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1.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371982

RESUMO

The association between ultra-processed food (UPF) and risk of cardiometabolic disorders is an ongoing concern. Different food processing-based classification systems have originated discrepancies in the conclusions among studies. To test whether the association between UPF consumption and cardiometabolic markers changes with the classification system, we used baseline data from 5636 participants (48.5% female and 51.5% male, mean age 65.1 ± 4.9) of the PREDIMED-Plus ("PREvention with MEDiterranean DIet") trial. Subjects presented with overweight or obesity and met at least three metabolic syndrome (MetS) criteria. Food consumption was classified using a 143-item food frequency questionnaire according to four food processing-based classifications: NOVA, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), International Food Information Council (IFIC) and University of North Carolina (UNC). Mean changes in nutritional and cardiometabolic markers were assessed according to quintiles of UPF consumption for each system. The association between UPF consumption and cardiometabolic markers was assessed using linear regression analysis. The concordance of the different classifications was assessed with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC3, overall = 0.51). The highest UPF consumption was obtained with the IARC classification (45.9%) and the lowest with NOVA (7.9%). Subjects with high UPF consumption showed a poor dietary profile. We detected a direct association between UPF consumption and BMI (p = 0.001) when using the NOVA system, and with systolic (p = 0.018) and diastolic (p = 0.042) blood pressure when using the UNC system. Food classification methodologies markedly influenced the association between UPF consumption and cardiometabolic risk markers.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Fast Foods/classificação , Manipulação de Alimentos/classificação , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Idoso , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta/classificação , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta Mediterrânea , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha/epidemiologia
2.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444849

RESUMO

A balanced diet and weight loss are the first lines of treatment for the prevention of metabolic syndrome (MS). Dietary strategies may include changing the composition of macronutrients, adopting a particular dietary pattern as a Mediterranean diet. However, the role of micronutrients, particularly potassium, in the propensity for or treatment of the syndrome is unclear. The study aimed to examine the relationship between the presence of the MS and its risk factors and the 24-h potassium excretion as the most valid proxy for dietary intake. The analyses were performed as part of the national survey estimating sodium and other electrolytes excretion conducted between 2014-2016 in Israel. The survey included urine collection, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, and a comprehensive medical questionnaire that included details on the intake of medications that may affect electrolyte secretion. A model was constructed to evaluate the probability for the MS. MS score and its probability were examined in relation to potassium excretion at different levels and in stratification to sex. A total of 581 participants were included in the analysis. The mean potassium excretion was 2818 ± 1417 mg. The prevalence of the MS was 18.5% among participants with above-average potassium excretion and about 10.4% among participants with lower-than-average excretion (p = 0.007). A dose-response relationship was observed between MS score and potassium: the higher the score, the lower was the excretion of potassium. Potassium excretion, rather than sodium excretion, correlated with all components of the MS and even predicted MS independently from other variables. This is the first study based on a national survey showing that potassium consumption, as represented by daily excretion in urine, is inversely related to the presence of MS components after adjustment for several leading variables and careful exclusion of participants taking drugs which may interfere in potassium excretion.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Potássio/urina , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Antropometria , Pressão Sanguínea , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Eletrólitos/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Avaliação Nutricional , Prevalência , Sódio/urina , Coleta de Urina
3.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202690

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate if a home meal replacement (HMR), designed with a low ω-6/ω-3 fatty acid ratio, improves cardiometabolic parameters, including metabolic syndrome (MetS) in obese individuals. We conducted a monocentric, controlled, randomized crossover trial. The HMR contains higher protein and fat content, lower carbohydrate content, and a lower ω6FA/ω3FA ratio than the regular diet. Sixty-four participants were randomized into two groups and switched to the other group following a 4-week intervention. While subjects in the HMR group were provided three HMRs daily, those in the control group were requested to maintain their regular dietary pattern. We conducted paired t-tests, repeated measures analysis of variance, and McNemar tests before and after the intervention. Body mass index (BMI) and weight were lower in the HMR group after adjusting for age, sex, and total energy intake and significantly changed in the between-group differences. The waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, triglyceride-glucose index, and triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio were reduced in the HMR group (all p < 0.05). The percentage of subjects with MetS significantly decreased from 39.1% at baseline to 28.1% post-intervention (p = 0.035). Using the HMR for 4 weeks reduced the BMI, weight, and MetS prevalence in individuals with obesity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04552574).


Assuntos
Dieta Rica em Proteínas e Pobre em Carboidratos/métodos , Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Circunferência da Cintura
4.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206539

RESUMO

The association between vitamin D deficiency and metabolic syndrome (MS) in severe obesity is unclear and controversial. We analyzed serum and dietary vitamin D and their association with MS in 150 adults with class II and III obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2) from the DieTBra Trial (NCT02463435). MS parameters were high fasting blood glucose, low HDL cholesterol, high triglycerides, elevated waist circumference, and hypertension. Vitamin D deficiency was considered as a level < 20 ng/mL. We performed multivariate Poisson regression adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle variables. The prevalence of serum vitamin D deficiency was 13.3% (mean 29.9 ± 9.4 ng/mL) and dietary vitamin D median was 51.3 IU/day. There were no significant associations between vitamin D, serum, and diet and sociodemographic variables, lifestyle, and class of obesity. Serum vitamin D deficiency was associated with age ≥ 50 years (p = 0.034). After a fully adjusted multivariate Poisson regression, MS and its parameters were not associated with serum or dietary vitamin D, except for lower HDL, which was associated with serum vitamin D deficiency (PR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.52-0.97; p = 0.029). Severe obese individuals had a low prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, which was not associated with MS.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/classificação , Distribuição de Poisson , Prevalência , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Deficiência de Vitamina D/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The consumption of sweetened beverages is associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that the metabolic effects of fructose in sugary beverages might be modulated by the speed of ingestion in addition to the overall amount. DESIGN: Thirty healthy subjects free of any disease and medication were recruited into two groups. After overnight fasting, subjects in group 1 drank 500 mL of apple juice over an hour by drinking 125 mL every 15 min, while subjects in group 2 drank 500 mL of apple juice over 5 min. Blood samples were collected at time zero and 15, 30, 60, and 120 min after ingestion to be analyzed for serum glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) score, fibroblast growth factor 21, copeptin, osmolarity, sodium, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), lactate, uric acid, and phosphate levels. RESULTS: Serum glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, fibroblast growth factor 21, copeptin, osmolarity, sodium, BUN, and lactate levels increased following apple juice ingestion. The increases were greater in the fast-drinking group, which were more significant after 15 min and 30 min compared to baseline. The changes in uric acid were not statistically different between the groups. Phosphate levels significantly increased only in the fast-drinking group. CONCLUSION: Fast ingestion of 100% apple juice causes a significantly greater metabolic response, which may be associated with negative long-term outcomes. Our findings suggest that the rate of ingestion must be considered when evaluating the metabolic impacts of sweetened beverage consumption.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/efeitos adversos , Açúcares/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Glucose , Glicopeptídeos , Humanos , Insulina , Masculino , Malus , Concentração Osmolar , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Adulto Jovem
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206404

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of several disorders, such as hypertension, central obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Despite health policies based on the promotion of physical exercise, the reduction of calorie intake and the consumption of healthy food, there is still a global rise in the incidence and prevalence of MetS in the world. This phenomenon can partly be explained by the fact that adverse events in the perinatal period can increase the susceptibility to develop cardiometabolic diseases in adulthood. Individuals born after intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are particularly at risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and metabolic disorders later in life. It has been shown that alterations in the structural and functional integrity of the endothelium can lead to the development of cardiometabolic diseases. The endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are circulating components of the endothelium playing a major role in vascular homeostasis. An association has been found between the maintenance of endothelial structure and function by EPCs and their ability to differentiate and repair damaged endothelial tissue. In this narrative review, we explore the alterations of EPCs observed in individuals with cardiometabolic disorders, describe some mechanisms related to such dysfunction and propose some therapeutical approaches to reverse the EPCs dysfunction.


Assuntos
Células Progenitoras Endoteliais/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Animais , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Metabolismo Energético , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Especificidade de Órgãos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200262

RESUMO

The treatment of type 2 diabetes patients with bromocriptine-QR, a unique, quick release micronized formulation of bromocriptine, improves glycemic control and reduces adverse cardiovascular events. While the improvement of glycemic control is largely the result of improved postprandial hepatic glucose metabolism and insulin action, the mechanisms underlying the drug's cardioprotective effects are less well defined. Bromocriptine is a sympatholytic dopamine agonist and reduces the elevated sympathetic tone, characteristic of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, which potentiates elevations of vascular oxidative/nitrosative stress, known to precipitate cardiovascular disease. Therefore, this study investigated the impact of bromocriptine treatment upon biomarkers of vascular oxidative/nitrosative stress (including the pro-oxidative/nitrosative stress enzymes of NADPH oxidase 4, inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), the pro-inflammatory/pro-oxidative marker GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GTPCH 1), and the pro-vascular health enzyme, soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) as well as the plasma level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), a circulating marker of systemic oxidative stress), in hypertensive SHR rats held on a high fat diet to induce metabolic syndrome. Inasmuch as the central nervous system (CNS) dopaminergic activities both regulate and are regulated by CNS circadian pacemaker circuitry, this study also investigated the time-of-day-dependent effects of bromocriptine treatment (10 mg/kg/day at either 13 or 19 h after the onset of light (at the natural waking time or late during the activity period, respectively) among animals held on 14 h daily photoperiods for 16 days upon such vascular biomarkers of vascular redox state, several metabolic syndrome parameters, and mediobasal hypothalamic (MBH) mRNA expression levels of neuropeptides neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) which regulate the peripheral fuel metabolism and of mRNA expression of other MBH glial and neuronal cell genes that support such metabolism regulating neurons in this model system. Such bromocriptine treatment at ZT 13 improved (reduced) biomarkers of vascular oxidative/nitrosative stress including plasma TBARS level, aortic NADPH oxidase 4, iNOS and GTPCH 1 levels, and improved other markers of coupled eNOS function, including increased sGC protein level, relative to controls. However, bromocriptine treatment at ZT 19 produced no improvement in either coupled eNOS function or sGC protein level. Moreover, such ZT 13 bromocriptine treatment reduced several metabolic syndrome parameters including fasting insulin and leptin levels, as well as elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure, insulin resistance, body fat store levels and liver fat content, however, such effects of ZT 19 bromocriptine treatment were largely absent versus control. Finally, ZT 13 bromocriptine treatment reduced MBH NPY and AgRP mRNA levels and mRNA levels of several MBH glial cell/neuronal genes that code for neuronal support/plasticity proteins (suggesting a shift in neuronal structure/function to a new metabolic control state) while ZT 19 treatment reduced only AgRP, not NPY, and was with very little effect on such MBH glial cell genes expression. These findings indicate that circadian-timed bromocriptine administration at the natural circadian peak of CNS dopaminergic activity (that is diminished in insulin resistant states), but not outside this daily time window when such CNS dopaminergic activity is naturally low, produces widespread improvements in biomarkers of vascular oxidative stress that are associated with the amelioration of metabolic syndrome and reductions in MBH neuropeptides and gene expressions known to facilitate metabolic syndrome. These results of such circadian-timed bromocriptine treatment upon vascular pathology provide potential mechanisms for the observed marked reductions in adverse cardiovascular events with circadian-timed bromocriptine-QR therapy (similarly timed to the onset of daily waking as in this study) of type 2 diabetes subjects and warrant further investigations into related mechanisms and the potential application of such intervention to prediabetes and metabolic syndrome patients as well.


Assuntos
Bromocriptina/farmacologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Ritmo Circadiano , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Hormônios/farmacologia , Hipertensão/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209700

RESUMO

Disruption of the in utero environment can have dire consequences on fetal growth and development. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a pathological condition by which the fetus deviates from its expected growth trajectory, resulting in low birth weight and impaired organ function. The developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) postulates that IUGR has lifelong consequences on offspring well-being, as human studies have established an inverse relationship between birth weight and long-term metabolic health. While these trends are apparent in epidemiological data, animal studies have been essential in defining the molecular mechanisms that contribute to this relationship. One such mechanism is cellular stress, a prominent underlying cause of the metabolic syndrome. As such, this review considers the role of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and inflammation in the pathogenesis of metabolic disease in IUGR offspring. In addition, we summarize how uncontrolled cellular stress can lead to programmed cell death within the metabolic organs of IUGR offspring.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/etiologia , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Animais , Apoptose , Biomarcadores , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/diagnóstico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/diagnóstico , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/etiologia , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Modelos Biológicos , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Estresse Oxidativo , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas
10.
Ageing Res Rev ; 70: 101397, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214643

RESUMO

An excess of saturated fatty acids and simple sugars in the diet is a known environmental risk factor of Alzheimer's disease (AD) but the holistic view of the interacting processes through which such diet may contribute to AD pathogenesis is missing. We addressed this need through extensive analysis of published studies investigating the effects of western diet (WD) on AD development in humans and laboratory animals. We reviewed WD-induced systemic alterations comprising metabolic changes, induction of obesity and adipose tissue inflammation, gut microbiota dysbiosis and acceleration of systemic low-grade inflammation. Next we provide an overview of the evidence demonstrating that WD-associated systemic alterations drive impairment of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and development of neuroinflammation paralleled by accumulation of toxic amyloid. Later these changes are followed by dysfunction of synaptic transmission, neurodegeneration and finally memory and cognitive impairment. We conclude that WD can trigger AD by acceleration of inflammaging, and that BBB impairment induced by metabolic and systemic inflammation play the central role in this process. Moreover, the concurrence of neuroinflammation and Aß dyshomeostasis, which by reciprocal interactions drive the vicious cycle of neurodegeneration, contradicts Aß as the primary trigger of AD. Given that in 2019 the World Health Organization recommended focusing on modifiable risk factors in AD prevention, this overview of the sequential, complex pathomechanisms initiated by WD, which can lead from peripheral disturbances to neurodegeneration, can support future prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Síndrome Metabólica , Doença de Alzheimer/etiologia , Animais , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Inflamação , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209784

RESUMO

Prenatal malnutrition is known to affect the phenotype of the offspring through changes in epigenetic regulation. Growing evidence suggests that epigenetics is one of the mechanisms by which nutrients and minerals affect metabolic traits. Although the perinatal period is the time of highest phenotypic plasticity, which contributes largely to developmental programming, there is evidence of nutritional influence on epigenetic regulation during adulthood. Calcium (Ca) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance syndrome. Cortisol, the most important glucocorticoid, is considered to lead to insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 is a key enzyme that catalyzes the intracellular conversion of cortisone to physiologically active cortisol. This brief review aims to identify the effects of Ca deficiency during pregnancy and/or lactation on insulin resistance in the offspring. Those findings demonstrate that maternal Ca deficiency during pregnancy may affect the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and thereby induce different metabolic phenotypes. We aim to address the need for Ca during pregnancy and propose the scaling-up of clinical and public health approaches that improved pregnancy outcomes.


Assuntos
Cálcio/deficiência , Resistência à Insulina , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Animais , Cálcio/farmacologia , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Troca Materno-Fetal/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética
12.
FASEB J ; 35(7): e21665, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131955

RESUMO

The pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), has been suggested to be a key factor in the induction of obesity-associated metabolic dysfunction. However, the role that macrophage-derived TNF-α has on regulating metabolic perturbations in obesity is not completely understood. Therefore, we utilized the TNF-αFlox/Flox (F/F) , LyzMcre± mouse model to determine the impact that macrophage TNF-α deletion has on the development of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. At 10 weeks of age, male littermates were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: TNF-αF/F low-fat diet (TNF-αF/F LFD), TNF-αF/F, LyzMCre LFD, TNF-αF/F HFD, or TNF-αF/F, LyzMCre HFD (n = 16-28/group) and were fed their respective diets for 18 weeks. Body weight was assessed throughout the course of the experiment. Body composition, hepatic lipid accumulation, and metabolic outcomes were also examined. A microarray gene expression experiment was performed from RNA isolated from epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed groups (n = 10/group) and results were verified via qRT-PCR for all groups. Macrophage-derived TNF-α deletion significantly reduced adipose tissue TNF-α gene expression and circulating TNF-α and downregulated genes linked to the toll-like receptor (TLR) and NFκB signaling pathways. However, macrophage TNF-α deletion had no effect on hindering the development of obesity, hepatic lipid accumulation, or improving glucose metabolism or insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, macrophage-derived TNF-α is not a causative factor for the induction of obesity-associated metabolic dysfunction.


Assuntos
Inflamação/patologia , Resistência à Insulina , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/patologia , Obesidade/complicações , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/fisiologia , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Feminino , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout
13.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066330

RESUMO

Consumption of fructose has been associated with a higher risk of developing obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to examine the long-term effects of fructose compared to starch from high-amylose maize starch (HiMaize) at ad libitum feeding in a juvenile Göttingen Minipig model with 20% of the diet provided as fructose as a high-risk diet (HR, n = 15) and 20% as HiMaize as a lower-risk control diet (LR, n = 15). The intake of metabolizable energy was on average similar (p = 0.11) among diets despite increased levels of the satiety hormone PYY measured in plasma (p = 0.0005) of the LR pigs. However, after over 20 weeks of ad libitum feeding, no difference between diets was observed in daily weight gain (p = 0.103), and a difference in BW was observed only at the end of the experiment. The ad libitum feeding promoted an obese phenotype over time in both groups with increased plasma levels of glucose (p = 0.005), fructosamine (p < 0.001), insulin (p = 0.03), and HOMA-IR (p = 0.02), whereas the clinical markers of dyslipidemia were unaffected. When compared to the LR diet, fructose did not accelerate the progression of MetS associated parameters and largely failed to change markers that indicate a stimulated de novo lipogenesis.


Assuntos
Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Frutose/administração & dosagem , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dislipidemias/sangue , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Amido/administração & dosagem , Suínos , Porco Miniatura , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays
14.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066690

RESUMO

Dairy consumption has been associated with decreased risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in previous studies, but the association may be different according to each type of dairy products and its subgroups. Thus, we conducted an updated meta-analysis of observational studies to examine the association between various dairy products and risk of MetS. The PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched for eligible studies published up to February 2021. In addition, we included unpublished results from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2013-2018, including 23,319 Korean adults and the elderly. A total of 35 studies (12 cohort studies and 25 cross-sectional studies) with 398,877 subjects were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled relative risks (RR) of MetS for the highest versus lowest categories of dairy consumption was 0.80 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72-0.88]. For the type of dairy products, there were also significant inverse associations with milk (RR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.78-0.89) and yogurt consumption (RR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.83-0.95). For cheese consumption, however, no significant association was found (RR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.86-1.11). Our findings suggest that milk and yogurt consumption is inversely associated with the risk of MetS, but not cheese consumption.


Assuntos
Laticínios/análise , Dieta/métodos , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Queijo , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leite , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Iogurte
15.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064139

RESUMO

The therapeutic potential of Sargassum siliquosum grown in Australian tropical waters was tested in a rat model of metabolic syndrome. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of 12 rats and each group was fed a different diet for 16 weeks: corn starch diet (C); high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet (H) containing fructose, sucrose, saturated and trans fats; and C or H diets with 5% S. siliquosum mixed into the food from weeks 9 to 16 (CS and HS). Obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, impaired glucose tolerance, fatty liver and left ventricular fibrosis developed in H rats. In HS rats, S. siliquosum decreased body weight (H, 547 ± 14; HS, 490 ± 16 g), fat mass (H, 248 ± 27; HS, 193 ± 19 g), abdominal fat deposition and liver fat vacuole size but did not reverse cardiovascular and liver effects. H rats showed marked changes in gut microbiota compared to C rats, while S. siliquosum supplementation increased gut microbiota belonging to the family Muribaculaceae. This selective increase in gut microbiota likely complements the prebiotic actions of the alginates. Thus, S. siliquosum may be a useful dietary additive to decrease abdominal and liver fat deposition.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Síndrome Metabólica/terapia , Obesidade/terapia , Sargassum , Alga Marinha/microbiologia , Gordura Abdominal/microbiologia , Animais , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Fígado/microbiologia , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/microbiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Prebióticos/microbiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
16.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068066

RESUMO

Only a few studies primarily examined the associations between starchy vegetables (other than potatoes) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). We aimed to evaluate the association between starchy vegetables consumption and MetS in a population-based sample of Costa Rican adults. We hypothesized that a higher overall intake of starchy vegetables would not be associated with higher MetS prevalence. In this cross-sectional study, log-binomial regression models were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) of MetS across quintiles of total, unhealthy, healthy starchy vegetables, and individual starchy vegetables (potatoes, purple sweet potatoes, etc.), among 1881 Costa Rican adults. Least square means and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from linear regression models were estimated for each MetS component by categories of starchy vegetable variables. Higher intakes of starchy vegetables were associated with a higher prevalence of MetS in crude models, but no significant trends were observed after adjusting for confounders. A significant inverse association was observed between total starchy and healthy starchy vegetables consumption and fasting blood glucose. In this population, starchy vegetables might be part of a healthy dietary pattern.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Amido/efeitos adversos , Verduras/efeitos adversos , Glicemia/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Costa Rica/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Solanum tuberosum/efeitos adversos
18.
Transplant Proc ; 53(5): 1674-1681, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The increasing rate of liver transplantation (LT) for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) raises concerns on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality after LT in these patients. METHODS: We collected variables regarding the presence of metabolic risk factors, NAFLD recurrence, cardiovascular morbidity, and overall survival at time of listing and after LT of 112 patients with NAFLD and a control group of 120 patients with hepatitis C (HCV). RESULTS: Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular morbidity component rates (24.1% vs 12.5%) at the time of LT listing were higher in patients with NAFLD compared with patients with HCV (for all, P < .0390). Median follow-up after LT was 5.6 years in patients with NAFLD vs 13.5 years in patients with HCV (P = .0009). There was no difference in 6-weeks postoperative mortality (1.7% vs 2.5%) (P =1.0000). Metabolic syndrome components after LT were more frequent in patients with NAFLD than in patients with HCV (for all, P < .0008). The incidence of NAFLD 5 years after LT was higher in patients transplanted for NAFLD compared with HCV (43.5% vs 4.2%) (P < .0001). Patients with recurrent NAFLD more often had myocardial infarction compared with those without recurrence (8.3% vs 0%) (P = .0313). Five years after LT, cardiovascular morbidity was more frequent in the NAFLD group than in the HCV group (12.8% vs 9.3%) (P = .0256), whereas no difference in overall survival was observed. CONCLUSION: LT for NAFLD is associated with satisfactory 5-year outcomes; however, our data underscore the need for close monitoring and aggressive management of cardiovascular risk factors in these patients.


Assuntos
Transplante de Fígado , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Doença Hepática Terminal/complicações , Doença Hepática Terminal/mortalidade , Doença Hepática Terminal/cirurgia , Feminino , Hepatite C/complicações , Humanos , Incidência , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921792

RESUMO

The exposome represents the array of dietary, lifestyle, and demographic factors to which an individual is exposed. Individual components of the exposome, or groups of components, are recognized as influencing many aspects of human physiology, including cardiometabolic health. However, the influence of the whole exposome on health outcomes is poorly understood and may differ substantially from the sum of its individual components. As such, studies of the complete exposome are more biologically representative than fragmented models based on subsets of factors. This study aimed to model the system of relationships underlying the way in which the diet, lifestyle, and demographic components of the overall exposome shapes the cardiometabolic risk profile. The current study included 36,496 US Veterans enrolled in the VA Million Veteran Program (MVP) who had complete assessments of their diet, lifestyle, demography, and markers of cardiometabolic health, including serum lipids, blood pressure, and glycemic control. The cohort was randomly divided into training and validation datasets. In the training dataset, we conducted two separate exploratory factor analyses (EFA) to identify common factors among exposures (diet, demographics, and physical activity) and laboratory measures (lipids, blood pressure, and glycemic control), respectively. In the validation dataset, we used multiple normal regression to examine the combined effects of exposure factors on the clinical factors representing cardiometabolic health. The mean ± SD age of participants was 62.4 ± 13.4 years for both the training and validation datasets. The EFA revealed 19 Exposure Common Factors and 5 Physiology Common Factors that explained the observed (measured) data. Multivariate regression in the validation dataset revealed the structure of associations between the Exposure Common Factors and the Physiology Common Factors. For example, we found that the factor for fruit consumption was inversely associated with the factor summarizing total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC, p = 0.008), and the latent construct describing light levels of physical activity was inversely associated with the blood pressure latent construct (p < 0.0001). We also found that a factor summarizing that participants who frequently consume whole milk are less likely to frequently consume skim milk, was positively associated with the latent constructs representing total cholesterol and LDLC as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.0006 and <0.0001, respectively). Multiple multivariable-adjusted regression analyses of exposome factors allowed us to model the influence of the exposome as a whole. In this metadata-rich, prospective cohort of US Veterans, there was evidence of structural relationships between diet, lifestyle, and demographic exposures and subsequent markers of cardiometabolic health. This methodology could be applied to answer a variety of research questions about human health exposures that utilize electronic health record data and can accommodate continuous, ordinal, and binary data derived from questionnaires. Further work to explore the potential utility of including genetic risk scores and time-varying covariates is warranted.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Expossoma , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Biomarcadores/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Controle Glicêmico/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Regressão , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(7): e14229, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data about the relation between dietary insulin load (DIL) and dietary insulin index (DII) with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and obesity are scarce. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the association of the insulinemic potential of the diet with MetS and obesity amongst Iranian adults. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted amongst 850 adults aged 20-59 years. Dietary data were collected using a 168-item food frequency questionnaire. DIL was calculated using a standard formula and DII was obtained by dividing DIL by the total energy intake of each participant. The guidelines of the International Diabetes Federation were used to define MetS. General obesity was considered as body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2 , and abdominal obesity as waist circumference ≥ 94 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women. RESULTS: Mean DIL and DII values were 101 684 ± 54 802 and 49.4 ± 33.4, respectively. The mean age of participants was 44.9 ± 10.7 years and 36.8%, 28.5% and 48.8% of participants were suffering from MetS, general and abdominal obesity, respectively. In contrast with DIL (P = .73), participants in the last quartile of DII (P = .62) had lower odds of MetS than the first quartile. There were non-significant inverse associations between DIL (P = .91, P = .85) and DII (P = .59, P = .53) with odds of general and abdominal obesity before and after the adjustment of confounders, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We did not observe any significant association of DIL and DII with the risk of MetS and obesity amongst the Iranian population. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm the findings of this study.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Circunferência da Cintura
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