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1.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452323

RESUMO

Over the past 18 years, three highly pathogenic human (h) coronaviruses (CoVs) have caused severe outbreaks, the most recent causative agent, SARS-CoV-2, being the first to cause a pandemic. Although much progress has been made since the COVID-19 pandemic started, much about SARS-CoV-2 and its disease, COVID-19, is still poorly understood. The highly pathogenic hCoVs differ in some respects, but also share some similarities in clinical presentation, the risk factors associated with severe disease, and the characteristic immunopathology associated with the progression to severe disease. This review aims to highlight these overlapping aspects of the highly pathogenic hCoVs-SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2-briefly discussing the importance of an appropriately regulated immune response; how the immune response to these highly pathogenic hCoVs might be dysregulated through interferon (IFN) inhibition, antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA); and how these could link to the ensuing cytokine storm. The treatment approaches to highly pathogenic hCoV infections are discussed and it is suggested that a greater focus be placed on T-cell vaccines that elicit a cell-mediated immune response, using rapamycin as a potential agent to improve vaccine responses in the elderly and obese, and the potential of stapled peptides as antiviral agents.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Animais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/fisiologia , Pandemias , Vírus da SARS/genética , Vírus da SARS/fisiologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 693579, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335604

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a newly emerging, highly transmitted and pathogenic coronavirus that has caused global public health events and economic crises. As of March 4, 2021, more than 100 million people have been infected, more than 2 million deaths have been reported worldwide, and the numbers are continuing to rise. To date, a specific drug for this lethal virus has not been developed to date, and very little is currently known about the immune evasion mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2. The aim of this review was to summarize and sort dozens of published studies on PubMed to explore the pathogenic features of SARS-CoV-2, as well as the possible immune escape mechanisms of this virus.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Animais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Pandemias
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 694355, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34367154

RESUMO

Background: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) corona virus (CoV) infections are a serious public health threat because of their pandemic-causing potential. This work is the first to analyze mRNA expression data from SARS infections through meta-analysis of gene signatures, possibly identifying therapeutic targets associated with major SARS infections. Methods: This work defines 37 gene signatures representing SARS-CoV, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)-CoV, and SARS-CoV2 infections in human lung cultures and/or mouse lung cultures or samples and compares them through Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA). To do this, positive and negative infectious clone SARS (icSARS) gene panels are defined from GSEA-identified leading-edge genes between two icSARS-CoV derived signatures, both from human cultures. GSEA then is used to assess enrichment and identify leading-edge icSARS panel genes between icSARS gene panels and 27 other SARS-CoV gene signatures. The meta-analysis is expanded to include five MERS-CoV and three SARS-CoV2 gene signatures. Genes associated with SARS infection are predicted by examining the intersecting membership of GSEA-identified leading-edges across gene signatures. Results: Significant enrichment (GSEA p<0.001) is observed between two icSARS-CoV derived signatures, and those leading-edge genes defined the positive (233 genes) and negative (114 genes) icSARS panels. Non-random significant enrichment (null distribution p<0.001) is observed between icSARS panels and all verification icSARSvsmock signatures derived from human cultures, from which 51 over- and 22 under-expressed genes are shared across leading-edges with 10 over-expressed genes already associated with icSARS infection. For the icSARSvsmock mouse signature, significant, non-random significant enrichment held for only the positive icSARS panel, from which nine genes are shared with icSARS infection in human cultures. Considering other SARS strains, significant, non-random enrichment (p<0.05) is observed across signatures derived from other SARS strains for the positive icSARS panel. Five positive icSARS panel genes, CXCL10, OAS3, OASL, IFIT3, and XAF1, are found across mice and human signatures regardless of SARS strains. Conclusion: The GSEA-based meta-analysis approach used here identifies genes with and without reported associations with SARS-CoV infections, highlighting this approach's predictability and usefulness in identifying genes that have potential as therapeutic targets to preclude or overcome SARS infections.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Animais , Humanos , Pulmão/virologia , Camundongos
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 700926, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34249006

RESUMO

RIG-I-like receptors (RLR), RIG-I and MDA5, are cytoplasmic viral RNA sensors that recognize viral double-stranded RNAs and trigger signals to induce antiviral responses, including type I interferon production. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. However, the RLR role in innate immune response to SARS-CoV-2 has not been fully elucidated. Here, we studied the roles of RLR in cytokine expression responding to SARS-CoV-2 and found that not only MDA5 but also RIG-I are involved in innate immune responses in some types of human cells. Transfection of total RNAs extracted from SARS-CoV-2-infected cells into epithelial cells induced IFN-ß, IP-10, and Ccl5 mRNA expression. The cytokine expression was reduced by knockout of either RIG-I or MDA5, suggesting that both proteins are required for appropriate innate immune response to SARS-CoV-2. Two viral genomic RNA regions strongly induced type I IFN expression, and a 200-base fragment of viral RNA preferentially induced type I IFN in a RIG-I-dependent manner. In contrast, SARS-CoV-2 infectious particles hardly induced cytokine expression, suggesting viral escape from the host response. Viral 9b protein inhibited RIG-I and MAVS interaction, and viral 7a protein destabilized the TBK1 protein, leading to attenuated IRF-3 phosphorylation required for type I IFN expression. Our data elucidated the mechanism underlying RLR-mediated response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and viral escape from the host innate immune response.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Helicase IFIH1 Induzida por Interferon/metabolismo , Receptores do Ácido Retinoico/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Células HEK293 , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Imunidade Inata , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/metabolismo , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Helicase IFIH1 Induzida por Interferon/genética , Fosforilação , RNA Viral/imunologia , Receptores do Ácido Retinoico/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/metabolismo
5.
J Clin Invest ; 131(11)2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060490

RESUMO

Worse outcomes occur in aged compared with young populations after infections with respiratory viruses, including pathogenic coronaviruses (SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2), and are associated with a suboptimal lung milieu ("inflammaging"). We previously showed that a single inducible phospholipase, PLA2G2D, is associated with a proresolving/antiinflammatory response in the lungs, and increases with age. Survival was increased in naive Pla2g2d-/- mice infected with SARS-CoV resulting from augmented respiratory dendritic cell (rDC) activation and enhanced priming of virus-specific T cells. Here, in contrast, we show that intranasal immunization provided no additional protection in middle-aged Pla2g2d-/- mice infected with any of the 3 pathogenic human coronaviruses because virtually no virus-specific antibodies or follicular helper CD4+ T (Tfh) cells were produced. Using MERS-CoV-infected mice, we found that these effects did not result from T or B cell intrinsic factors. Rather, they resulted from enhanced, and ultimately, pathogenic rDC activation, as manifested most prominently by enhanced IL-1ß expression. Wild-type rDC transfer to Pla2g2d-/- mice in conjunction with partial IL-1ß blockade reversed this defect and resulted in increased virus-specific antibody and Tfh responses. Together, these results indicate that PLA2G2D has an unexpected role in the lungs, serving as an important modulator of rDC activation, with protective and pathogenic effects in respiratory coronavirus infections and immunization, respectively.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Formação de Anticorpos , COVID-19/imunologia , Fosfolipases A2 do Grupo II/imunologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Animais , COVID-19/enzimologia , COVID-19/genética , Chlorocebus aethiops , Fosfolipases A2 do Grupo II/deficiência , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/enzimologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/genética , Células Vero
6.
Mol Cells ; 44(6): 384-391, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098591

RESUMO

The recent appearance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has affected millions of people around the world and caused a global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It has been suggested that uncontrolled, exaggerated inflammation contributes to the adverse outcomes of COVID-19. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the innate immune response elicited by SARS-CoV-2 infection and the hyperinflammation that contributes to disease severity and death. We also discuss the immunological determinants behind COVID-19 severity and propose a rationale for the underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/mortalidade , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Interleucinas/genética , Interleucinas/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/mortalidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transdução de Sinais , Análise de Sobrevida
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 626609, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34084161

RESUMO

Accurate detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies provides a more accurate estimation of incident cases, epidemic dynamics, and risk of community transmission. We conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence study specifically targeting different populations to examine the performance of pandemic control in Taiwan: symptomatic patients with epidemiological risk and negative qRT-PCR test (Group P), frontline healthcare workers (Group H), healthy adult citizens (Group C), and participants with prior virologically-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) infection in 2003 (Group S). The presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 total and IgG antibodies in all participants were determined by Roche Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 test and Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay, respectively. Sera that showed positive results by the two chemiluminescent immunoassays were further tested by three anti-SARS-CoV-2 lateral flow immunoassays and line immunoassay (MIKROGEN recomLine SARS-CoV-2 IgG). Between June 29 and July 25, 2020, sera of 2,115 participates, including 499 Group P participants, 464 Group H participants, 1,142 Group C participants, and 10 Group S participants, were tested. After excluding six false-positive samples, SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence were 0.4, 0, and 0% in Groups P, H, and C, respectively. Cross-reactivity with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was observed in 80.0% of recovered SARS participants. Our study showed that rigorous exclusion of false-positive testing results is imperative for an accurate estimate of seroprevalence in countries with previous SARS outbreak and low COVID-19 prevalence. The overall SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence was extremely low among populations of different exposure risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2 in Taiwan, supporting the importance of integrated countermeasures in containing the spread of SARS-CoV-2 before effective COVID-19 vaccines available.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Taiwan/epidemiologia
8.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 54(4): 547-556, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34023234

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a newly discovered coronavirus that exhibits many similarities with the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronaviruses (SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, respectively). The definite pathogenesis and immunological influences of SARS-CoV-2 have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, we constructed a brief summary comparison of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV infections regarding their immunological changes. In addition, we further investigated the immunological differences between severe and nonsevere COVID-19 cases, and we searched for possible immunological predictors of the patient outcome by reviewing case series studies to date. Possible immunological predictors of a poor outcome are leukocytosis, neutrophilia, lymphopenia (both CD4 and CD8 T cells), an increased neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α), Th1 cytokines (IL-2 and IFN-γ), regulatory T cell cytokines (IL-10) and Th17 cytokines (IL-17). A more precise immunological map needs to be established, which may assist in diagnosing this disease and facilitate immunological precision medicine treatment.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/patologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Citocinas/sangue , Humanos , Leucocitose/patologia , Linfopenia/patologia , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia
9.
Nature ; 594(7862): 246-252, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845483

RESUMO

The emergence and global spread of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in the urgent need for an in-depth understanding of molecular functions of viral proteins and their interactions with the host proteome. Several individual omics studies have extended our knowledge of COVID-19 pathophysiology1-10. Integration of such datasets to obtain a holistic view of virus-host interactions and to define the pathogenic properties of SARS-CoV-2 is limited by the heterogeneity of the experimental systems. Here we report a concurrent multi-omics study of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV. Using state-of-the-art proteomics, we profiled the interactomes of both viruses, as well as their influence on the transcriptome, proteome, ubiquitinome and phosphoproteome of a lung-derived human cell line. Projecting these data onto the global network of cellular interactions revealed crosstalk between the perturbations taking place upon infection with SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV at different levels and enabled identification of distinct and common molecular mechanisms of these closely related coronaviruses. The TGF-ß pathway, known for its involvement in tissue fibrosis, was specifically dysregulated by SARS-CoV-2 ORF8 and autophagy was specifically dysregulated by SARS-CoV-2 ORF3. The extensive dataset (available at https://covinet.innatelab.org ) highlights many hotspots that could be targeted by existing drugs and may be used to guide rational design of virus- and host-directed therapies, which we exemplify by identifying inhibitors of kinases and matrix metalloproteases with potent antiviral effects against SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/metabolismo , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Linhagem Celular , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Inibidores de Metaloproteinases de Matriz/farmacologia , Fosforilação , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteoma/química , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Proteínas Viroporinas/metabolismo
10.
Cell Transplant ; 30: 963689721993769, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840257

RESUMO

Until July 29th, the number of confirmed coronavirus (COVID-19) cases worldwide has risen to over 16 million, within which 655 k deaths. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) emerges as the 11th global pandemic disease, showing the highest infectivity and lowest infection fatality rate. In this review, we compare the immunopathology among SARS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and SARS-CoV2. SARS-CoV2 is similar to SARS-CoV; it can cause lymphocytopenia and a rising granulocyte count. Here we point out the human body and concentrated society make for an excellent incubator for virus evolution. Most research energies put into developing the SARS-CoV2 vaccine are trying to block virus infection. Sixty-five percent of severe patients die with multiple organ failure, inflammation, and cytokine storm, which indicates that the patient's immune system maintains functionality. Finding a way to trigger the specific T cell subset and plasmablast in our body is the best shot to get away with SARS-CoV2.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Animais , COVID-19/patologia , Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/patologia
11.
Drug Deliv Transl Res ; 11(4): 1401-1419, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33694083

RESUMO

Although vaccines are available for many infectious diseases, there are still unresolved infectious diseases that threaten global public health. In particular, the rapid spread of unpredictable, highly contagious viruses has recorded numerous infection cases and deaths, and has changed our lives socially or economically through social distancing and wearing masks. The pandemics of unpredictable, highly contagious viruses increase the ever-high social need for rapid vaccine development. Nanotechnologies may hold promise and expedite the development of vaccines against newly emerging infectious viruses. As potential nanoplatforms for delivering antigens to immune cells, delivery systems based on lipids, polymers, proteins, and inorganic nanomaterials have been studied. These nanoplatforms have been tested as a means to deliver vaccines not as a whole, but in the form of protein subunits or as DNA or mRNA sequences encoding the antigen proteins of viruses. This review covers the current status of nanomaterial-based delivery systems for viral antigens, with highlights on nanovaccines against recently emerging infectious viruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and Zika virus.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Animais , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/tendências , Humanos , Nanotecnologia/tendências , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/metabolismo , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/metabolismo , Viroses/imunologia , Viroses/metabolismo , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/metabolismo
12.
J Infect Dis ; 224(1): 49-59, 2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated frequency of reinfection with seasonal human coronaviruses (HCoVs) and serum antibody response following infection over 8 years in the Household Influenza Vaccine Evaluation (HIVE) cohort. METHODS: Households were followed annually for identification of acute respiratory illness with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction-confirmed HCoV infection. Serum collected before and at 2 time points postinfection were tested using a multiplex binding assay to quantify antibody to seasonal, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike proteins and SARS-CoV-2 spike subdomains and N protein. RESULTS: Of 3418 participants, 40% were followed for ≥3 years. A total of 1004 HCoV infections were documented; 303 (30%) were reinfections of any HCoV type. The number of HCoV infections ranged from 1 to 13 per individual. The mean time to reinfection with the same type was estimated at 983 days for 229E, 578 days for HKU1, 615 days for OC43, and 711 days for NL63. Binding antibody levels to seasonal HCoVs were high, with little increase postinfection, and were maintained over time. Homologous, preinfection antibody levels did not significantly correlate with odds of infection, and there was little cross-response to SARS-CoV-2 proteins. CONCLUSIONS: Reinfection with seasonal HCoVs is frequent. Binding anti-spike protein antibodies do not correlate with protection from seasonal HCoV infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavirus , Características da Família , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/virologia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Michigan/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Reinfecção/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , SARS-CoV-2 , Estações do Ano , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Carga Viral
13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 629193, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33732251

RESUMO

Hyper-induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, also known as a cytokine storm or cytokine release syndrome (CRS), is one of the key aspects of the currently ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. This process occurs when a large number of innate and adaptive immune cells activate and start producing pro-inflammatory cytokines, establishing an exacerbated feedback loop of inflammation. It is one of the factors contributing to the mortality observed with coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) for a subgroup of patients. CRS is not unique to the SARS-CoV-2 infection; it was prevalent in most of the major human coronavirus and influenza A subtype outbreaks of the past two decades (H5N1, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and H7N9). With a comprehensive literature search, we collected changing the cytokine levels from patients upon infection with the viral pathogens mentioned above. We analyzed published patient data to highlight the conserved and unique cytokine responses caused by these viruses. Our curation indicates that the cytokine response induced by SARS-CoV-2 is different compared to other CRS-causing respiratory viruses, as SARS-CoV-2 does not always induce specific cytokines like other coronaviruses or influenza do, such as IL-2, IL-10, IL-4, or IL-5. Comparing the collated cytokine responses caused by the analyzed viruses highlights a SARS-CoV-2-specific dysregulation of the type-I interferon (IFN) response and its downstream cytokine signatures. The map of responses gathered in this study could help specialists identify interventions that alleviate CRS in different diseases and evaluate whether they could be used in the COVID-19 cases.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/sangue , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Citocinas/sangue , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Influenza Humana/sangue , Influenza Humana/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/sangue , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia
14.
J Immunol ; 206(7): 1569-1575, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547169

RESUMO

The IL-1 receptor antagonist, anakinra, may represent a therapeutic option for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this study, COVID-19 ARDS patients admitted to the Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale of Lecco, Italy, between March 5th to April 15th, 2020, and who had received anakinra off-label were retrospectively evaluated and compared with a cohort of matched controls who did not receive immunomodulatory treatment. The primary end point was survival at day 28. The population consisted of 112 patients (56 treated with anakinra and 56 controls). Survival at day 28 was obtained in 69 patients (61.6%) and was significantly higher in anakinra-treated patients than in the controls (75.0 versus 48.2%, p = 0.007). When stratified by continuous positive airway pressure support at baseline, anakinra-treated patients' survival was also significant compared with the controls (p = 0.008). Univariate analysis identified anakinra usage (odds ratio, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.47-7.17) as a significant survival predictor. This was not supported by multivariate modeling. The rate of infectious-related adverse events was similar between groups. In conclusion, anakinra improved overall survival and invasive ventilation-free survival and was well tolerated in patients with ARDS associated with COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/administração & dosagem , Respiração Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Idoso , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/mortalidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/terapia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
15.
Life Sci ; 272: 119245, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609539

RESUMO

In the past 20 years, infections caused by coronaviruses SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 have posed a threat to public health since they may cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in humans. The Complement System is activated during viral infection, being a central protagonist of innate and acquired immunity. Here, we report some interactions between these three coronaviruses and the Complement System, highlighting the central role of C3 with the severity of these infections. Although it can be protective, its role during coronavirus infections seems to be contradictory. For example, during SARS-CoV-2 infection, Complement System can control the viral infection in asymptomatic or mild cases; however, it can also intensify local and systemic damage in some of severe COVID-19 patients, due to its potent proinflammatory effect. In this last condition, the activation of the Complement System also amplifies the cytokine storm and the pathogenicity of coronavirus infection. Experimental treatment with Complement inhibitors has been an enthusiastic field of intense investigation in search of a promising additional therapy in severe COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Animais , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/patologia , Ativação do Complemento/efeitos dos fármacos , Complemento C3/imunologia , Inativadores do Complemento/farmacologia , Inativadores do Complemento/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/complicações , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/complicações , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/patologia
16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 8870425, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33564683

RESUMO

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections are the three epidemiological diseases caused by the Coronaviridae family. Perceiving the immune responses in these infections and the escape of viruses could help us design drugs and vaccines for confronting these infections. This review investigates the innate and adaptive immune responses reported in the infections of the three coronaviruses SARS, MERS, and COVID-19. Moreover, the present study can trigger researchers to design and develop new vaccines and drugs based on immune system responses. In conclusion, due to the need for an effective and efficient immune stimulation against coronavirus, a combination of several strategies seems necessary for developing the vaccine.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Animais , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle
17.
Science ; 371(6531): 823-829, 2021 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495307

RESUMO

The recurrent zoonotic spillover of coronaviruses (CoVs) into the human population underscores the need for broadly active countermeasures. We employed a directed evolution approach to engineer three severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies for enhanced neutralization breadth and potency. One of the affinity-matured variants, ADG-2, displays strong binding activity to a large panel of sarbecovirus receptor binding domains and neutralizes representative epidemic sarbecoviruses with high potency. Structural and biochemical studies demonstrate that ADG-2 employs a distinct angle of approach to recognize a highly conserved epitope that overlaps the receptor binding site. In immunocompetent mouse models of SARS and COVID-19, prophylactic administration of ADG-2 provided complete protection against respiratory burden, viral replication in the lungs, and lung pathology. Altogether, ADG-2 represents a promising broad-spectrum therapeutic candidate against clade 1 sarbecoviruses.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/genética , Anticorpos Monoclonais/metabolismo , Anticorpos Antivirais/genética , Anticorpos Antivirais/metabolismo , Afinidade de Anticorpos , Sítios de Ligação , Sítios de Ligação de Anticorpos , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/genética , Anticorpos Amplamente Neutralizantes/metabolismo , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/terapia , Técnicas de Visualização da Superfície Celular , Evolução Molecular Direcionada , Epitopos/imunologia , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Domínios Proteicos , Engenharia de Proteínas , Receptores de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/terapia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
18.
Cancer Cell ; 39(2): 257-275.e6, 2021 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476581

RESUMO

Given the immune system's importance for cancer surveillance and treatment, we have investigated how it may be affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection of cancer patients. Across some heterogeneity in tumor type, stage, and treatment, virus-exposed solid cancer patients display a dominant impact of SARS-CoV-2, apparent from the resemblance of their immune signatures to those for COVID-19+ non-cancer patients. This is not the case for hematological malignancies, with virus-exposed patients collectively displaying heterogeneous humoral responses, an exhausted T cell phenotype and a high prevalence of prolonged virus shedding. Furthermore, while recovered solid cancer patients' immunophenotypes resemble those of non-virus-exposed cancer patients, recovered hematological cancer patients display distinct, lingering immunological legacies. Thus, while solid cancer patients, including those with advanced disease, seem no more at risk of SARS-CoV-2-associated immune dysregulation than the general population, hematological cancer patients show complex immunological consequences of SARS-CoV-2 exposure that might usefully inform their care.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/etiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Feminino , Neoplasias Hematológicas/imunologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/virologia , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Neoplasias/terapia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/etiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/mortalidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Linfócitos T/virologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(3): 763-767, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33437211

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and is an emerging disease. There has been a rapid increase in cases and deaths since it was identified in Wuhan, China, in early December 2019, with over 4,000,000 cases of COVID-19 including at least 250,000 deaths worldwide as of May 2020. However, limited data about the clinical characteristics of pregnant women with COVID-19 have been reported. Given the maternal physiologic and immune function changes during pregnancy, pregnant women may be at a higher risk of being infected with SARS-CoV-2 and developing more complicated clinical events. Information on severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) may provide insights into the effects of COVID-19's during pregnancy. Even though SARS and MERS have been associated with miscarriage, intrauterine death, fetal growth restriction and high case fatality rates, the clinical course of COVID-19 pneumonia in pregnant women has been reported to be similar to that in non-pregnant women. In addition, pregnant women do not appear to be at a higher risk of catching COVID-19 or suffering from more severe disease than other adults of similar age. Moreover, there is currently no evidence that the virus can be transmitted to the fetus during pregnancy or during childbirth. Babies and young children are also known to only experience mild forms of COVID-19. The aims of this systematic review were to summarize the possible symptoms, treatments, and pregnancy outcomes of women infected with COVID-19 during pregnancy.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/terapia , COVID-19/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Exposição Materna , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/imunologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
20.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 741-754, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936465

RESUMO

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are nonsegmented, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses highly pathogenic to humans. Some CoVs are known to cause respiratory and intestinal diseases, posing a threat to the global public health. Against this backdrop, it is of critical importance to develop safe and effective vaccines against these CoVs. This review discusses human vaccine candidates in any stage of development and explores the viral characteristics, molecular epidemiology, and immunology associated with CoV vaccine development. At present, there are many obstacles and challenges to vaccine research and development, including the lack of knowledge about virus transmission, pathogenesis, and immune response, absence of the most appropriate animal models.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/biossíntese , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Animais , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Camelus , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cricetulus , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Camundongos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/efeitos dos fármacos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Vírus da SARS/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Vacinas de Subunidades , Vacinas Sintéticas/biossíntese , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/biossíntese
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