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2.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e189, 2020 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843127

RESUMO

Despite SARS-CoV-19 infection has a stereotypical clinical picture, isolated cases with unusual manifestations have been reported, some of them being well-known to be triggered by viral infections. However, the real frequency in COVID-19 is unknown. Analysing data of 63 822 COVID patients attending 50 Spanish emergency department (ED) during the COVID outbreak, before hospitalisation, we report frequencies of (myo)pericarditis (0.71‰), meningoencephalitis (0.25‰), Guillain-Barré syndrome (0.13‰), acute pancreatitis (0.71‰) and spontaneous pneumothorax (0.57‰). Compared with general ED population, COVID patients developed more frequently Guillain-Barré syndrome (odds ratio (OR) 4.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.09-9.90), spontaneous pneumothorax (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.40-2.79) and (myo)pericarditis (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.07-1.97), but less frequently pancreatitis (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.33-0.60).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/complicações , Miocardite/complicações , Pancreatite/complicações , Pericardite/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumotórax/complicações , Betacoronavirus , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/virologia , Humanos , Miocardite/virologia , Pancreatite/virologia , Pandemias , Pericardite/virologia , Pneumotórax/virologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
6.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(7)2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641309
7.
Neurologist ; 25(4): 101-103, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618839

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is a global pandemic. Although the main clinical manifestation of COVID-19 is respiratory involvement, there is evidence suggesting the neuroinvasive potential of COVID-19. There are limited reports of neurological complications of COVID-19 infection in the literature. Herein, we aim to describe 2 members of a family affected by COVID-19, presenting with ascending paresthesia with the final diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome. CASE REPORT: A 38-year-old man presented with a history of ascending paresthesia and bilateral facial droop since 5 days before admission. The medical history was positive for flu-like symptoms affecting all the members of his family. The neurological examination was notable for bilateral peripheral facial paralysis, generalized areflexia, and derceased sensation in distal limbs. The cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed an albuminocytologic dissociation. In addition, the electromyography-nerve conduction study findings were suggestive of acute axonal-demyelinating polyneuropathy. Meanwhile the patient was treated with a diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome, his 14-year-old daughter presented with a history of progressive paresthesia and weakness. Similar to her father, the paraclinical evaluations were consistent with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Taking into account clinical findings and the outbreak of COVID-19, the suspicion of COVID-19 was proposed. Eventually, on the basis of throat swab samples stand on polymerase chain reaction, the patients were diagnosed with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Our cases revealed the familial occurrence of Guillain-Barré syndrome after COVID-19 infection. The authors emphasize neurological complications of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias
8.
Neurol India ; 68(3): 560-572, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643664

RESUMO

COVID-19, in most patients, presents with mild flu-like illness. Elderly patients with comorbidities, like hypertension, diabetes, or lung and cardiac disease, are more likely to have severe disease and deaths. Neurological complications are frequently reported in severely or critically ill patients with comorbidities. In COVID-19, both central and peripheral nervous systems can be affected. The SARS-CoV-2 virus causes the disease COVID-19 and has the potential to invade the brain. The SARS-CoV-2 virus enters the brain either via a hematogenous route or olfactory system. Angiotensin-converting enzyme two receptors, present on endothelial cells of cerebral vessels, are a possible viral entry point. The most severe neurological manifestations, altered sensorium (agitation, delirium, and coma), are because of hypoxic and metabolic abnormalities. Characteristic cytokine storm incites severe metabolic changes and multiple organ failure. Profound coagulopathies may manifest with ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Rarely, SARS-CoV-2 virus encephalitis or pictures like acute disseminated encephalomyelitis or acute necrotizing encephalopathy have been reported. Nonspecific headache is a commonly experienced neurological symptom. A new type of headache "personal protection equipment-related headache" has been described. Complete or partial anosmia and ageusia are common peripheral nervous system manifestations. Recently, many cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome in COVID-19 patients have been observed, and a postinfectious immune-mediated inflammatory process was held responsible for this. Guillain-Barré syndrome does respond to intravenous immunoglobulin. Myalgia/fatigue is also common, and elevated creatine kinase levels indicate muscle injury. Most of the reports about neurological complications are currently from China. COVID-19 pandemic is spreading to other parts of the world; the spectrum of neurological complications is likely to widen further.


Assuntos
Ageusia/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Encefalite/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/fisiopatologia , Cefaleia/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Ageusia/etiologia , Betacoronavirus , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/sangue , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/etiologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica , Isquemia Encefálica/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/imunologia , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Coma/etiologia , Coma/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Delírio/etiologia , Delírio/fisiopatologia , Encefalite/etiologia , Encefalite/imunologia , Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada/etiologia , Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada/imunologia , Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada/fisiopatologia , Fadiga/etiologia , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/etiologia , Cefaleia/etiologia , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/sangue , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/fisiopatologia , Leucoencefalite Hemorrágica Aguda/etiologia , Leucoencefalite Hemorrágica Aguda/imunologia , Leucoencefalite Hemorrágica Aguda/fisiopatologia , Mialgia/etiologia , Mialgia/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/imunologia
9.
Rheumatol Int ; 40(10): 1539-1554, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666137

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is likely to pose new challenges to the rheumatology community in the near and distant future. Some of the challenges, like the severity of COVID-19 among patients on immunosuppressive agents, are predictable and are being evaluated with great care and effort across the globe. A few others, such as atypical manifestations of COVID-19 mimicking rheumatic musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs) are being reported. Like in many other viral infections, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can potentially lead to an array of rheumatological and autoimmune manifestations by molecular mimicry (cross-reacting epitope between the virus and the host), bystander killing (virus-specific CD8 + T cells migrating to the target tissues and exerting cytotoxicity), epitope spreading, viral persistence (polyclonal activation due to the constant presence of viral antigens driving immune-mediated injury) and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps. In addition, the myriad of antiviral drugs presently being tried in the treatment of COVID-19 can result in several rheumatic musculoskeletal adverse effects. In this review, we have addressed the possible spectrum and mechanisms of various autoimmune and rheumatic musculoskeletal manifestations that can be precipitated by COVID-19 infection, its therapy, and the preventive strategies to contain the infection.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Doenças Reumáticas/fisiopatologia , Anticorpos Antinucleares/imunologia , Anticorpos Antifosfolipídeos/imunologia , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Artralgia/etiologia , Artralgia/imunologia , Artralgia/fisiopatologia , Doenças Autoimunes/etiologia , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Betacoronavirus , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/etiologia , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/imunologia , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Armadilhas Extracelulares/imunologia , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/etiologia , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/imunologia , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Inibidor de Coagulação do Lúpus/imunologia , Mimetismo Molecular , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/etiologia , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/imunologia , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/fisiopatologia , Debilidade Muscular/etiologia , Debilidade Muscular/imunologia , Debilidade Muscular/fisiopatologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/etiologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/imunologia , Mialgia/etiologia , Mialgia/imunologia , Mialgia/fisiopatologia , Miocardite/etiologia , Miocardite/imunologia , Miocardite/fisiopatologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Doenças Reumáticas/etiologia , Doenças Reumáticas/imunologia
10.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 78(5): 290-300, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-539324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the COVID-19 pandemic unfolds worldwide, different forms of reports have described its neurologic manifestations. OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on neurological complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Literature search performed following systematic reviews guidelines, using specific keywords based on the COVID-19 neurological complications described up to May 10th, 2020. RESULTS: A total of 43 articles were selected, including data ranging from common, non-specific symptoms, such as hyposmia and myalgia, to more complex and life-threatening conditions, such as cerebrovascular diseases, encephalopathies, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. CONCLUSION: Recognition of neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 should be emphasized despite the obvious challenges faced by clinicians caring for critical patients who are often sedated and presenting other concurrent systemic complications.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Ageusia/complicações , Encefalopatias/complicações , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/complicações , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/complicações , Humanos , Mialgia/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Olfato/complicações , Pandemias
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-592228

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To present the COVID-19-associated GBS, the prototypic viral-triggered autoimmune disease, in the context of other emerging COVID-19-triggered autoimmunities, and discuss potential concerns with ongoing neuroimmunotherapies. METHODS: Eleven GBS cases in four key COVID-19 hotspots are discussed regarding presenting symptoms, response to therapies and cross-reactivity of COVID spike proteins with nerve glycolipids. Emerging cases of COVID-19-triggered autoimmune necrotizing myositis (NAM) and encephalopathies are also reviewed in the context of viral invasion, autoimmunity and ongoing immunotherapies. RESULTS: Collective data indicate that in this pandemic any patient presenting with an acute paralytic disease-like GBS, encephalomyelitis or myositis-even without systemic symptoms, may represent the first manifestation of COVID-19. Anosmia, ageusia, other cranial neuropathies and lymphocytopenia are red flags enhancing early diagnostic suspicion. In Miller-Fisher Syndrome, ganglioside antibodies against GD1b, instead of QG1b, were found; because the COVID-19 spike protein also binds to sialic acid-containing glycoproteins for cell-entry and anti-GD1b antibodies typically cause ataxic neuropathy, cross-reactivity between COVID-19-bearing gangliosides and peripheral nerve glycolipids was addressed. Elevated Creatine Kinase (>10,000) is reported in 10% of COVID-19-infected patients; two such patients presented with painful muscle weakness responding to IVIg indicating that COVID-19-triggered NAM is an overlooked entity. Cases of acute necrotizing brainstem encephalitis, cranial neuropathies with leptomeningeal enhancement, and tumefactive postgadolinium-enhanced demyelinating lesions are now emerging with the need to explore neuroinvasion and autoimmunity. Concerns for modifications-if any-of chronic immunotherapies with steroids, mycophenolate, azathioprine, IVIg, and anti-B-cell agents were addressed; the role of complement in innate immunity to viral responses and anti-complement therapeutics (i.e. eculizumab) were reviewed. CONCLUSIONS: Emerging data indicate that COVID-19 can trigger not only GBS but other autoimmune neurological diseases necessitating vigilance for early diagnosis and therapy initiation. Although COVID-19 infection, like most other viruses, can potentially worsen patients with pre-existing autoimmunity, there is no evidence that patients with autoimmune neurological diseases stable on common immunotherapies are facing increased risks of infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/etiologia , Miosite/diagnóstico , Miosite/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Feminino , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Miosite/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia
12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(6)2020 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599773

RESUMO

A 57-year-old man presented with a progressive flaccid symmetrical motor and sensory neuropathy following a 1-week history of cough and malaise. He was diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome secondary to COVID-19 and started on intravenous immunoglobulin. He proceeded to have worsening respiratory function and needed intubation and mechanical ventilation. This is the first reported case of this rare neurological complication of COVID-19 in the UK, but it adds to a small but growing body of international evidence to suggest a significant association between these two conditions. Increasing appreciation of this by clinicians will ensure earlier diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of patients presenting with this.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/administração & dosagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/etiologia , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/terapia , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exame Neurológico/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Ann Neurol ; 88(1): 1-11, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506549

RESUMO

In less than 6 months, the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide infecting nearly 6 million people and killing over 350,000. Initially thought to be restricted to the respiratory system, we now understand that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) also involves multiple other organs, including the central and peripheral nervous system. The number of recognized neurologic manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection is rapidly accumulating. These may result from a variety of mechanisms, including virus-induced hyperinflammatory and hypercoagulable states, direct virus infection of the central nervous system (CNS), and postinfectious immune mediated processes. Example of COVID-19 CNS disease include encephalopathy, encephalitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, meningitis, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, venous sinus thrombosis, and endothelialitis. In the peripheral nervous system, COVID-19 is associated with dysfunction of smell and taste, muscle injury, the Guillain-Barre syndrome, and its variants. Due to its worldwide distribution and multifactorial pathogenic mechanisms, COVID-19 poses a global threat to the entire nervous system. Although our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 neuropathogenesis is still incomplete and our knowledge is evolving rapidly, we hope that this review will provide a useful framework and help neurologists in understanding the many neurologic facets of COVID-19. ANN NEUROL 2020;88:1-11 ANN NEUROL 2020;88:1-11.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Encefalopatias/etiologia , Encefalopatias/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/etiologia , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/fisiopatologia , Encefalite/etiologia , Encefalite/fisiopatologia , Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada/etiologia , Encefalomielite Aguda Disseminada/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/etiologia , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Inflamação , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/fisiopatologia , Leucoencefalite Hemorrágica Aguda/etiologia , Leucoencefalite Hemorrágica Aguda/fisiopatologia , Meningite Viral/etiologia , Meningite Viral/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/fisiopatologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Trombose dos Seios Intracranianos/etiologia , Trombose dos Seios Intracranianos/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Trombofilia/etiologia , Trombofilia/fisiopatologia
15.
Infez Med ; 28(suppl 1): 42-45, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532937

RESUMO

In addition to the conventional respiratory symptoms, patients with COVID-19 can exhibit neurological complications. In this concise review, we aim to report the most frequent neurologic manifestations related to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) infection. SARS-CoV2 can reach the central nervous system from the bloodstream or olfactory pathway by binding ACE-2 receptor and the spike protein protease TMPRSS2. Headache is reported in more than 10% of affected patients and loss of smell and taste disturbance are reported in a slightly smaller percentage of cases. Acute cerebrovascular events are diagnosed in less than 3% of COVID-19 patients, but those with more severe manifestations have cerebrovascular events in more than 6% of the cases, as reported by two retrospective studies from Italy and China. Moreover, five cases of large-vessel stroke have been described in low-symptomatic COVID-19 patients aging less than 50 years suggesting that SARS-CoV2 can be associated with an increase of the risk of stroke in relatively young people. Peripheral nerve diseases can be observed after an apparently uneventful SARS-CoV2. Based on a literature review, nine patients experienced Guillain-Barrè syndrome (GBS) and 6 of these needed mechanical ventilation. Two more cases have been described with Miller-Fisher syndrome or polyneuritis cranialis, both had rapidly resolving symptoms. In conclusion, nervous system symptoms can be observed during SARS-CoV2 infection of which headache and smell and taste disturbance are the main symptoms reported. Cerebrovascular complications can complicate the course of COVID-19 in apparently low-risk patients. GBS is a life-threatening manifestation of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/etiologia , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Cefaleia/etiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Inflamação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome de Miller Fisher/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Neurite (Inflamação)/etiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
16.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(6)2020 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540883

RESUMO

A 57-year-old man presented with a progressive flaccid symmetrical motor and sensory neuropathy following a 1-week history of cough and malaise. He was diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome secondary to COVID-19 and started on intravenous immunoglobulin. He proceeded to have worsening respiratory function and needed intubation and mechanical ventilation. This is the first reported case of this rare neurological complication of COVID-19 in the UK, but it adds to a small but growing body of international evidence to suggest a significant association between these two conditions. Increasing appreciation of this by clinicians will ensure earlier diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of patients presenting with this.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/administração & dosagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/etiologia , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/terapia , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exame Neurológico/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518172

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To present the COVID-19-associated GBS, the prototypic viral-triggered autoimmune disease, in the context of other emerging COVID-19-triggered autoimmunities, and discuss potential concerns with ongoing neuroimmunotherapies. METHODS: Eleven GBS cases in four key COVID-19 hotspots are discussed regarding presenting symptoms, response to therapies and cross-reactivity of COVID spike proteins with nerve glycolipids. Emerging cases of COVID-19-triggered autoimmune necrotizing myositis (NAM) and encephalopathies are also reviewed in the context of viral invasion, autoimmunity and ongoing immunotherapies. RESULTS: Collective data indicate that in this pandemic any patient presenting with an acute paralytic disease-like GBS, encephalomyelitis or myositis-even without systemic symptoms, may represent the first manifestation of COVID-19. Anosmia, ageusia, other cranial neuropathies and lymphocytopenia are red flags enhancing early diagnostic suspicion. In Miller-Fisher Syndrome, ganglioside antibodies against GD1b, instead of QG1b, were found; because the COVID-19 spike protein also binds to sialic acid-containing glycoproteins for cell-entry and anti-GD1b antibodies typically cause ataxic neuropathy, cross-reactivity between COVID-19-bearing gangliosides and peripheral nerve glycolipids was addressed. Elevated Creatine Kinase (>10,000) is reported in 10% of COVID-19-infected patients; two such patients presented with painful muscle weakness responding to IVIg indicating that COVID-19-triggered NAM is an overlooked entity. Cases of acute necrotizing brainstem encephalitis, cranial neuropathies with leptomeningeal enhancement, and tumefactive postgadolinium-enhanced demyelinating lesions are now emerging with the need to explore neuroinvasion and autoimmunity. Concerns for modifications-if any-of chronic immunotherapies with steroids, mycophenolate, azathioprine, IVIg, and anti-B-cell agents were addressed; the role of complement in innate immunity to viral responses and anti-complement therapeutics (i.e. eculizumab) were reviewed. CONCLUSIONS: Emerging data indicate that COVID-19 can trigger not only GBS but other autoimmune neurological diseases necessitating vigilance for early diagnosis and therapy initiation. Although COVID-19 infection, like most other viruses, can potentially worsen patients with pre-existing autoimmunity, there is no evidence that patients with autoimmune neurological diseases stable on common immunotherapies are facing increased risks of infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/etiologia , Miosite/diagnóstico , Miosite/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Feminino , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Miosite/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia
18.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 78(5): 290-300, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the COVID-19 pandemic unfolds worldwide, different forms of reports have described its neurologic manifestations. OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on neurological complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Literature search performed following systematic reviews guidelines, using specific keywords based on the COVID-19 neurological complications described up to May 10th, 2020. RESULTS: A total of 43 articles were selected, including data ranging from common, non-specific symptoms, such as hyposmia and myalgia, to more complex and life-threatening conditions, such as cerebrovascular diseases, encephalopathies, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. CONCLUSION: Recognition of neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 should be emphasized despite the obvious challenges faced by clinicians caring for critical patients who are often sedated and presenting other concurrent systemic complications.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Ageusia/complicações , Encefalopatias/complicações , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/complicações , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/complicações , Humanos , Mialgia/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Olfato/complicações , Pandemias
19.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(6): e1008538, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544190

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) infects pregnant women and causes devastating congenital zika syndrome (CZS). How the virus is vertically transmitted to the fetus and induces neuronal loss remains unclear. We previously reported that Pellino (Peli)1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, promotes p38MAPK activation in microglia and induction of lethal encephalitis by facilitating the replication of West Nile virus (WNV), a closely related flavivirus. Here, we found that Peli1 expression was induced on ZIKV-infected human monocytic cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, human first-trimester placental trophoblasts, and neural stem cell (hNSC)s. Peli1 mediates ZIKV cell attachment, entry and viral translation and its expression is confined to the endoplasmic reticulum. Moreover, Peli1 mediated inflammatory cytokine and chemokine responses and induced cell death in placental trophoblasts and hNSCs. ZIKV-infected pregnant mice lacking Peli1 signaling had reduced placental inflammation and tissue damage, which resulted in attenuated congenital abnormalities. Smaducin-6, a membrane-tethered Smad6-derived peptide, blocked Peli1-mediated NF-κB activation but did not have direct effects on ZIKV infection. Smaducin-6 reduced inflammatory responses and cell death in placental trophoblasts and hNSCs, and diminished placental inflammation and damage, leading to attenuated congenital malformations in mice. Collectively, our results reveal a novel role of Peli1 in flavivirus pathogenesis and suggest that Peli1 promotes ZIKV vertical transmission and neuronal loss by mediating inflammatory cytokine responses and induction of cell death. Our results also identify Smaducin-6 as a potential therapeutic candidate for treatment of CZS.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Guillain-Barré , Proteínas Nucleares/antagonistas & inibidores , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/antagonistas & inibidores , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/genética , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/metabolismo , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Trofoblastos/metabolismo , Trofoblastos/patologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Zika virus/genética , Infecção por Zika virus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção por Zika virus/genética , Infecção por Zika virus/metabolismo , Infecção por Zika virus/patologia
20.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 20(4): e93-e94, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518103

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) typically present with respiratory symptoms, but little is known about the disease's potential neurological complications.We report a case of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) following a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, in association with leptomeningeal enhancement. CASE PRESENTATION: A 56-year-old woman presented with recent unsteadiness and paraesthesia in both hands. Fifteen days earlier, she complained of fever, dry cough and shortness of breath. Her chest X-ray showed a lobar consolidation and PCR was positive for SARS-CoV-2; she was admitted due to mild COVID-19 pneumonia.In the first 48 hours of hospitalisation, she started to experience lumbar pain and weakness of the proximal lower extremities, progressing to bilateral facial nerve palsy, oropharyngeal weakness and severe proximal tetraparesis with cervical flexion 2/5 on the MRC scale. Full spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a brainstem and cervical leptomeningeal enhancement. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) revealed albumin-cytological dissociation. Microbiological studies on CSF, including SARS-CoV-2, were negative. Nerve conduction studies were consistent with demyelinating neuropathy. She was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin, with significant neurological improvement noted over the next 2 weeks. CONCLUSION: Leptomeningeal enhancement is an atypical feature in GBS, but could be a marker of its association with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Vértebra Cervical Áxis , Tronco Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Condução Nervosa , Pandemias , Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem
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