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3.
Rev Neurol ; 64(s01): S9-S15, 2017 Feb 24.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28256681

RESUMO

Kanner, in 1943, and Asperger, in 1944, published papers that have been considered the first descriptions of autism. Kanner is acknowledged as having been the first to recognise this condition, while Asperger is attributed with the identification of a milder form of autism which has been denominated Asperger's syndrome. Kanner's paper played an important role in the development of the conceptualisation of autism due to its being published in the United States, where it became popular in the field of child psychiatry. In contrast, Asperger's work, written in German during the period dominated by Nazism, was practically ignored until almost four decades later. A review of the historical data, mostly collected by Silberman, reveals that Kanner had first-hand knowledge of the work on autism that Asperger had begun ten years earlier. Moreover, on re-reading and analysing the pioneering publications it becomes clear that the contributions made by Asperger are still fully valid today, to the point of having intuited a complex polygenic aetiology and that it would fit in perfectly with autism spectrum disorder in the DSM-5.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Asperger , Transtorno Autístico , Síndrome de Asperger/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Asperger/história , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Transtorno Autístico/história , Criança , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , História do Século XX , Humanos
4.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 64(supl.1): s9-s15, 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-163028

RESUMO

Kanner, en 1943, y Asperger, en 1944, publicaron sendos artículos que se han considerado las primeras descripciones del autismo. A Kanner se le atribuye el mérito de haber sido el primero en reconocer dicha entidad y a Asperger se le asigna la identificación de una forma de autismo, más leve, que se ha denominado síndrome de Asperger. La publicación de Kanner tuvo una relevancia importante en el desarrollo de la conceptualización del autismo por el hecho de haberse editado en Estados Unidos, donde alcanzó una gran difusión en el campo de la psiquiatría infantil. Por el contrario, el trabajo de Asperger, escrito en alemán durante la época del nazismo, fue prácticamente ignorado hasta pasadas casi cuatro décadas. La recopilación de datos históricos, en gran parte recogidos por Silberman, revela que Kanner conocía de primera mano el trabajo sobre el autismo que Asperger había iniciado diez años antes. Por otro lado, una relectura y análisis de las publicaciones pioneras pone en evidencia que las aportaciones de Asperger son plenamente vigentes, hasta el punto de haber intuido una etiología poligénica compleja y de encajar plenamente con el trastorno del espectro autista del DSM-5 (AU)


Kanner, in 1943, and Asperger, in 1944, published papers that have been considered the first descriptions of autism. Kanner is acknowledged as having been the first to recognise this condition, while Asperger is attributed with the identification of a milder form of autism which has been denominated Asperger’s syndrome. Kanner’s paper played an important role in the development of the conceptualisation of autism due to its being published in the United States, where it became popular in the field of child psychiatry. In contrast, Asperger’s work, written in German during the period dominated by Nazism, was practically ignored until almost four decades later. A review of the historical data, mostly collected by Silberman, reveals that Kanner had first-hand knowledge of the work on autism that Asperger had begun ten years earlier. Moreover, on re-reading and analysing the pioneering publications it becomes clear that the contributions made by Asperger are still fully valid today, to the point of having intuited a complex polygenic aetiology and that it would fit in perfectly with autism spectrum disorder in the DSM-5 (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/história , Síndrome de Asperger/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Asperger/história , Esquizofrenia Infantil/história , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais
5.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 46(6): 2270-2272, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26883648

RESUMO

When reading Michael Fitzgerald's chapter entitled 'Autism: Asperger's Syndrome-History and First Descriptions' in 'Asperger's Disorder' edited by Rausch, Johnson and Casanova, a while ago, one of us was struck by his contention that Kanner was guilty of plagiarism as well as non-attribution of Asperger's 1938 paper 'Das psychisch abnorme kind' (Fitzgerald in Asperger's disorder. Informa Healthcare, New York, 2008) published in a Vienna weekly. Steve Silberman has discovered evidence that Kanner rescued Asperger's chief diagnostician from the Nazis in 1944 so must have been aware of Asperger's work and conclusions. Fitzgerald was on the right track but it appears that Kanner may have plagiarised Asperger's ideas rather than his 1938 paper.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Asperger/história , Transtorno Autístico/história , Socialismo Nacional/história , Plágio , Psiquiatria/história , Áustria , Criança , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Estados Unidos
6.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 69(6): 479-82, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25826582

RESUMO

As early as 1926, the Kiev-based child psychiatrist Grunya Efimovna Sukhareva (Груня Ефимовна Сухарева) (1891-1981) published a detailed description of autistic traits in a number of children in a scientific German psychiatry and neurology journal. She initially used the term "schizoid (eccentric) psychopathy" but later replaced it with "autistic (pathological avoidant) psychopathy" to describe the clinical picture of autism. Her original article was available almost two decades before the case reports of Asperger and Kanner; nevertheless, Sukhareva's pioneer work has been greatly overlooked. Here we present her description of autistic psychopathy in relation to the DSM-5 criteria of today.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Asperger/história , Transtorno Autístico/história , Psiquiatria Infantil/história , Áustria , Criança , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Ucrânia
7.
J Med Biogr ; 23(2): 84-92, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24585598

RESUMO

The most reliable biographies of Mozart highlight elements that are compatible with current diagnostic criteria for Asperger syndrome including qualitative impairment in social interaction and stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms. Furthermore, numerous features are documented including difficulty in communicating his emotional state and in inferring the mental state of his interlocutors, motor clumsiness, specific skills and genius, left-handedness, special sense of humour, physical developmental abnormalities, bizarre thinking, overvalued ideas and delusions.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Asperger/história , Pessoas Famosas , Música/história , Diagnóstico Diferencial , História do Século XVIII , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais/história , Masculino , Transtornos do Humor/história , Síndrome de Tourette/história
8.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 59(14): 1564-79, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25209624

RESUMO

Posthumous diagnoses are not uncommonly given to notorious public and historical figures by applying retrospectively, and typically in the absence of the individual being diagnosed, contemporary diagnostic criteria. Although this may be relatively easy and free of consequences when it concerns clear-cut medical conditions, it may have unintended repercussions in the case of psychiatric disorders by creating myths and perpetuating stigma. The case of serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer is a typical example where a somewhat facile and almost syllogistic application of perhaps over-inclusive criteria may have contributed to the legend of solitary murderers as possibly suffering from an autism spectrum condition. Although there may be an understandable human need to explain abominable and heinous behaviors, the lack of the possibility to verify a diagnostic theory and the ill-advised attempt to make a diagnosis fit may de facto be the basis of prejudice and profiling that do not correspond to clinical reality. Although there is no doubt that the brain is the organ of behavior, the authors caution against a budding neo-Lombrosian approach to crime and criminality and against the all too common use of widely differing terms in the study of deviance, such as crime, delinquency, and aggression, the operational use of which, often used interchangeably even in association studies, often erroneously leads to further confusion.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/história , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Síndrome de Asperger/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Asperger/história , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/história , Canibalismo/história , Canibalismo/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/história , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Estigma Social , Adulto , Síndrome de Asperger/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Diagnóstico Tardio , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , MMPI/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Psicometria , Estados Unidos
9.
Annu Rev Clin Psychol ; 10: 193-212, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24329180

RESUMO

Seven decades have elapsed since Leo Kanner described the syndrome he termed early infantile autism. Over this time, and particularly over the past two decades, noteworthy changes have occurred in how the condition is conceptualized. Here we provide an overview of these changes, beginning with a brief discussion of the significance of classification in general before discussing Kanner's original paper and subsequent changes. We touch on relevant issues, such as comorbidity, dimensional aspects of diagnosis and screening, and the complex issue of diagnosis relative to eligibility for services. Approaches to diagnosis have tended to swing from emphasizing overarching groups (lumping) to focusing on potentially distinct subgroups (splitting). Autism raises particular problems given the broad range of syndrome expression over age and developmental level. The most recent revision of the American Psychiatric Association's diagnostic taxonomy marks a significant departure from its predecessor and has been the focus of much debate. It remains unclear which of the currently existing categorical approaches will ultimately be most widely applied. We hope to convey a sense of areas in which consensus has been achieved and areas of continued controversy.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Asperger/diagnóstico , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Asperger/história , Transtorno Autístico/história , Criança , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/diagnóstico , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/história , Psiquiatria Infantil/história , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos
10.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 42(10): 2263-5, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22527702

RESUMO

Letter to the editor in response to Michael Fitzgerald's controversial allegation that one of the two pioneers of autism--Leo Kanner--may have been influenced by an earlier paper by the other autism pioneer--Hans Asperger--without acknowledging the debt, and that Kanner may even have been guilty of plagiarising Asperger. In correspondence, Professor Fitzgerald has suggested that I "consider doing my take on the matter". This is it.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Asperger/história , Transtorno Autístico/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Plágio
13.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 69(4): 714-6, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21877047

RESUMO

A historical review is presented of the link between Ludwig Wittgenstein, considered the most important philosopher of the 20th century, and medicine, particularly neurology and psychiatry. Wittgenstein worked as a porter at Guy's Hospital in London, and then as a technician at the Royal Victoria Infirmary in Newcastle. He wrote about his important insights into language, and neuroscience. It has been suggested that he had Asperger syndrome and a possible movement disorder (mannerisms).


Assuntos
Síndrome de Asperger/história , Pessoas Famosas , Neuropsiquiatria/história , Filosofia/história , Inglaterra , História do Século XX , Hospitais/história , Humanos
14.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 69(4): 714-716, Aug. 2011. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-596843

RESUMO

A historical review is presented of the link between Ludwig Wittgenstein, considered the most important philosopher of the 20th century, and medicine, particularly neurology and psychiatry. Wittgenstein worked as a porter at Guy's Hospital in London, and then as a technician at the Royal Victoria Infirmary in Newcastle. He wrote about his important insights into language, and neuroscience. It has been suggested that he had Asperger syndrome and a possible movement disorder (mannerisms).


Uma revisão histórica sobre a ligação entre Ludwig Wittgenstein, considerado um dos mais importantes filósofos do século XX, e a medicina, a neurologia e a psiquiatria é apresentada. Ludwig Wittgenstein trabalhou como porteiro no hospital Guy, em Londres e depois como técnico na Royal Victoria Infirmary em Newcastle, no Reino Unido. Ele escreveu importantes insights sobre linguagem e tem sido sugerido que ele tinha a síndrome de Asperger, e possivelmente um distúrbio do movimento (maneirismo).


Assuntos
História do Século XX , Humanos , Síndrome de Asperger/história , Pessoas Famosas , Neuropsiquiatria/história , Filosofia/história , Inglaterra , Hospitais/história
17.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 39(11): 1560-7, 2009 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19548078

RESUMO

The histories of autism and Asperger's Disorder (AD), based on original contributions by Kanner and Asperger, are reviewed in relation to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Their original articles appear to have influenced the distinction between AD and autism made in the DSM-IV. Based on up-to-date empirical research, however, it appears that AD and autism are not qualitatively distinct disorders, but are different quantitative manifestations of the same disorder. The differences between AD and autism may be a function of individual variability in these areas, not the manifestation of qualitatively distinct disorders. The DSM-IV criteria for AD and autism need to be considered with their historical developments, and based on empirical evidence, the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria may be subject to critical review.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Asperger/diagnóstico , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Asperger/história , Síndrome de Asperger/psicologia , Transtorno Autístico/história , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , História do Século XX , Humanos
19.
Rev Neurol (Paris) ; 164(5): 406-13, 2008 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18555872

RESUMO

Although Asperger syndrome is described by international classifications as a category of pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), its validity as a specific entity distinct from autistic disorders remains controversial. The syndrome, first described by Hans Asperger, could not be distinguished from high functioning autism (onset, symptoms, outcome...). However, international classifications propose a distinction between the two syndromes based on a delayed onset, the absence of speech delay, the presence of motor disorders and a better outcome in Asperger syndrome. This categorical differentiation is not confirmed by current studies and in the absence of biological markers, no clinical, neuropsychological or epidemiological criteria makes it possible to distinguish high functioning autism from Asperger syndrome. From a clinical perspective, it is nevertheless of interest to isolate Asperger syndrome from other autistic disorders to propose specific assessment and therapy.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Asperger/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Asperger/psicologia , Síndrome de Asperger/classificação , Síndrome de Asperger/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Asperger/história , Síndrome de Asperger/patologia , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Criança , História do Século XX , Humanos
20.
Notes Rec R Soc Lond ; 62(3): 289-300, 2008 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19244857

RESUMO

Newton grew up with a vulnerable and eccentric character besides having a low self-esteem, and he was someone who only uncommonly developed any close relationships. On review it is argued that his distrust and suspicions of others, and the fear that he might be harmed by criticism and his discoveries stolen, followed from his mother's separation from him in childhood and not, as has been claimed, from the developmental disorder of Asperger's syndrome. It is further firmly argued that his 'madness' of 1692 and 1693 was due to mercury poisoning from his alchemical experiments and not to clinical depression.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/história , Intoxicação por Mercúrio/história , Síndrome de Asperger/história , Inglaterra , História do Século XVII , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Poder Familiar/história , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Ciência/história
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