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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22389, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991460

RESUMO

To investigate the molecular mechanisms of later metabolic health changes in large for gestational age (LGA) newborns by analyzing deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation patterns in the placenta of LGA and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) newborns.A total of 6 placentas of LGA and 6 placentas of AGA newborns were enrolled as LGA group and AGA group. DNA methylation was analyzed using the Illumina Infinium Human MethylationEPIC BeadChip microarrays and verified via pyrosequencing and reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Functional enrichment analysis were constructed by gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis based on the differentially methylated regions between LGA and AGA groups.Clinical investigation showed that LGA newborns had significantly lower hemoglobin and blood glucose compared to AGA newborns. Birth weight was negatively correlated to hemoglobin and blood glucose. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis identified 17 244 methylation variable positions achieving genome-wide significance (adjusted P < .05). 34% methylation variable positions were located in the gene promoter region. A total of 117 differentially methylated regions were revealed by bump hunting analysis, which mapped to 107 genes. Function analysis showed 13 genes enriched in "adhesion and infection process, endocrine and other factor-regulated calcium reabsorption, calcium signaling pathway and transmembrane transport". Four genes linked to type II diabetes mellitus. Among the 13 genes, we selected GNAS and calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 G for independent verification of pyrosequencing, and the messenger ribonucleic acid levels of guanine nucleotide binding protein, calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 G, DECR1, and FK506 binding protein 11 were verified by reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.DNA methylation variation and gene expression differences in placental samples were associated with LGA newborns, which linking the effect of intrauterine environment to regulation of the offspring's gene expression. Furthermore, pathway analysis suggested that intrauterine environment affecting fetal growth might had a functional impact on multiple signaling pathways involved in fetal growth, metabolism, and inflammation. Further studies were required to understand the differences of methylation patterns.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Placenta/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
2.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 42, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825824

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To verify the association between sleep duration and television time with cardiometabolic risk and the moderating role of age, gender, and skin color/ethnicity in this relationship among adolescents. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 1411 adolescents (800 girls) aged 10 to 17 years. Television time, sleep duration, age, gender, and skin color/ethnicity were obtained by self-reported questionnaire. Cardiometabolic risk was evaluated using the continuous metabolic risk score, by the sum of the standard z-score values for each risk factor: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, glycemia, cardiorespiratory fitness, systolic blood pressure, and waist circumference. Generalized linear regression models were used. RESULTS: There was an association between television time and cardiometabolic risk (ß, 0.002; 95% CI, 0.001; 0.003). Short sleep duration (ß, 0.422; 95% CI, 0.012; 0.833) was positively associated with cardiometabolic risk. Additionally, age moderated the relationship between television time and cardiometabolic risk (ß, - 0.009; 95% CI, - 0.002; - 0.001), suggesting that this relationship was stronger at ages 11 and 13 years (ß, 0.004; 95% CI, 0.001; 0.006) compared to 13 to 15 years (ß, 0.002; 95% CI, 0.001; 0.004). No association was found in older adolescents (ß, 0.001; 95% CI, - 0.002; 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Television time and sleep duration are associated with cardiometabolic risk; adolescents with short sleep have higher cardiometabolic risk. In addition, age plays a moderating role in the relationship between TV time and cardiometabolic risk, indicating that in younger adolescents the relationship is stronger compared to older ones.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Sono , Televisão/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Síndrome Metabólica/etnologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário/etnologia , Fatores Sexuais
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238005, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have investigated whether patients with lichen planus are at a high risk of metabolic syndrome; however, currently, no conclusive data are available in this regard. OBJECTIVE: This meta-analysis was performed to analyze the published literature investigating the association between metabolic syndrome and lichen planus. METHOD: Two reviewers independently searched 4 databases (PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library and Web of Science) for observational studies assessing the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with lichen planus. Review Manager 5.3 software was used to statistically analyze the data. RESULTS: 200 relevant articles were searched. After a further reading, 12 studies with 1422 participants (715 with LP and 707 controls) fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Overall, the pooled odds ratio based on random effects analysis was 2.81 (95% confidence interval: 1.79-4.41, P<0.00001). This meta-analysis shows that compared with the general population, patients with lichen planus are more likely to develop metabolic syndrome. Subgroup analysis of prevalence of metabolic syndrome showed higher odds ratio in studies using International Diabetes Federation diagnostic criteria (odds ratio 4.65) and the Harmonized criteria (odds ratio 26.62) than studies using National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria (odds ratio 1.75), and thus might be more appropriate for diagnosing metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis shows that compared with the general population, patients with lichen planus are more likely to develop metabolic syndrome. Therefore, early diagnosis and prompt initiation of first-line therapy for metabolic disorders are important in patients with lichen planus.


Assuntos
Líquen Plano/patologia , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Líquen Plano/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
4.
J Virol ; 94(18)2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661141

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome increases the risk of severe disease due to viral infection. Yet few studies have assessed the pathogenesis of respiratory viruses in high-risk populations. Here, we summarize how metabolic dysregulation impairs immune responses, and we define the role of metabolism during influenza virus and coronavirus infections. We also discuss the use of various in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo models to elucidate the contributions of host factors to viral susceptibility, immunity, and disease severity.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Influenza Humana/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Influenza Humana/virologia , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236357, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687509

RESUMO

Adult growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is being increasingly recognized to cause premature mortality exacerbated by oxidative stress. A case-control observational study has been performed with the primary objective of evaluating new parameters of oxidative stress and macromolecular damage in adult GHD subjects: serum nitrotryptophan; Total Antioxidant Capacity expressed as LAG time; urinary hexanoil-lysine; urinary dityrosine and urinary 8-OH-deoxyguanosine. GHD was diagnosed using Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone 50µg iv+arginine 0,5 g/Kg test, with a peak GH response <9 µg /L when BMI was <30 kg/m2 or <4 µg/L when BMI was >30 kg/m2. Patients affected by adult GHD were divided into three groups, total GHD (n = 26), partial GHD (n = 25), and controls (n = 29). Total Antioxidant Capacity, metabolic and hormonal parameters have been determined in separate plasma samples; nitrotryptophan in serum samples; hexanoil-lysine, dityrosine, 8-OH-deoxyguanosine in urine samples. Assessment of hexanoil-lysine exhibited a trend to increase in comparing total GHD vs partial and controls, although not significant. Values of 8-OH-deoxyguanosine did not significantly differ among the three groups. Significant lower levels of dityrosine in partial GHD vs total and controls were found. No significant difference in nitrotriptophan serum levels was found, while significantly greater values of Total Antioxidant Capacity were showed in total and partial GHD vs controls. Thus, our result confirm that oxidative stress is increased both in partial and total adult GHD. The lack of compensation by antioxidants in total GHD may be connected to the complications associated to this rare disorder.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/deficiência , Hipopituitarismo/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina/urina , Adulto , Malformação de Arnold-Chiari/sangue , Malformação de Arnold-Chiari/complicações , Malformação de Arnold-Chiari/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Síndrome da Sela Vazia/sangue , Síndrome da Sela Vazia/complicações , Síndrome da Sela Vazia/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Hipopituitarismo/sangue , Hipopituitarismo/etiologia , Hipopituitarismo/urina , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Lisina/sangue , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/urina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Triptofano/análogos & derivados , Triptofano/sangue , Tirosina/análogos & derivados , Tirosina/urina
6.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 78(3): 243-252, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540813

RESUMO

Adiponectin is a major adipokine involved in energy homeostasis that exerts insulin-sensitizing properties. The level of adiponectin is reduced in situations of insulin resistance and is negatively associated with several pathophysiological situations including abdominal obesity, metabolic syndrome, steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, type 2 diabetes, some cancers and cognitive diseases. These aspects are discussed in this review.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/fisiologia , Animais , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/metabolismo , Transtornos Cognitivos/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/patologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia
7.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-378035

RESUMO

While the detrimental effects of a chronic positive energy balance due to a sedentary lifestyle have been well established, the impacts of a short period of abruptly reduced physical activity and overeating arising from strict confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic will soon start to emerge. To reasonably anticipate major consequences according to the available evidence, we hereby review the literature for studies that have explored the health impacts of several weeks of a reduction in physical activity and daily step-count combined with modified eating habits. These studies identify as main metabolic consequences increases in insulin resistance, total body fat, abdominal fat and inflammatory cytokines. All these factors have been strongly associated with the development of metabolic syndrome, which in turn increases the risk of multiple chronic diseases. A plausible mechanism involved in these impacts could be a positive energy balance promoted by maintaining usual dietary intake while reducing energy expenditure. This means that just as calorie intake restriction could help mitigate the deleterious impacts of a bout of physical inactivity, overeating under conditions of home confinement is very likely to exacerbate these consequences. Moreover, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease have been identified as potential risk factors for more severely ill patients with COVID-19. Thus, adequate control of metabolic disorders could be important to reduce the risk of severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Comportamento Sedentário , Betacoronavirus , Espaços Confinados , Dieta/métodos , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Síndrome Metabólica/virologia , Fatores de Risco
8.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32466598

RESUMO

While the detrimental effects of a chronic positive energy balance due to a sedentary lifestyle have been well established, the impacts of a short period of abruptly reduced physical activity and overeating arising from strict confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic will soon start to emerge. To reasonably anticipate major consequences according to the available evidence, we hereby review the literature for studies that have explored the health impacts of several weeks of a reduction in physical activity and daily step-count combined with modified eating habits. These studies identify as main metabolic consequences increases in insulin resistance, total body fat, abdominal fat and inflammatory cytokines. All these factors have been strongly associated with the development of metabolic syndrome, which in turn increases the risk of multiple chronic diseases. A plausible mechanism involved in these impacts could be a positive energy balance promoted by maintaining usual dietary intake while reducing energy expenditure. This means that just as calorie intake restriction could help mitigate the deleterious impacts of a bout of physical inactivity, overeating under conditions of home confinement is very likely to exacerbate these consequences. Moreover, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease have been identified as potential risk factors for more severely ill patients with COVID-19. Thus, adequate control of metabolic disorders could be important to reduce the risk of severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Comportamento Sedentário , Betacoronavirus , Espaços Confinados , Dieta/métodos , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Síndrome Metabólica/virologia , Fatores de Risco
9.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(7): 1787-1800, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460579

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Metabolic dysregulation and inflammation are important consequences of obesity and impact susceptibility to cardiovascular disease. Anti-inflammatory therapy in cardiovascular disease is being developed under the assumption that inflammatory pathways are identical in women and men, but it is not known if this is indeed the case. In this study, we assessed the sex-specific relation between inflammation and metabolic dysregulation in obesity. Approach and Results: Three hundred two individuals were included, half with a BMI 27 to 30 kg/m2 and half with a BMI>30 kg/m2, 45% were women. The presence of metabolic syndrome was assessed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program-ATPIII criteria, and inflammation was studied using circulating markers of inflammation, cell counts, and ex vivo cytokine production capacity of isolated immune cells. Additionally, lipidomic and metabolomic data were gathered, and subcutaneous fat biopsies were histologically assessed. Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased inflammatory profile that profoundly differs between women and men: women with metabolic syndrome show a lower concentration of the anti-inflammatory adiponectin, whereas men show increased levels of several pro-inflammatory markers such as IL (interleukin)-6 and leptin. Adipose tissue inflammation showed similar sex-specific associations with these markers. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from men, but not women, with metabolic syndrome display enhanced cytokine production capacity. CONCLUSIONS: We identified sex-specific pathways that influence inflammation in obesity. Excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines was observed in men with metabolic syndrome. In contrast, women typically showed reduced levels of the anti-inflammatory adipokine adiponectin. These different mechanisms of inflammatory dysregulation between women and men with obesity argue for sex-specific therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/etiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Adiponectina/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Interleucina-6/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
10.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 81(3)2020 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychiatric patients are known to be at high risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), leading to an increased mortality rate. OBJECTIVE: To assess the CVD risk (presence of metabolic syndrome [MetS] and calculated 10-year CVD risk) in a Swiss psychiatric cohort taking weight gain-inducing psychotropic drugs, compare the findings to a Swiss population-based cohort, and evaluate the prevalence of participants treated for metabolic disruptions in both cohorts. METHODS: Data for 1,216 psychiatric patients (of whom 634 were aged 35-75 years) were obtained between 2007 and 2017 from a study with metabolic parameters monitored during psychotropic treatment and between 2003 and 2006 for 6,733 participants from the population-based CoLaus|PsyCoLaus study. RESULTS: MetS as defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) was identified in 33% of the psychiatric participants and 24.7% of the population-based subjects. Specifically, prevalence per the IDF definition was more than 3 times higher in the psychiatric cohort among women aged 35 to 49 years (25.6% vs 8.0%; P < 10-4). The psychiatric and population-based cohorts, respectively, had comparable predicted CVD risk (10-year risk of CVD event > 20%: 0% vs 0.1% in women and 0.3% vs 1.8% [P = .01] in men; 10-year risk of CVD death > 5%: 8.5% vs 8.4% [P = .58] in women and 13.4% vs 16.6% [P = .42] in men). No difference was observed among the proportion of participants with MetS treated for metabolic disturbances in the two cohorts, with the exception of women aged 35-49 years, for whom those in the psychiatric cohort were half as likely to receive treatment compared to participants in CoLaus|PsyCoLaus (17.8% vs 38.8% per the IDF definition; P = .0004). CONCLUSIONS: These findings emphasize the concern that psychiatric patients present an altered metabolic profile and that they do not receive adequate treatment for metabolic disruptions. Presence of metabolic disturbances should be routinely assessed, and adequate follow-up is needed to intervene early after illness onset.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Psicotrópicos/efeitos adversos , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Suíça/epidemiologia
11.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 487, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is metabolic heterogeneity in normal-weight individuals, however, there has been limited research in the Chinese population. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, distribution and epidemiological determinants of metabolically obese but normal-weight (MONW) in a Chinese population. METHODS: A total of 17,876 normal-weight individuals were recruited from 37,815 individuals in Zhejiang province in southeastern China. Normal-weight was defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-23.9 kg/m2. Metabolically abnormal traits were assessed by metabolic syndrome criteria from the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) in 2015. MONW was defined as individuals who had at least two metabolically abnormal trait but normal weight. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate MONW risk factors, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: The prevalence of metabolic abnormality was 34.1% in normal-weight individuals, and the overall prevalence of MONW was 16.1% in the general population. Different MONW distributions were found between men and women depending on age. Compared with women, men had a significantly higher MONW prevalence among those aged < 45 years old, and there was a lower prevalence for those aged ≥50 years old. Higher BMI or waist circumference (WC), central obesity, menopause, and family histories of hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases, increased MONW risk. Higher education levels, regular alcohol drinking, and balanced or vegetarian food preferences reduced MONW risk. CONCLUSIONS: Normal-weight individuals have metabolic heterogeneity in China. The MONW distribution between men and women depends on age. BMI, WC, dietary factors, and family history of chronic diseases, are associated with metabolic status.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , China/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Menopausa , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Prevalência , Valores de Referência , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura
12.
Acta Diabetol ; 57(7): 853-860, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114641

RESUMO

AIMS: Gut microbiota significantly impacts human health and is influenced by dietary changes. We evaluated the effects of diets naturally rich in polyphenols (PP) and/or long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn3) on microbiota composition in an ancillary analysis of a randomized controlled trial in individuals at high cardiometabolic risk. METHODS: Seventy-eight individuals with high waist circumference and at least one additional component of the metabolic syndrome were randomized to an isoenergetic 8-week diet: (a) low LCn3 and PP; (b) high LCn3; (c) high PP; or (d) high LCn3 and PP. Microbiota analysis was performed on feces collected before and after the intervention. DGGE analysis of the predominant bacteria, Eubacterium rectale and Blautia coccoides group (Lachnospiraceae, EREC), Clostridium leptum (Ruminococcaceae, CLEPT), Bacteroides spp., Bifidobacteria, and Lactobacillus group was performed. A quantitative real-time PCR was performed for the same group, additionally including Atopobium cluster (Coriobatteriaceae). Before and after the intervention, participants underwent a 75 g OGTT and a high-fat test meal to evaluate glucose and lipid response. RESULTS: Adherence to the four diets was optimal. PP significantly increased microbial diversity (p = 0.006) and CLEPT (p = 0.015), while it reduced EREC (p = 0.044). LCn3 significantly increased the numbers of Bifidobacteria (p = 0.041). Changes in CLEPT numbers correlated with changes in early insulin secretion (r = 0.263, p = 0.030). Changes in Atopobium numbers correlated with postprandial triglycerides in plasma (r = 0.266, p = 0.026) and large VLDL (r = 0.313, p = 0.009), and cholesterol in large VLDL (r = 0.319, p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Diets naturally rich in PP or LCn3 influenced gut microbiota composition in individuals at high cardiometabolic risk. These modifications were associated with changes in glucose/lipid metabolism.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/microbiologia , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome Metabólica/microbiologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/dietoterapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Risco
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32121546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Employment in the administrative sector is characterized by prolonged sedentary work, which has been tied to increased morbidity and compromised health. The aim of this study was to determine cardiovascular, cardiorespiratory and metabolic risk parameters of German office workers (OWs) in comparison to OWs from other nations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 46 male office workers from the North Rhine-Westphalia region (Germany) participated in the survey. Anthropometric measurements, cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors, as well as laboratory parameters were taken. The 10-year cardiovascular risk was calculated by using the Framingham risk score. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was based on the criteria of the International Diabetes Federation. Cardiorespiratory status was assessed by exercise spirometry. RESULTS: The analyzed group of OWs demonstrated a high prevalence of preobesity (Body Mass Index 26.4 ± 4 and waist circumference 97.3 ± 11.7 cm) and 58.7% of the OWs showed an abnormally large waist circumference. Cardiovascular risk was correspondingly elevated as compared with other international studies (9.7% ± 9.2%). High risk cardiovascular profiles were detected in 10.7% of the participants and 33% of the OWs in our study group were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. The oxygen uptake of the OWs was 34.1 ± 8.1 mL/kg-1·min-1. CONCLUSIONS: The German OWs show elevated cardiovascular risk assessed using the Framingham risk score and also a high tendency for metabolic syndrome. The OWs need to be made further aware of the cardiovascular risk and resulting health implications. Implementation of health promotion concepts such as corporate sports activities or nutrition courses should be taken into consideration to counteract cardiovascular risk factors and the subsequent development of cardiovascular disease in later life.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Doenças Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
14.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 106, 2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is the most common chronic inflammatory condition involving the T helper cell system. Population studies have demonstrated that patients with psoriasis and/or psoriatic arthritis have an increased risk of developing vascular risk factors, including diabetes, hypertension, and obesity, and increased risk of adverse vascular events, including myocardial infarction and stroke. Population studies have generally investigated the individual contributions of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis to development of vascular risk factors; fewer studies have investigated the additive contribution of comorbid inflammatory disorders. We present a case of a woman with psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and comorbid vascular risk factors. CASE PRESENTATION: A 49 year-old Caucasian woman with a history of severe psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis since adolescence presented with bilateral lower extremity weakness. She was found to have acute bilateral watershed infarcts and multifocal subacute infarcts. Her evaluation revealed vascular risk factors and elevated non-specific systemic inflammatory markers; serum and cerebral spinal fluid did not reveal underlying infection, hypercoagulable state, or vasculitis. Over the course of days, she exhibited precipitous clinical deterioration related to multiple large vessel occlusions, including the bilateral anterior cerebral arteries and the left middle cerebral artery. Autopsy revealed acute thrombi and diffuse, severe atherosclerosis. CONCLUSION: Patients with early onset inflammatory disease activity or comorbid inflammatory disorders may have an even higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome and adverse vascular events compared to patients with late-onset disease activity or with a single inflammatory condition. The described case illustrates the complex relationship between inflammatory disorders and vascular risk factors. The degree of systemic inflammation, as measured by severity of disease activity, has been shown to have a dose-response relationship with comorbid vascular risk factors and vascular events. Dysregulation of the Th1 and Th17 system has been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis and may explain the severe atherosclerosis seen in such chronic inflammatory conditions. Further research will help refine screening and management guidelines to account for comorbid inflammatory disorders and related disease severity.


Assuntos
Artrite Psoriásica/complicações , Psoríase/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Artrite Psoriásica/imunologia , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Comorbidade , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psoríase/imunologia , Fatores de Risco
15.
Microb Cell Fact ; 19(1): 61, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the last decade, increasing evidence has shown that changes in human gut microbiota are associated with diseases, such as obesity. The excreted/secreted proteins (secretome) of the gut microbiota affect the microbial composition, altering its colonization and persistence. Furthermore, it influences microbiota-host interactions by triggering inflammatory reactions and modulating the host's immune response. The metatranscriptome is essential to elucidate which genes are expressed under diseases. In this regard, little is known about the expressed secretome in the microbiome. Here, we use a metatranscriptomic approach to delineate the secretome of the gut microbiome of Mexican children with normal weight (NW) obesity (O) and obesity with metabolic syndrome (OMS). Additionally, we performed the 16S rRNA profiling of the gut microbiota. RESULTS: Out of the 115,712 metatranscriptome genes that codified for proteins, 30,024 (26%) were predicted to be secreted, constituting the Secrebiome of the gut microbiome. The 16S profiling confirmed an increased abundance in Firmicutes and decreased in Bacteroidetes in the obesity groups, and a significantly higher richness and diversity than the normal weight group. We found novel biomarkers for obesity with metabolic syndrome such as increased Coriobacteraceae, Collinsela, and Collinsella aerofaciens; Erysipelotrichaceae, Catenibacterium and Catenibacterium sp., and decreased Parabacteroides distasonis, which correlated with clinical and anthropometric parameters associated to obesity and metabolic syndrome. Related to the Secrebiome, 16 genes, homologous to F. prausniitzi, were overexpressed for the obese and 15 genes homologous to Bacteroides, were overexpressed in the obesity with metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, a significant enrichment of CAZy enzymes was found in the Secrebiome. Additionally, significant differences in the antigenic density of the Secrebiome were found between normal weight and obesity groups. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show, for the first time, the role of the Secrebiome in the functional human-microbiota interaction. Our results highlight the importance of metatranscriptomics to provide novel information about the gut microbiome's functions that could help us understand the impact of the Secrebiome on the homeostasis of its human host. Furthermore, the metatranscriptome and 16S profiling confirmed the importance of treating obesity and obesity with metabolic syndrome as separate conditions to better understand the interplay between microbiome and disease.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Síndrome Metabólica/microbiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/microbiologia , Bactérias/metabolismo , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Expressão Gênica , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , México , Obesidade Pediátrica/complicações , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Via Secretória
16.
J Endocrinol ; 245(2): 259-279, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134722

RESUMO

Lifestyle modifications, including physical exercise (PhyEx), are well-known treatments for metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors often associated to hypogonadism. Given the trophic role of testosterone on skeletal muscle (SkM), this study was aimed at evaluating the effects of testosterone treatment on SkM metabolism and exercise performance in male rabbits with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced MetS. HFD rabbits, treated or not with testosterone (30 mg/kg/week) for 12 weeks, were compared to regular diet animals (RD). A subset of each group was exercise-trained for 12 weeks. HFD increased type-II (fast, glycolytic) and decreased type-I (slow, oxidative) muscle fibers compared to RD as evaluated by RT-PCR and histochemistry. Testosterone reverted these effects, also inducing the expression of mitochondrial respiration enzymes and normalizing HFD-induced mitochondrial cristae reduction. Moreover, testosterone significantly increased the expression of myogenic/differentiation markers and genes related to glucidic/lipid metabolism. At the end of the PhyEx protocol, when compared to RD, HFD rabbits showed a significant reduction of running distance and running time, while testosterone counteracted this effect, also decreasing lactate production. In the trained groups, muscle histology showed a significant reduction of oxidative fibers in HFD compared to RD and the positive effect of testosterone in maintaining oxidative metabolism, as also demonstrated by analyzing mitochondrial ultrastructure, succinate dehydrogenase activity and ATP production. Our results indicate that testosterone could be useful to promote oxidative muscle metabolism altered by MetS, thus improving exercise performance. Conversely, testosterone administration to otherwise eugonadal rabbits (RD) only increased muscle fiber diameter but not endurance performance.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência Física/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/farmacologia , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Coelhos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167781

RESUMO

The roles of ACE-independent ANG II production via chymase and therapeutic potential of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the adolescent population remain elusive. Thus we tested the hypothesis that a high-fructose diet (HFD) in young rats elicits chymase-dependent increases in ANG II production and oxidative stress, responses that are reversible by 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl) urea (TPPU), an inhibitor of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) that metabolizes EETs. Three groups of weanling rats (21-day-old) were fed a normal diet, 60% HFD, and HFD with TPPU, respectively, for 30 days. HFD rats developed MetS, characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertension and associated with decreases in cardiac output and stroke volume and loss of nitric oxide (NO) modulation of myocardial oxygen consumption; all impairments were normalized by TPPU that significantly elevated circulating 11,12-EET, a major cardiac EET isoform. In the presence of comparable cardiac angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) expression/activity among the three groups, HFD rats exhibited significantly greater chymase-dependent ANG II formation in hearts, as indicated by an augmented cardiac chymase content as a function of enhanced mast cell degranulation. The enhanced chymase-dependent ANG II production was paralleled with increases in ANG II type 1 receptor (AT1R) expression and NADPH oxidase (Nox)-induced superoxide, alterations that were significantly reversed by TPPU. Conversely, HFD-induced downregulation of cardiac ACE2, followed by a lower Ang-(1-7) level displayed in an TPPU-irreversible manner. In conclusion, HFD-driven adverse chymase/ANG II/Nox/superoxide signaling in young rats was prevented by inhibition of sEH via, at least in part, an EET-mediated stabilization of mast cells, highlighting chymase and sEH as therapeutic targets during treatment of MetS.NEW & NOTEWORTHY As the highest fructose consumers, the adolescent population is highly susceptible to the metabolic syndrome, where increases in mast cell chymase-dependent formation of ANG II, ensued by cardiometabolic dysfunction, are reversible in response to inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). This study highlights chymase and sEH as therapeutic targets and unravels novel avenues for the development of optimal strategies for young patients with fructose-induced metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Ácido 8,11,14-Eicosatrienoico/análogos & derivados , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Quimases/metabolismo , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Cardiopatias/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Ácido 8,11,14-Eicosatrienoico/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Débito Cardíaco , Células Cultivadas , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Epóxido Hidrolases/antagonistas & inibidores , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/fisiopatologia , Cardiopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
18.
Chemosphere ; 244: 125123, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050320

RESUMO

Although epidemiological studies demonstrate that persistent organic pollutants (POPs) could lead to metabolic syndrome, the mechanism has remained unclear. The dysbiosis of gut microbiota and the lipid metabolome have been put forward in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. In this study, we used dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) as an example to study the effects of POP-impaired microbial composition and metabolome homeostasis on metabolic syndrome. The results showed that DDE exposure increased body weight and fat content and impaired glucose homeostasis. Further investigation revealed that DDE induced gut dysbiosis as indicated by an increased Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio, which may impact energy harvest efficiency. Meanwhile, the plasma lipid metabolome profile was significantly altered by DDE. Furthermore, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and triacylglycerol were identified as key metabolites affected by DDE treatment, and these altered lipid metabolites were highly correlated with changed microbiota composition. This study provides novel insight into the underlying mechanism of POP-induced obesity and diabetes, pointing to gut microbiota as one of the targets.


Assuntos
Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Disbiose/microbiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/metabolismo
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(6): e18820, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028392

RESUMO

Cross-sectional studies indicate that the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) rs9939609 gene variant is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) primarily in European ancestry. However, the association is not fully elucidated in African Americans.We hypothesized that rs9939609 (AT = moderate-risk carriers or AA = high-risk carriers compared to TT = low-risk carriers) is associated with MetS and its component risk factors over time; and that its association is ancestry-specific. A secondary hypothesis was that higher levels of physical activity can decrease the deleterious effect of rs9939609 at higher body mass index (BMI).Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study repeated measures data from 4 visits (1987-1998) were obtained from the database of Genotypes and Phenotypes for 10,358 participants (8170 Whites and 2188 African Americans) aged 45 to 64 years at baseline. Guidelines for elevated blood pressure by the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association Task Force were updated within the MetS criteria. Risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals from generalized estimating equations assessed population-average risks.MetS was present among 3479 (42.6%) Whites and 1098 (50.2%) African Americans at baseline, and 50.3% Whites and 57% African Americans over 11-years of follow-up. Among MetS component risk factors, high waist circumference was most prevalent among White AT (RR = 1.07; 1.06-1.09) and AA (RR = 1.12; 1.10-1.14) higher-risk carriers. High triglycerides were elevated among African American AA high-risk carriers (RR = 1.11; 1.02-1.21) compared to TT low-risk carriers. Over time, White AT-and AA higher-risk carriers had 1.07 and 1.08-fold increase (P < .0001) in MetS risk. Physical activity had independent protective effects on MetS among both races (P < .05). White AA high-risk carriers with normal BMI and low vs high physical activity had higher MetS risk (RR = 1.69; 1.25-2.30 and RR = 0.68;0.53-0.87, respectively). In rs9939609 × BMI× physical activity interaction, White A-allele high-risk carriers had lower MetS risk (RR = 0.68; 0.53-0.87). Among Whites, physical activity can lessen the effect of rs9939609 and high BMI on risk for MetS.


Assuntos
Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Bases de Dados Factuais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
20.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 19, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Empagliflozin (empa), a selective sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT)2 inhibitor, reduced cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization for heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk independent of glycemic control. The cardiovascular protective effect of empa was evaluated in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome, the obese ZSF1 rat, and its' lean control. METHODS: Lean and obese ZSF1 rats were either non-treated or treated with empa (30 mg/kg/day) for 6 weeks. Vascular reactivity was assessed using mesenteric artery rings, systolic blood pressure by tail-cuff sphygmomanometry, heart function and structural changes by echocardiography, and protein expression levels by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Empa treatment reduced blood glucose levels from 275 to 196 mg/dl in obese ZSF1 rats whereas normoglycemia (134 mg/dl) was present in control lean ZSF1 rats and was unaffected by empa. Obese ZSF1 rats showed increased systolic blood pressure, and blunted endothelium-dependent relaxations associated with the appearance of endothelium-dependent contractile responses (EDCFs) compared to control lean rats. These effects were prevented by the empa treatment. Obese ZSF1 rats showed increased weight of the heart and of the left ventricle volume without the presence of diastolic or systolic dysfunction, which were improved by the empa treatment. An increased expression level of senescence markers (p53, p21, p16), tissue factor, VCAM-1, SGLT1 and SGLT2 and a down-regulation of eNOS were observed in the aortic inner curvature compared to the outer one in the control lean rats, which were prevented by the empa treatment. In the obese ZSF1 rats, no such effects were observed. The empa treatment reduced the increased body weight and weight of lungs, spleen, liver and perirenal fat, hyperglycemia and the increased levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides in obese ZSF1 rats, and increased blood ketone levels and urinary glucose excretion in control lean and obese ZSF1 rats. CONCLUSION: Empa reduced glucose levels by 28% and improved both endothelial function and cardiac remodeling in the obese ZSF1 rat. Empa also reduced the increased expression level of senescence, and atherothrombotic markers at arterial sites at risk in the control lean, but not obese, ZSF1 rat.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/farmacologia , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/farmacologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/complicações , Ratos Zucker , Sístole
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