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2.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(5): 803-808, 2020 Oct 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047711

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the environmental contamination degree of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) wards, to offer gui-dance for the infection control and to improve safety practices for medical staff, by sampling and detecting SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid from the air of hospital wards, the high-frequency contact surfaces in the contaminated area and the surfaces of medical staff's protective equipment in a COVID-19 designated hospital in Wuhan, China. METHODS: From March 11 to March 19, 2020, we collected air samples from the clean area, the buffer room and the contaminated area respectively in the COVID-19 wards using a portable bioaerosol concentrator WA-15. And sterile premoistened swabs were used to sample the high-frequency contacted surfaces in the contaminated area and the surfaces of medical staff's protective equipment including outermost gloves, tracheotomy operator's positive pressure respiratory protective hood and isolation clothing. The SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid of the samples were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. During the isolation medical observation period, those medical staff who worked in the COVID-19 wards were detected for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid with oropharyngeal swabs, IgM and IgG antibody in the sera, and chest CT scans to confirm the infection status of COVID-19. RESULTS: No SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid was detected in the tested samples, including the 90 air samples from the COVID-19 wards including clean area, buffer room and contaminated area, the 38 high-frequency contact surfaces samples of the contaminated area and 16 surface samples of medical staff's protective equipment including outermost gloves and isolation clothing. Moreover, detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid by oropharyngeal swabs and IgM, IgG antibodies in the sera of all the health-care workers who participated in the treatment for COVID-19 were all negative. Besides, no chest CT scan images of medical staff exhibited COVID-19 lung presentations. CONCLUSION: Good ventilation conditions, strict disinfection of environmental facilities in hospital wards, guidance for correct habits in patients, and strict hand hygiene during medical staff are important to reduce the formation of viral aerosols, cut down the aerosol load, and avoid cross-infection in isolation wards. In the face of infectious diseases that were not fully mastered but ma-naged as class A, it is safe for medical personnel to be equipped at a high level.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Betacoronavirus , China , Humanos , Corpo Clínico , Equipamentos de Proteção , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle
3.
Syst Rev ; 9(1): 218, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this review was to examine the current guidelines for infection prevention and control (IPAC) of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) or other coronaviruses in adults 60 years or older living in long-term care facilities (LTCF). METHODS: EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane library, pre-print servers, clinical trial registries, and relevant grey literature sources were searched until July 31, 2020, using database searching and an automated method called Continuous Active Learning® (CAL®). All search results were processed using CAL® to identify the most likely relevant citations that were then screened by a single human reviewer. Full-text screening, data abstraction, and quality appraisal were completed by a single reviewer and verified by a second. RESULTS: Nine clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) were included. The most common recommendation in the CPGs was establishing surveillance and monitoring systems followed by mandating the use of PPE; physically distancing or cohorting residents; environmental cleaning and disinfection; promoting hand and respiratory hygiene among residents, staff, and visitors; and providing sick leave compensation for staff. CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence suggests robust surveillance and monitoring along with support for IPAC initiatives are key to preventing the spread of COVID-19 in LTCF. However, there are significant gaps in the current recommendations especially with regard to the movement of staff between LTCF and their role as possible transmission vectors. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020181993.


Assuntos
Moradias Assistidas , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Casas de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Desinfecção , Higiene das Mãos , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/transmissão , Licença Médica , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem
4.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(9): 3365-3376, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876275

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the effectiveness of non-woven face masks for the prevention of respiratory infections (MERS CoV, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2) in the population. METHODS: search in Medline, Embase, Cinahl, The Cochrane Library, Trip databases. Google Scholar, Rayyan and medRxiv were also consulted for complementary results. No filters related to date, language or publication status were applied. Titles and abstracts were screened, and later, full texts were evaluated. RESULTS: three studies were included: a randomized cluster clinical trial and two systematic reviews. The clinical trial indicates a potential benefit of medical masks to control the source of clinical respiratory disease infection. In one of the systematic reviews, it was not possible to establish a conclusive relationship between the use of the mask and protection against respiratory infection. Finally, another systematic review indicated that masks are effective in preventing the spread of respiratory viruses. CONCLUSION: Evidence points to the potential benefit of standard non-woven face masks. For the current pandemic scenario of COVID-19, education on the appropriate use of masks associated with individual protection measures is recommended.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Máscaras , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Vírus da SARS/isolamento & purificação , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia
5.
S Afr Med J ; 110(7): 610-612, 2020 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880332

RESUMO

Indiscriminatory in its spread, COVID-19 has engulfed communities from all social backgrounds throughout the world. While healthcare professionals work tirelessly testing for the virus and caring for patients, they too have become casualties of the pandemic. Currently the best way to attempt to curb the spread of the virus, echoed by almost all nation leaders, is to distance ourselves from one another socially or physically. However ideal this may seem, social distancing is not always practical in densely populated lower-income countries with many citizens below the breadline. With the majority of South Africans living in poverty, communities in overcrowded households are unable to distance themselves from one another appropriately. In addition, as a nation we struggle with high HIV and tuberculosis rates, malnutrition and an already overburdened healthcare system, emphasising the extreme vulnerability of our people. These factors, coupled with the fact that many of our healthcare professionals lack the necessary personal protective equipment to prevent them from contracting the virus themselves, highlight the gravity of the damaging repercussions that we may face in the coming months, after the complete national lockdown in force at the time of writing is lifted and we move towards a partial lockdown state. Nationally, there needs to be a shift in mindset towards exploring alternative technology-based preventive measures that may empower the healthcare sector in the long term and enhance social distancing.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Setor de Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Equipamentos de Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Empoderamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pobreza , Papel (figurativo) , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle , Isolamento Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
6.
Emerg Med J ; 37(10): 600-604, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948621

RESUMO

On 12 March 2020 the UK entered the 'delay phase' of the COVID-19 pandemic response. The Public Health England Emergency Department Syndromic Surveillance System (EDSSS) carries out daily (near real-time) public health surveillance of emergency department (ED) attendances across England. This retrospective observational analysis of EDSSS data aimed to describe changes in ED attendances during March-April 2020, and identify the attendance types with the largest impact. Type 1 ED attendances were selected from 109 EDs that reported data to EDSSS for the period 1 January 2019 to 26 April 2020. The daily numbers of attendances were plotted by age group and acuity of presentation. The 2020 'COVID-19' period (12 March 2020 to 26 April 2020) attendances were compared with the equivalent 2019 'pre-COVID-19' period (14 March 2019 to 28 April 2019): in total; by hour and day of the week; age group(<1, 1-4, 15-14, 15-44, 45-64 and 65+ years); gender; acuity; and for selected syndromic indicators(acute respiratory infection, gastroenteritis, myocardial ischaemia). Daily ED attendances up to 11 March 2020 showed regular trends, highest on a Monday and reduced in children during school holidays. From 12 March 2020 ED attendances decreased across all age groups, all acuity levels, on all days and times. Across age groups the greatest percentage reductions were seen in school age children (5-14 years). By acuity, the greatest reduction occurred in the less severe presentations. Syndromic indicators showed that the greatest reductions were in non-respiratory indicators, which fell by 44-67% during 2020 COVID-19, while acute respiratory infection was reduced by -4.4% (95% CI -9.5% to 0.6%). ED attendances in England have been particularly affected during the COVID-19 pandemic due to changes in healthcare seeking behaviour. EDSSS has enabled real-time daily monitoring of these changes, which are made publicly available to facilitate action. The EDSSS provides valuable surveillance of ED attendances in England. The flexibility of EDSSS allowed rapid development of new indicators (including COVID-19-like) and reporting methods.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle , Reino Unido
7.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 212, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963228

RESUMO

The outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, respectively, have posed severe threats to global public health and the economy. Treatment and prevention of these viral diseases call for the research and development of human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (NMAbs). Scientists have screened neutralizing antibodies using the virus receptor-binding domain (RBD) as an antigen, indicating that RBD contains multiple conformational neutralizing epitopes, which are the main structural domains for inducing neutralizing antibodies and T-cell immune responses. This review summarizes the structure and function of RBD and RBD-specific NMAbs against SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 currently under development.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/biossíntese , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/biossíntese , Anticorpos Antivirais/biossíntese , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reações Cruzadas , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/imunologia , Epitopos/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/imunologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Ligação Proteica , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Receptores Virais/química , Receptores Virais/imunologia , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Vírus da SARS/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Vírion/imunologia , Vírion/ultraestrutura
8.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 20(10): 615-632, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887954

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the most formidable challenge to humanity in a century. It is widely believed that prepandemic normalcy will never return until a safe and effective vaccine strategy becomes available and a global vaccination programme is implemented successfully. Here, we discuss the immunological principles that need to be taken into consideration in the development of COVID-19 vaccine strategies. On the basis of these principles, we examine the current COVID-19 vaccine candidates, their strengths and potential shortfalls, and make inferences about their chances of success. Finally, we discuss the scientific and practical challenges that will be faced in the process of developing a successful vaccine and the ways in which COVID-19 vaccine strategies may evolve over the next few years.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/biossíntese , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Coletiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquemas de Imunização , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Segurança do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Vacinas Atenuadas , Vacinas de DNA , Vacinas de Subunidades , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/biossíntese
9.
Indian Heart J ; 72(3): 145-150, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768012

RESUMO

An echocardiographic investigation is one of the key modalities of diagnosis in cardiology. There has been a rising presence of cardiological comorbidities in patients positive for COVID-19. Hence, it is becoming extremely essential to look into the correct safety precautions, healthcare professionals must take while conducting an echo investigation. The decision matrix formulated for conducting an echocardiographic evaluation is based on presence or absence of cardiological comorbidity vis-à-vis positive, suspected or negative for COVID-19. The safety measures have been constructed keeping in mind the current safety precautions by WHO, CDC and MoHFW, India.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Segurança do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Cardiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Masculino , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle , Sociedades Médicas
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(32): e21380, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On March 11, 2020, World Health Organization announced that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 caused COVID-19 was a global pandemic. COVID-19 is associated with venous thromboembolism including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. To further identify the current role of antiplatelet/anticoagulant therapy in the prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19 patients is important. METHODS: We will conduct a systematic review based on searches of major databases (eg, Pubmed, Web of Science, EMBASE, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, SCI-EXPANDED, CPCI-S, CBM, CNKI, and Wanfang Database) and clinical trial registries from inception to present without limitations of language and publication status. All published randomized control trials, quasi-randomized trials, retrospective and observational studies related to prophylactic antiplatelet/anticoagulant for severe COVID-19 will be included. Primary outcome includes incident acute thrombosis events. Second outcome is the incidence and severity of adverse effects. Full-text screening, data extraction and quality assessment will be conducted by 2 reviewers independently. The reporting quality, risk of bias, sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis will be performed to ensure the reliability of our findings by other 2 researchers. The statistical analysis will be performed by RevMan V.5.3 software and Stata V.12.0 software. RESULTS: The result of this systematic review will provide valid advice and consultation for clinicians on the management of prophylactic antiplatelet/anticoagulant for severe COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: This systematic review will provide evidence for prophylactic antiplatelet/anticoagulant of severe COVID-19 patients. PROSPERO REGISTRATION: CRD42020186928.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Trombose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Prognóstico , Projetos de Pesquisa , Medição de Risco , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle , Análise de Sobrevida , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Viruses ; 12(8)2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784685

RESUMO

Seven years after the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreak, a new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) made its first appearance in a food market in Wuhan, China, drawing an entirely new course to our lives. As the virus belongs to the same genus of MERS and SARS, researchers have been trying to draw lessons from previous outbreaks to find a potential cure. Although there were five Phase I human vaccine trials against SARS and MERS, the lack of data in humans provided us with limited benchmarks that could help us design a new vaccine for Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this review, we showcase the similarities in structures of virus components between SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 in areas relevant to vaccine design. Using the ClinicalTrials.gov and World Health Organization (WHO) databases, we shed light on the 16 current approved clinical trials worldwide in search for a COVID-19 vaccine. The different vaccine platforms being tested are Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines, DNA and RNA-based vaccines, inactivated vaccines, protein subunits, and viral vectors. By thoroughly analyzing different trials and platforms, we also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using each type of vaccine and how they can contribute to the design of an adequate vaccine for COVID-19. Studying past efforts invested in conducting vaccine trials for MERS and SARS will provide vital insights regarding the best approach to designing an effective vaccine against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Modelos Animais , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem
13.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192608

RESUMO

Con el objetivo de favorecer la rápida identificación de los contactos de pacientes infectados por SARS-CoV-2 y por tanto el control de la pandemia, se revisaron diferentes metodologías y recomendaciones sobre estudio de contactos (EECC) aplicables a la Atención Primaria (AP) y a la Salud Pública (SP): artículos en Pubmed sobre COVID-19 y EECC, definiciones de contacto en documentos oficiales, el sistema clásico de EECC en tuberculosis (TB), informaciones sobre apps para EECC y el papel de las pruebas diagnósticas. Para establecer medidas de prevención y control eficientes, se precisa actuar siempre bajo sospecha clínica, diagnóstico y aislamiento precoz de los casos y de los contactos y su seguimiento. El modelo clásico de EECC en TB es aplicable a esta nueva infección pero acelerando el proceso dado su carácter agudo y su potencial gravedad. Es imprescindible una buena coordinación entre AP y SP y disponer de recursos suficientes


The aim of this study was to promote the rapid identification of the contacts of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 and therefore the control of the pandemic. Different methodologies and recommendations on contact tracing for Primary Health Care (PHC) and Public Health Services (PHS), like articles in Pubmed about COVID-19 and contact tracing, official contact definitions, the classic contact tracing model in tuberculosis (TB), information about apps for contact tracing and the role of the diagnostic tests, were reviewed. To establish efficient prevention and control measures, it is always necessary to implement contact tracing based on clinical suspicion, early diagnosis and isolation of cases and contacts and their follow-up. The classic contact tracing model in TB can be applied to this new infection, but accelerating the process given its acute nature and its potential severity. Good coordination between PHC and PHS and having sufficient resources is essential


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Atenção à Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle , Vírus da SARS/isolamento & purificação , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Rev. Rol enferm ; 43(7/8): 529-539, jul.-ago. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192954

RESUMO

COVID-19 es una enfermedad provocada por coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, un virus detectado recientemente. Se originó en China y en pocos meses se ha extendido por todo el planeta, lo que demuestra una alta capacidad de transmisión. Su transmisión es muy buena en entornos cerrados, poco ventilados, donde haya muchas personas, a poca distancia entre ellas y que no usen mascarilla. Las personas mayores se muestran especialmente susceptibles a este virus y desarrollan muchas veces cuadros clínicos graves que han llevado a un desenlace fatal. En ello influyen factores de las propias personas, como un deterioro del sistema de defensa y la existencia de enfermedades previas, pero también factores del medio en el que estas personas se encuentran. Así, en los centros sociosanitarios la situación puede agravarse con factores del entorno como escasa ventilación, baja exposición solar, excesivo número de personas por unidad de superficie, dependencia y realización de numerosas actividades que implican un mayor contacto interpersonal, etc. En este artículo se hace una aproximación a los factores que inducen que las personas mayores sean especialmente vulnerables a COVID-19 y a las medidas que se pueden poner en marcha para paliar esta situación


COVID-19 is the disease produced by SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, a recently detected pathogen. It originated in China and, in a few months, it has spread all over the planet. This proved a high rate of transmission, which is great in closed and weakly ventilated environments, especially if there is a high number of people, keeping a short distance between them, and without using mask. It has been proved that elders are especially vulnerable to this virus and can develop with a higher probability, far more severe clinical features with a fateful prognosis. However, it must be taken into account that the prognosis of a COVID-19 patient depends on many factors, including the patient himself, a weak immune system, and the existence of previous diseases. In addition, environment-dependent factors cannot be forgot. That's how in nursing homes, the situation can be worse if these environment-dependent factors come into action, such as a poor ventilation, a low sun exposure, an excessive number of people and the performance of many activities that could involve a high interpersonal contact. In this article, an approach is made to the factors that induce the elderly to be especially vulnerable to COVID-19, and to the measures that can be put in place to alleviate this situation


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Cuidados de Enfermagem/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Fatores Etários , Fatores de Risco , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos/organização & administração , Precauções Universais/métodos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
J. healthc. qual. res ; 35(4): 245-252, jul.-ago. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193485

RESUMO

ANTECEDENTES Y OBJETIVO: Durante la pandemia COVID-19 se ha producido un aumento de la demanda de mascarillas por parte de profesionales sanitarios y de la población general. En este contexto, se hace necesario sintetizar las características y las indicaciones de uso de los distintos tipos de mascarillas existentes. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se consultaron y recopilaron las diferentes recomendaciones difundidas por instituciones de reconocido prestigio, como la Organización Mundial de la Salud, The European Centre for Disease Prevention, The Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine o el Ministerio de Sanidad del Gobierno de España. RESULTADOS: Las instituciones consultadas aconsejan reservar las mascarillas filtering face piece (FFP) para el personal sanitario, especialmente en la realización de procedimientos generadores de aerosoles (PGA) (protección mínima de FFP2), y plantean posibles sistemas de reutilización durante épocas de escasez. Asimismo, se recomienda el uso de mascarillas quirúrgicas en profesionales que no realicen PGA y en población sintomática, existiendo variación en las indicaciones de uso para población general sana. CONCLUSIÓN: En situaciones de escasez de equipos de protección individual por pandemia de COVID-19 se debe establecer una priorización y racionalización de uso de cada tipo de mascarilla en función del usuario y de la actividad a realizar


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In the COVID-19 pandemic, the demand of masks has been increased by health professionals and the general population. In this context, it is necessary to summarize the features and indications of the different types of masks. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To consult and to compile the different recommendations disseminated by prestigious institutions such as the World Health Organization, the European Center for Disease Prevention, the Center for Evidence-Based Medicine, or the Ministry of Health of the Government of Spain has been reviewed. RESULTS: The institutions consulted recommend reserving FFP respirators for healthcare workers, especially when carrying out aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs) (minimum FFP2 protection) and consider some reutilization systems during times of scarcity. The use of surgical masks is recommended to professionals who do not perform AGPs and to the symptomatic population but exist variations in its indications intended for the general healthy population. CONCLUSION: In the context of shortage of personal protective equipment due to the COVID-19 pandemic, a prioritization and rationalization of the use of each type of mask should be established according to the user and the activity performed


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle , Máscaras/normas , Ventiladores Mecânicos/normas , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Precauções Universais/métodos , Máscaras/classificação
16.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2203: 1-29, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833200

RESUMO

Coronaviruses (CoVs), enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses, are characterized by club-like spikes that project from their surface, an unusually large RNA genome, and a unique replication strategy. CoVs cause a variety of diseases in mammals and birds ranging from enteritis in cows and pigs, and upper respiratory tract and kidney disease in chickens to lethal human respiratory infections. Most recently, the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, which was first identified in Wuhan, China in December 2019, is the cause of a catastrophic pandemic, COVID-19, with more than 8 million infections diagnosed worldwide by mid-June 2020. Here we provide a brief introduction to CoVs discussing their replication, pathogenicity, and current prevention and treatment strategies. We will also discuss the outbreaks of the highly pathogenic Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which are relevant for understanding COVID-19.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/virologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Galinhas/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavirus/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Doenças dos Animais/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Animais/prevenção & controle , Animais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Bovinos , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/fisiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vírus da SARS/genética , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Vírus da SARS/fisiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/diagnóstico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Suínos , Vírion , Replicação Viral
19.
J Immunol Res ; 2020: 7201752, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32695833

RESUMO

The recent outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease, COVID-19, has highlighted the threat that highly pathogenic coronaviruses have on global health security and the imminent need to design an effective vaccine for prevention purposes. Although several attempts have been made to develop vaccines against human coronavirus infections since the emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2003, there is no available licensed vaccine yet. A better understanding of previous coronavirus vaccine studies may help to design a vaccine for the newly emerged virus, SARS-CoV-2, that may also cover other pathogenic coronaviruses as a potentially universal vaccine. In general, coronavirus spike protein is the major antigen for the vaccine design as it can induce neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity. By considering the high genetic similarity between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, here, protective immunity against SARS-CoV spike subunit vaccine candidates in animal models has been reviewed to gain advances that can facilitate coronavirus vaccine development in the near future.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desenho de Fármacos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinas Virais , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Drogas em Investigação , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Vírus da SARS/genética , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia , Vacinas de Subunidades/uso terapêutico
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