11(12)2019 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817909

RESUMO

Unhealthy dietary patterns are important risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MS), which is associated with gut microbiota disorder. High oleic acid peanut oil (HOPO) and extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), considered as healthy dietary oil, are rich in oleic acid and bioactive phytochemicals, yet efficacy of MS prevention and mechanisms linking to gut microbiota remain obscure. Herein, we investigated HOPO and EVOO supplementation in attenuating diet-induced MS, and the potential mechanisms focusing on modulation of gut microbiota. Physiological, histological and biochemical parameters and gut microbiota profiles were compared among four groups fed respectively with the following diets for 12 weeks: normal chow diet with ordinary drinking water, high-fat diet with fructose drinking water, HOPO diet with fructose drinking water, and EVOO diet with fructose drinking water. HOPO or EVOO supplementation exhibit significant lower body weight gain, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and reduced liver steatosis. HOPO significantly reduced cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) level, while EVOO reduced these levels without significant difference. HOPO and EVOO prevented gut disorder and significantly increased ß-diversity and abundance of Bifidobacterium. Moreover, HOPO significantly decreased abundance of Lachnospiraceae and Blautia. These findings suggest that both HOPO and EVOO can attenuate diet-induced MS, associated with modulating gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Síndrome Metabólica/microbiologia , Ácido Oleico/administração & dosagem , Azeite de Oliva/administração & dosagem , Óleo de Amendoim/administração & dosagem , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Suplementos Nutricionais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
14.
Phytother Res ; 33(12): 3112-3128, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746508

RESUMO

Olive (Olea europaea Linn., Fam. Oleaceae) is commonly known as Zaytoon in Mediterranean region. Its fruits and oil are essential components of Mediterranean diets. Olive tree is a prevalent plant species and one of the important cultivated crops of Mediterranean region. Oleuropein is a phenolic constituents of olive, which, along with its related compounds, has been indicated to be majorly responsible for its beneficial effects. Oleuropein is a secoiridoid type of phenolic compound and consists of three structural subunits: hydroxytyrosol, elenolic acid, and a glucose molecule. It is also reported to be the chemotaxonomic marker of olive. The oleuropein is reported to possess a number of biological activities including action against dyslipidemia, antiobesity, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antiatherogenic, antihypertensive, antiinflammatory, and hepatoprotective actions. The scientific evidence supports the role of oleuropein as a potential agent against metabolic syndrome. The present review discusses chemistry of oleuropein along with potential role of oleuropein with reference to pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Iridoides/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Humanos , Iridoides/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Food Funct ; 10(12): 7940-7951, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777896

RESUMO

The current study applied an ob/ob mouse model of obesity for investigating the impact of different RS doses in a high-fat (HF) diet on the attenuation of metabolic syndrome. Although a significant reduction of body weight was not achieved, RS intervention significantly decreased liver weight with suppressed lipid accumulation in the liver tissue and reduced adipocyte size in the fat tissue. All levels of RS intervention were associated with significantly enriched pathways for PPAR, NAFLD and cGMP-PKG signaling. In contrast, either a medium or a higher RS intake (MRS and HRS, respectively) led the AMPK signaling pathway to be significantly enriched but not a diet with lower RS intake. More importantly, sphingolipid biosynthesis activity was noted with MRS and HRS intervention, which is highly associated with the improvement in insulin resistance, and the pathway of type II diabetes mellitus was correspondingly significantly enriched in the HRS group, demonstrating a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, there was no significant difference in the ratio of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes between high-fat diet and RS groups until RS reached a certain level (i.e. in the HRS group). Furthermore, increased profiles of both Prevotellaceae and Coriobacteriaceae in the HF group were noted for the first time with a revised function from RS intervention, which is consistent with the content of lipopolysaccharides in their corresponding serum. Gut microbiota functional analysis showed that primary and secondary bile acid biosynthesis was also noted to be enriched following the RS intervention, benefiting cholesterol homeostasis. This study further highlights the association of RS consumption with the attenuation of metabolic syndrome in an obesity model, and its functionality is characterized by dose-dependence.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Amido/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Intestinos/microbiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/microbiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Amido/análise
16.
Complement Ther Med ; 47: 102187, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779987

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of present study was to compare the effect of calorie restriction and modified alternate-day fasting diet on treatment of adults with metabolic syndrome. DESIGN: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 70 participants diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. SETTING: Patients were randomly allocated into 2 groups to follow either calorie restriction or a modified alternate-day fasting diet for 8 weeks. Diets was prescribed by dietitians and specialized for each participant. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR and lipid profile were measured at baseline and after trial conclusion. RESULTS: 69, out of 70, participants completed the study and were included in the final analysis. The results showed that, compared with calorie restriction, following the modified alternate-day fasting diet significantly reduced body weight (P = 0.003), waist circumference (P = 0.026), systolic blood pressure (P = 0.029) and fasting plasma glucose (P = 0.009). However, no significant difference was observed between the 2 groups in triglyceride (P = 0.614), total cholesterol (P = 0.759), LDL-C (P = 0.289), HDL-C (P = 0.909), diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.262), HOMA- IR (P = 0.425) and fasting insulin concentrations (P = 0.496). In addition, the participants did not report any complaint due to difficulties with diet adherence when following calorie restriction or modified alternate-day fasting diet. CONCLUSIONS: the present study suggests that modified alternate-day fasting diet may be a more effective option in managing body weight, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose, compared with common calorie restriction. Further studies are needed to confirm the veracity of our results.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Jejum , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sinais Vitais , Circunferência da Cintura
17.
Vopr Pitan ; 88(4): 18-24, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722137

RESUMO

Among various food proteins, soybean proteins have the greatest traditions of application for the dietary correction and prevention of lipid metabolism disorders and related complications. Aim. In an in vivo experiment using male Wistar rats, the lipid-lowering properties of soy protein and its enzymatic hydrolysate were tested to evaluate their possible use as ingredients of specialized foods. Material and methods. Animals were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group G1 and 2 experimental groups G2 and G3. The total duration of the experiment was 70 days. The animals of the control group G1 were fed with high-lipid semi-synthetic diet. Animals of the experimental groups G2 and G3 received the same high-fat semi-synthetic diet, but with a 50% replacement of casein with soy protein isolate (SPI) and enzymatic hydrolyzate of SPI (EHSPI), respectively. The blood glucose was measured once per 2 weeks. At the end of the experiment on the 71st day the level of glycated hemoglobin was determined in the blood; the levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, high density lipoproteins (HDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL) and the concentration of malon dialdehyde were determined in the serum. Results and discussion. Starting from the 6th week of the experiment and prior to its completion, the average food intake of animals from the G3 group was significantly (р<0.05) lower compared to animals of the G1 control group. The food intake of animals of group G2 was significantly (р<0.05) reduced compared with this indicator for animals of group G1, starting from the week 8 of the experiment and prior to its completion. The monitoring of the body weight gain did not reveal significant differences between all groups of animals, despite differences in the food intake. Replacing casein in the diet by 50% with SPI had a pronounced antioxidant and cholesterol-lowering effect. The total cholesterol content (1.65±0.05 mmol/l) decreased significantly (р<0.05) due to a decrease in LDL (0.90±0.03 mmol/l), and malon dialdehyde level lowered (3.7±0.5 µmol/l, р<0.05) in the serum of group G2 rats compared with animals of the control group G1 (2.01±0.13 and 1.12±0.09 mmol/l; 5.1±0.4 µmol/l, respectively). Replacing casein by 50% with EHSPI in the diet of G3 rats was unfavorable, significantly (р<0.05) increasing the level of total cholesterol (2.76±0.16 mmol/l) and cholesterol in LDL (1.66±0.12 mmol/l) in blood of these animals compared with animals of both comparison groups G1 and G2. Conclusion. A preclinical comparative study of the cholesterol-lowering and antioxidant properties of the SPI substantiates the prospect of its following clinical trials with the aim of including into the composition of specialized foods for prevention and diet therapy of the disorders of endogenous cholesterol homeostasis.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Metabólica , Obesidade , Hidrolisados de Proteína/farmacologia , Proteínas de Soja/farmacologia , Animais , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/patologia , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
18.
JAMA ; 322(15): 1486-1499, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613346

RESUMO

Importance: High-quality dietary patterns may help prevent chronic disease, but limited data exist from randomized trials about the effects of nutritional and behavioral interventions on dietary changes. Objective: To assess the effect of a nutritional and physical activity education program on dietary quality. Design, Setting, and Participants: Preliminary exploratory interim analysis of an ongoing randomized trial. In 23 research centers in Spain, 6874 men and women aged 55 to 75 years with metabolic syndrome and no cardiovascular disease were enrolled in the trial between September 2013 and December 2016, with final data collection in March 2019. Interventions: Participants were randomized to an intervention group that encouraged an energy-reduced Mediterranean diet, promoted physical activity, and provided behavioral support (n = 3406) or to a control group that encouraged an energy-unrestricted Mediterranean diet (n = 3468). All participants received allotments of extra-virgin olive oil (1 L/mo) and nuts (125 g/mo) for free. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was 12-month change in adherence based on the energy-reduced Mediterranean diet (er-MedDiet) score (range, 0-17; higher scores indicate greater adherence; minimal clinically important difference, 1 point). Results: Among 6874 randomized participants (mean [SD] age, 65.0 [4.9] years; 3406 [52%] men), 6583 (96%) completed the 12-month follow-up and were included in the main analysis. The mean (SD) er-MedDiet score was 8.5 (2.6) at baseline and 13.2 (2.7) at 12 months in the intervention group (increase, 4.7 [95% CI, 4.6-4.8]) and 8.6 (2.7) at baseline and 11.1 (2.8) at 12 months in the control group (increase, 2.5 [95% CI, 2.3-2.6]) (between-group difference, 2.2 [95% CI, 2.1-2.4]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this preliminary analysis of an ongoing trial, an intervention that encouraged an energy-reduced Mediterranean diet and physical activity, compared with advice to follow an energy-unrestricted Mediterranean diet, resulted in a significantly greater increase in diet adherence after 12 months. Further evaluation of long-term cardiovascular effects is needed. Trial Registration: isrctn.com Identifier: ISRCTN89898870.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Dieta Mediterrânea , Exercício Físico , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Cooperação do Paciente , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Fatores de Risco , Espanha
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(46): 12675-12684, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661963

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome (MSyn) constitutes a litany of pathophysiological conditions, such as central adiposity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia. As a result of the epidemic levels of MSyn, several efforts have been made to identify the etiologies of the condition and develop methods by which to reduce its prevalence. The attenuation of the gut microflora ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes through bioactive compounds found in the Mediterranean diet, dietary polysaccharides, and pre- and probiotics can be used as functional foods to improve derangements in cardiometabolic markers correlated with the development of MSyn. Although more studies are needed to understand the role of manipulating the gut microbiota in health and disease in human models, this review based on current data from epidemiologic studies and clinical trials will serve as a review to elucidate the role nutrition plays in attenuating the gut microbiota in preventing and managing MSyn.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Síndrome Metabólica/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/química , Bactérias/classificação , Dieta , Humanos , Prebióticos/análise
20.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 25(11): e146-e147, 2019 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560040

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) develops in ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease. However, there is scarce reporting on the onset of UC in patients with NAFLD. A 44-year-old man was diagnosed with UC and referred to us in 2019. His height was 166.0 cm, and body weight was 86.3 kg. The waist circumference was 93.7 cm (normal range <85) and triglyceride was 751 mg/dL. These findings, in addition to hypertension, resulted in a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. HbA1c was normal. Ultrasonography disclosed severe fatty liver. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease was diagnosed. He underwent 12 days of educational hospitalization for UC. A lacto-ovo-semi-vegetarian diet (1400 kcal/day), a kind of plant-based diet (PBD), was provided. He lost 4 kg, which was 4.6% of his base body weight. Triglyceride and total cholesterol decreased to the normal ranges. Transaminases and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase also decreased. His body weight decreased further after discharge. Follow-up ultrasonography indicated an improvement in hepatic enlargement. The shear wave velocity decreased from 1.11 to 0.88 m/s. His soft stool became normal stool by 2 months after discharge. Records of his health checkups revealed the presence of metabolic syndrome and abnormal liver function tests already in 2015. Thus, it was concluded that UC developed in a patient with NAFLD in this case. Plant-based diet has already been shown to be effective in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the present case, NAFLD parameters were dramatically improved by PBD. Whether the improvement was due to weight loss per se or due to weight loss with PBD is to be clarified.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/complicações , Dieta Vegetariana , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Adulto , Colite Ulcerativa/dietoterapia , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/dietoterapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda de Peso
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...