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1.
Biomedica ; 40(Supl. 2): 80-95, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152192

RESUMO

Introduction: Recently, researchers from China and France reported on the effectiveness of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine for the inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 viral replication in vitro. Timely dissemination of scientific information is key in times of pandemic. A systematic review of the effect and safety of these drugs on COVID-19 is urgently needed. Objective: To map published studies until March 25, 2020, on the use of chloroquine and its derivates in patients with COVID-19. Materials and methods: We searched on PubMed, Embase, Lilacs, and 15 registries from the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for theoretical and empirical research in English, Spanish, Italian, French, or Portuguese until March 25, 2020, and made a narrative synthesis of the results. Results: We included 19 records and 24 trial registries (n=43) including 18,059 patients. China registered 66% (16/24) of the trials. Nine trials evaluate chloroquine exclusively and eight hydroxychloroquine. The records are comments (n=9), in vitro studies (n=3), narrative reviews (n=2), clinical guidelines (n=2), as well as a systematic review, an expert consensus, and a clinical trial. Conclusions: One small (n=26), non-randomized, and flawed clinical trial supports hydroxychloroquine use in patients with COVID-19. There is an urgent need for more clinical trial results to determine the effect and safety of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine on COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Cloroquina/efeitos adversos , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Ensaios de Uso Compassivo , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/efeitos adversos , Hidroxicloroquina/farmacologia , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Pandemias , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sistema de Registros , Resultado do Tratamento , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Trials ; 21(1): 934, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213529

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Zilucoplan (complement C5 inhibitor) has profound effects on inhibiting acute lung injury post COVID-19, and can promote lung repair mechanisms that lead to improvement in lung oxygenation parameters. The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy and safety of Zilucoplan in improving oxygenation and short- and long-term outcome of COVID-19 patients with acute hypoxic respiratory failure. TRIAL DESIGN: This is a phase 2 academic, prospective, 2:1 randomized, open-label, multi-center interventional study. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients (≥18y old) will be recruited at specialized COVID-19 units and ICUs at 9 Belgian hospitals. The main eligibility criteria are as follows: 1) Inclusion criteria: a. Recent (≥6 days and ≤16 days) SARS-CoV-2 infection. b. Chest CT scan showing bilateral infiltrates within the last 2 days prior to randomisation. c. Acute hypoxia (defined as PaO2/FiO2 below 350 mmHg or SpO2 below 93% on minimal 2 L/min supplemental oxygen). d. Signs of cytokine release syndrome characterized by either high serum ferritin, or high D-dimers, or high LDH or deep lymphopenia or a combination of those. 2) Exclusion criteria: e. Mechanical ventilation for more than 24 hours prior to randomisation. f. Active bacterial or fungal infection. g. History of meningococcal disease (due to the known high predisposition to invasive, often recurrent meningococcal infections of individuals deficient in components of the alternative and terminal complement pathways). INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Patients in the experimental arm will receive daily 32,4 mg Zilucoplan subcutaneously and a daily IV infusion of 2g of the antibiotic ceftriaxone for 14 days (or until hospital discharge, whichever comes first) in addition to standard of care. These patients will receive additional prophylactic antibiotics until 14 days after the last Zilucoplan dose: hospitalized patients will receive a daily IV infusion of 2g of ceftriaxone, discharged patients will switch to daily 500 mg of oral ciprofloxacin. The control group will receive standard of care and a daily IV infusion of 2g of ceftriaxone for 1 week (or until hospital discharge, whichever comes first), to control for the effects of antibiotics on the clinical course of COVID-19. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary endpoint is the improvement of oxygenation as measured by mean and/or median change from pre-treatment (day 1) to post-treatment (day 6 and 15 or at discharge, whichever comes first) in PaO2/FiO2 ratio, P(A-a)O2 gradient and a/A PO2 ratio. (PAO2= Partial alveolar pressure of oxygen, PaO2=partial arterial pressure of oxygen, FiO2=Fraction of inspired oxygen). RANDOMISATION: Patients will be randomized in a 2:1 ratio (Zilucoplan: control). Randomization will be done using an Interactive Web Response System (REDCap). BLINDING (MASKING): In this open-label trial neither participants, caregivers, nor those assessing the outcomes will be blinded to group assignment. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): A total of 81 patients will be enrolled: 54 patients will be randomized to the experimental arm and 27 patients to the control arm. TRIAL STATUS: ZILU-COV protocol Version 4.0 (June 10 2020). Participant recruitment started on June 23 2020 and is ongoing. Given the uncertainty of the pandemic, it is difficult to predict the anticipated end date. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered on Clinical Trials.gov on May 11th, 2020 (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04382755 ) and on EudraCT (Identifier: 2020-002130-33 ). FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Assuntos
Complemento C5/antagonistas & inibidores , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Hipóxia/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Insuficiência Respiratória/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ceftriaxona/administração & dosagem , Ceftriaxona/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/sangue , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Injeções Subcutâneas , Oxigênio/sangue , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Segurança , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e039951, 2020 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191263

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: About 25% of patients with COVID-19 develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) associated with a high release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6). The aim of the SARICOR study is to demonstrate that early administration of sarilumab (an IL-6 receptor inhibitor) in hospitalised patients with COVID-19, pulmonary infiltrates and a high IL-6 or D-dimer serum level could reduce the progression of ARDS requiring high-flow nasal oxygen or mechanical ventilation (non-invasive or invasive). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Phase II, open-label, randomised, multicentre, controlled clinical trial to study the efficacy and safety of the administration of two doses of sarilumab (200 and 400 mg) plus best available therapy (BAT) in hospitalised adults with COVID-19 presenting cytokine release syndrome. This strategy will be compared with a BAT control group. The efficacy and safety will be monitored up to 28 days postadministration. A total of 120 patients will be recruited (40 patients in each arm). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The clinical trial has been approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the coordinating centre and authorised by the Spanish Agency of Medicines and Medical Products. If the hypothesis is verified, the dissemination of the results could change clinical practice by increasing early administration of sarilumab in adult patients with COVID-19 presenting cytokine release syndrome, thus reducing intensive care unit admissions. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04357860.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Respiração Artificial , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(21)2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138181

RESUMO

The 1918 influenza killed approximately 50 million people in a few short years, and now, the world is facing another pandemic. In December 2019, a novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused an international outbreak of a respiratory illness termed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and rapidly spread to cause the worst pandemic since 1918. Recent clinical reports highlight an atypical presentation of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 patients characterized by severe hypoxemia, an imbalance of the renin-angiotensin system, an increase in thrombogenic processes, and a cytokine release storm. These processes not only exacerbate lung injury but can also promote pulmonary vascular remodeling and vasoconstriction, which are hallmarks of pulmonary hypertension (PH). PH is a complication of ARDS that has received little attention; thus, we hypothesize that PH in COVID-19-induced ARDS represents an important target for disease amelioration. The mechanisms that can promote PH following SARS-CoV-2 infection are described. In this review article, we outline emerging mechanisms of pulmonary vascular dysfunction and outline potential treatment options that have been clinically tested.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/patologia , Vasoconstrição/fisiologia , Betacoronavirus , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/patologia , Sistema Calicreína-Cinina/fisiologia , Pandemias , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/tratamento farmacológico , Vasoconstrição/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Front Immunol ; 11: 570919, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33101291

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020. Severe COVID-19 cases develop severe acute respiratory syndrome, which can result in multiple organ failure, sepsis, and death. The higher risk group includes the elderly and subjects with pre-existing chronic illnesses such as obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. To date, no specific treatment or vaccine is available for COVID-19. Among many compounds, naringenin (NAR) a flavonoid present in citrus fruits has been investigated for antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties like reducing viral replication and cytokine production. In this perspective, we summarize NAR potential anti-inflammatory role in COVID-19 associated risk factors and SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Flavanonas/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/patologia , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Citocinas/biossíntese , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia
6.
Front Immunol ; 11: 570122, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33117359

RESUMO

The COVID-19 is an acute and contagious disease characterized by pneumonia and ARDS. The disease is caused by SARS-CoV-2, which belongs to the family of Coronaviridae along with MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-1. The virus has the positive-sense RNA as its genome encoding for ~26 proteins that work together for the virus survival, replication, and spread in the host. The virus gets transmitted through the contact of aerosol droplets from infected persons. The pathogenesis of COVID-19 is highly complex and involves suppression of host antiviral and innate immune response, induction of oxidative stress followed by hyper inflammation described as the "cytokine storm," causing the acute lung injury, tissue fibrosis, and pneumonia. Currently, several vaccines and drugs are being evaluated for their efficacy, safety, and for determination of doses for COVID-19 and this requires considerable time for their validation. Therefore, exploring the repurposing of natural compounds may provide alternatives against COVID-19. Several nutraceuticals have a proven ability of immune-boosting, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory effects. These include Zn, vitamin D, vitamin C, curcumin, cinnamaldehyde, probiotics, selenium, lactoferrin, quercetin, etc. Grouping some of these phytonutrients in the right combination in the form of a food supplement may help to boost the immune system, prevent virus spread, preclude the disease progression to severe stage, and further suppress the hyper inflammation providing both prophylactic and therapeutic support against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/dietoterapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/dietoterapia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/dietoterapia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/patologia , Citocinas/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico
7.
Front Immunol ; 11: 588724, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33117402

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 infection is a new threat to global public health in the 21st century (2020), which has now rapidly spread around the globe causing severe pneumonia often linked to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and hyperinflammatory syndrome. SARS-CoV-2 is highly contagious through saliva droplets. The structural analysis suggests that the virus enters human cells through the ligation of the spike protein to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The progression of Covid-19 has been divided into three main stages: stage I-viral response, stage II-pulmonary phase, and stage III-hyperinflammation phase. Once the patients enter stage III, it will likely need ventilation and it becomes difficult to manage. Thus, it will be of paramount importance to find therapies to prevent or slow down the progression of the disease toward stage III. The key event leading to hyperinflammation seems to be the activation of Th-17 immunity response and Cytokine storm. B2-adrenergic receptors (B2ARs) are expressed on airways and on all the immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, B and T lymphocytes. Blocking (B2AR) has been proven, also in clinical settings, to reduce Th-17 response and negatively modulate inflammatory cytokines including IL-6 while increasing IFNγ. Non-selective beta-blockers are currently used to treat several diseases and have been proven to reduce stress-induced inflammation and reduce anxiety. For these reasons, we speculate that targeting B2AR in the early phase of Covid-19 might be beneficial to prevent hyperinflammation.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/tratamento farmacológico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Pandemias , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/patologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/virologia , Células Th17/imunologia
8.
Front Immunol ; 11: 595739, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33117408

RESUMO

Type I interferons (IFN-I) were first discovered over 60 years ago in a classical experiment by Isaacs and Lindenman, who showed that IFN-Is possess antiviral activity. Later, it became one of the first approved protein drugs using heterologous protein expression systems, which allowed its large-scale production. It has been approved, and widely used in a pleiotropy of diseases, including multiple-sclerosis, hepatitis B and C, and some forms of cancer. Preliminary clinical data has supported its effectiveness against potential pandemic pathogens such as Ebola and SARS. Still, more efficient and specific drugs have taken its place in treating such diseases. The COVID-19 global pandemic has again lifted the status of IFN-Is to become one of the more promising drug candidates, with initial clinical trials showing promising results in reducing the severity and duration of the disease. Although SARS-CoV-2 inhibits the production of IFNß and thus obstructs the innate immune response to this virus, it is sensitive to the antiviral activity of externally administrated IFN-Is. In this review I discuss the diverse modes of biological actions of IFN-Is and how these are related to biophysical parameters of IFN-I-receptor interaction and cell-type specificity in light of the large variety of binding affinities of the different IFN-I subtypes towards the common interferon receptor. Furthermore, I discuss how these may guide the optimized use IFN-Is in combatting COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Interferon Tipo I/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240149, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006999

RESUMO

From January 2020, COVID-19 is spreading around the world producing serious respiratory symptoms in infected patients that in some cases can be complicated by the severe acute respiratory syndrome, sepsis and septic shock, multiorgan failure, including acute kidney injury and cardiac injury. Cost and time efficient approaches to reduce the burthen of the disease are needed. To find potential COVID-19 treatments among the whole arsenal of existing drugs, we combined system biology and artificial intelligence-based approaches. The drug combination of pirfenidone and melatonin has been identified as a candidate treatment that may contribute to reduce the virus infection. Starting from different drug targets the effect of the drugs converges on human proteins with a known role in SARS-CoV-2 infection cycle. Simultaneously, GUILDify v2.0 web server has been used as an alternative method to corroborate the effect of pirfenidone and melatonin against the infection of SARS-CoV-2. We have also predicted a potential therapeutic effect of the drug combination over the respiratory associated pathology, thus tackling at the same time two important issues in COVID-19. These evidences, together with the fact that from a medical point of view both drugs are considered safe and can be combined with the current standard of care treatments for COVID-19 makes this combination very attractive for treating patients at stage II, non-severe symptomatic patients with the presence of virus and those patients who are at risk of developing severe pulmonary complications.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Bases de Dados de Produtos Farmacêuticos , Furina/metabolismo , Humanos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Pandemias , Piridonas/farmacologia
10.
J Immunol Res ; 2020: 4582612, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33062720

RESUMO

Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are derivatives of 4-aminoquinoline compounds with over 60 years of safe clinical usage. CQ and HCQ are able to inhibit the production of cytokines such as interleukin- (IL-) 1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-17, and IL-22. Also, CQ and HCQ inhibit the production of interferon- (IFN-) α and IFN-γ and/or tumor necrotizing factor- (TNF-) α. Furthermore, CQ blocks the production of prostaglandins (PGs) in the intact cell by inhibiting substrate accessibility of arachidonic acid necessary for the production of PGs. Moreover, CQ affects the stability between T-helper cell (Th) 1 and Th2 cytokine secretion by augmenting IL-10 production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Additionally, CQ is capable of blocking lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) triggered stimulation of extracellular signal-modulated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 in human PBMCs. HCQ at clinical levels effectively blocks CpG-triggered class-switched memory B-cells from differentiating into plasmablasts as well as producing IgG. Also, HCQ inhibits cytokine generation from all the B-cell subsets. IgM memory B-cells exhibits the utmost cytokine production. Nevertheless, CQ triggers the production of reactive oxygen species. A rare, but serious, side effect of CQ or HCQ in nondiabetic patients is hypoglycaemia. Thus, in critically ill patients, CQ and HCQ are most likely to deplete all the energy stores of the body leaving the patient very weak and sicker. We advocate that, during clinical usage of CQ and HCQ in critically ill patients, it is very essential to strengthen the CQ or HCQ with glucose infusion. CQ and HCQ are thus potential inhibitors of the COVID-19 cytokine storm.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/biossíntese , Humanos , Pandemias , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Drugs Aging ; 37(11): 779-785, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084001

RESUMO

This paper presents a brief overview of the complex interaction between age, hypertension, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), inflammation, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) infection. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is more frequent and more severe in comorbid elderly patients, especially those with hypertension, diabetes, obesity, or cardiovascular diseases. There are concerns regarding the use of RAAS inhibitors in patients with COVID-19. Some physicians have considered the need for interrupting RAAS inhibition in order to reduce the possibility of SARS-CoV2 entering lung cells after binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. We offer a different point of view in relation to the need for continuing to use RAAS inhibitors in patients with COVID-19. We focused our article on elderly patients because of the distinctive imbalance between the immune response, which is depressed, and the exacerbated inflammatory response, 'inflammaging', which makes the geriatric patient an appropriate candidate for therapeutic strategies aimed at modulating the inflammatory response. Indeed, COVID-19 is an inflammatory storm that starts and worsens during the course of the disease. During the COVID-19 pandemic, various therapeutic approaches have been tested, including antiviral drugs, interferon, anti-interleukins, hydroxychloroquine, anti-inflammatories, immunoglobulins from recovered patients, and heparins. Some of these therapeutic approaches did not prove to be beneficial, or even induced serious complications. Based on current evidence, in the early stages of the disease modulation of the inflammatory response through the inhibition of neprilysin and modulation of the RAAS could affect the course and outcome of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/imunologia , Neprilisina/antagonistas & inibidores , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 131: 110653, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) reducing inflammation and protecting lung and brain function, could be of therapeutic efficacy in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Using GSEA, we compared our previous transcriptome analysis of neurons injured by glutamate and treated with the ARB Candesartan (GSE67036) with transcriptional signatures from SARS-CoV-2 infected primary human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) and lung postmortem (GSE147507), PBMC and BALF samples (CRA002390) from COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Hundreds of genes upregulated in SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 transcriptomes were similarly upregulated by glutamate and normalized by Candesartan. Gene Ontology analysis revealed expression profiles with greatest significance and enrichment, including proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine activity, the NF-kappa B complex, alterations in innate and adaptive immunity, with many genes participating in the COVID-19 cytokine storm. CONCLUSIONS: There are similar injury mechanisms in SARS-CoV-2 infection and neuronal injury, equally reduced by ARB treatment. This supports the hypothesis of a therapeutic role for ARBs, ameliorating the COVID-19 cytokine storm.


Assuntos
Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Tetrazóis/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Brônquios/citologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Transcriptoma
14.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(6): 1263-1277, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907358

RESUMO

In December 2019, a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, causing the disease COVID-19, spread from Wuhan throughout China and has infected people over 200 countries. Thus far, more than 3,400,000 cases and 240,000 deaths have occurred worldwide, and the coronavirus pandemic continues to grip the globe. While numbers of cases in China have been steadying, the number of infections outside China is increasing at a worrying pace. We face an urgent need to control the spread of the COVID-19 epidemic, which is currently expanding to a global pandemic. Efforts have focused on testing antiviral drugs and vaccines, but there is currently no treatment specifically approved. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is grounded in empirical observations and the Chinese people use TCM to overcome these sorts of plagues many times in thousands of years of history. Currently, the Chinese National Health Commission recommended a TCM prescription of Qing-Fei-Pai-Du-Tang (QFPDT) in the latest version of the "Diagnosis and Treatment guidelines of COVID-19" which has been reported to provide reliable effects for COVID-19. While doubts about TCM still exist today, this review paper will describe the rationalities that QFPDT is likely to bring a safe and effective treatment of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/uso terapêutico , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico
15.
Front Immunol ; 11: 2072, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32922409

RESUMO

A dysregulated immune response with hyperinflammation is observed in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of the present study was to assess the safety and potential benefits of human recombinant C1 esterase inhibitor (conestat alfa), a complement, contact activation and kallikrein-kinin system regulator, in severe COVID-19. Patients with evidence of progressive disease after 24 h including an oxygen saturation <93% at rest in ambient air were included at the University Hospital Basel, Switzerland in April 2020. Conestat alfa was administered by intravenous injections of 8400 IU followed by 3 additional doses of 4200 IU in 12-h intervals. Five patients (age range, 53-85 years; one woman) with severe COVID-19 pneumonia (11-39% lung involvement on computed tomography scan of the chest) were treated a median of 1 day (range 1-7 days) after admission. Treatment was well-tolerated. Immediate defervescence occurred, and inflammatory markers and oxygen supplementation decreased or stabilized in 4 patients (e.g., median C-reactive protein 203 (range 31-235) mg/L before vs. 32 (12-72) mg/L on day 5). Only one patient required mechanical ventilation. All patients recovered. C1INH concentrations were elevated before conestat alfa treatment. Levels of complement activation products declined after treatment. Viral loads in nasopharyngeal swabs declined in 4 patients. In this uncontrolled case series, targeting multiple inflammatory cascades by conestat alfa was safe and associated with clinical improvements in the majority of severe COVID-19 patients. Controlled clinical trials are needed to assess its safety and efficacy in preventing disease progression.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/uso terapêutico , Complemento C1/antagonistas & inibidores , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema Calicreína-Cinina/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/análise , Fator XIa/antagonistas & inibidores , Feminino , Humanos , Calicreínas/antagonistas & inibidores , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Molecules ; 25(19)2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987757

RESUMO

There is a vast practice of using antimalarial drugs, RAS inhibitors, serine protease inhibitors, inhibitors of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of the virus and immunosuppressants for the treatment of the severe form of COVID-19, which often occurs in patients with chronic diseases and older persons. Currently, the clinical efficacy of these drugs for COVID-19 has not been proven yet. Side effects of antimalarial drugs can worsen the condition of patients and increase the likelihood of death. Peptides, given their physiological mechanism of action, have virtually no side effects. Many of them are geroprotectors and can be used in patients with chronic diseases. Peptides may be able to prevent the development of the pathological process during COVID-19 by inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 virus proteins, thereby having immuno- and bronchoprotective effects on lung cells, and normalizing the state of the hemostasis system. Immunomodulators (RKDVY, EW, KE, AEDG), possessing a physiological mechanism of action at low concentrations, appear to be the most promising group among the peptides. They normalize the cytokines' synthesis and have an anti-inflammatory effect, thereby preventing the development of disseminated intravascular coagulation, acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos do Sistema Respiratório/uso terapêutico , Doença Aguda , Anti-Inflamatórios/síntese química , Antivirais/síntese química , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/complicações , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/diagnóstico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/complicações , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/diagnóstico , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/tratamento farmacológico , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/síntese química , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Pandemias , Peptídeos/síntese química , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/complicações , Insuficiência Respiratória/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Respiratória/prevenção & controle , Insuficiência Respiratória/virologia , Fármacos do Sistema Respiratório/síntese química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
18.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 131: 110698, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920514

RESUMO

Cytokine storm syndrome (CSS) is a severe complication of inflammatory immune diseases or treatment of malignancies; it may also appear during the progression of COVID-19. CSS is caused by dysregulation of the synthesis of cytokines, including pro-inflammatory, regulatory, and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, leading to pathologic activation of innate and adaptive (Th1 and Th17 mediated) immunity. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of CSS. The significant role of IL-6 in pathogenesis of COVID-19 was confirmed in a range of studies, which showed that the plasma concentration of IL-6 was increased in patients with severe COVID-19. Currently, IL-6 inhibitor therapeutics are not yet approved for the treatment of COVID-19; however, these medicines, including tocilizumab (TCZ) are used off-label for the treatment of patients with severe COVID-19, including life-threatening conditions. The role of IL-6 in the pathogenesis of CSS during COVID-19 is important however, a number of related issues are not yet clear. These issues include the indications for treatment with IL-6 inhibitors, as well as the estimation of risk associated with the disease, outcomes, treatment options, and adverse drug reactions. The development of personalized immunomodulatory therapy, with respect to the role of cytokines in pathogenesis, requires the studies that aimed to find other relevant therapeutic targets for the treatment of CSS in patients with COVID-19. These therapeutic targets include inhibition of IL-1, IL-6, TNFα, GM-CSF, IFNγ, IL-17, IL-18, and also activation of the complement system. The challenge of CSS in patients with COVID-19 is identifying the correct scientific targets and developing clinical trials aimed to evaluate the pathogenesis and treat immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs). Hopefully, the significant efforts of scientists and physicians across the globe will improve the prognosis in COVID-19 patients and provide useful information on IMIDs required to support the struggle for treating potential viral outbreaks, and treatment of well-known IMIDs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Prognóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
19.
Medwave ; 20(7): e7998, 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876623

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread throughout the world causing significant mortality in high risk patients with severe manifestations. To date, Remdesivir has been the only antiviral authorized by FDA as therapy for emergency use. One of the potential complications of this infection is cytokine storm, which optimal treatment remains unknown. We present the case of a 48-year-old man with no past medical history who presented to the hospital with dyspnea, cough, subjective fever, and diarrhea for 10 days. Nasopharyngeal PCR was positive for SARS-CoV-2. His respiratory status rapidly worsened to the point of requiring supplemental oxygen by high flow nasal cannula with FiO2 of 80%. Chest computed tomography showed confluent ground glass opacities in upper lobes accompanied by patchy airspace opacities in lower lobes bilaterally. He was started on hydroxychloroquine, which was switched to Remdesivir when it became available. Then, methylprednisolone was initiated for suspected cytokine storm. The patients oxygenation improved significantly over the following days and he was discharged home with no oxygen supplementation and saturating 96% on room air. Our case illustrates the role of Remdesivir for the treatment of severe COVID-19 pneumonia. We also observed a possible clinical benefit of corticosteroids in the context of suspected cytokine storm. Further studies are needed to evaluate this therapeutic strategy.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/etiologia , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico
20.
Eur Cytokine Netw ; 31(2): 44-49, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence links COVID-19 severity to hyper-inflammation. Treatment with tocilizumab, a monoclonal antibody directed against the interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor, was shown to lead to clinical improvement in patients with severe COVID-19. We, therefore, performed the present systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate whether the circulating levels of IL-6 is a reliable indicator of disease severity among patients affected with COVID-19. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar on April 19, 2020. RESULTS: Eleven studies provided data of IL-6 levels in patients with severe to critical COVID-19 (severe) and patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 (non-severe). The included studies were of moderate to high quality. The mean patients' age was 60.9 years, ranging from 45.2 to 76.7 years in the severe group and 46.8 years, ranging from 37.9 to 61 years, in the nonsevere group. Fifty-two percent were male in the severe group, as compared to 46% in the non-severe group. An overall random effects meta-analysis showed significantly higher serum levels of IL-6 in the severe group than in the non-severe group with a mean difference of +23.1 pg/mL (95% CI: 12.42-33.79) and the overall effect of 4.24 (P-value < 0.001). Meta-regressions showed that neither age nor sex significantly influenced the mean difference of IL-6 between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Meta-analysis and meta-regression reveal a reliable relationship between IL-6 and COVID-19 severity, independent of age and sex. Future research is, however, required to assess the effect of BMI on the pattern of IL-6 production in patients with COVID-19. Also, there might be confounding factors that influence the relationship between IL-6 and COVID-19 severity and remain as yet unknown.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/mortalidade , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Receptores de Interleucina-6/genética , Receptores de Interleucina-6/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
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