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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e210699, jan.-dez. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1253172

RESUMO

Aim: To evaluate orthodontists' knowledge and clinical practices regarding the treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS. Methods: Cross-sectional study performed with 655 Brazilian orthodontists based on a previously calculated sample size. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to orthodontists to collect information on knowledge and clinical conduct regarding the care of patients with HIV/AIDS. The study evaluated the awareness of possible risk factors for contamination, oral manifestations of HIV, need for more information on the care of HIV-positive patients, whether orthodontic treatment is indicated in HIV-positive patients, and whether they had knowingly performed orthodontic treatment in HIV-positive patients. Simple regression models were adjusted, and crude Odds Ratios estimated the associations with 95% confidence intervals. The variables with P < 0.20 in the crude analysis were tested in multiple logistic regression models, and those with P ≤ 0.05 were maintained in the final model. Magnitudes were estimated by adjusted Odds Ratios values, with 95% confidence intervals. Results: Orthodontists who were aware of the oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS, those having work experience of more than 20 years, and those who believed that orthodontic treatment could be indicated for these patients were 3.30 (1.79-6.10), 2.74 (1.36-5.52) and 1.92 (1.13-3.24) times more likely to perform orthodontic treatment in HIV-positive patients, respectively. Most orthodontists (92.9%) reported they needed to obtain more information about orthodontic care in patients with HIV/AIDS. Conclusion: Although orthodontists reported feeling able and qualified to provide dental care to patients with HIV/AIDS, gaps in their knowledge need to be addressed with further training


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Ortodontia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , HIV , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência
2.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 59(237): 486-489, 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508432

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a lentivirus that causes human immunodeficiency virus infection and over time, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Cluster of Differentiation 4+ T cell count of people living with this infection play a vital role to determine infection progression and necessary treatment changes. This study was conducted to find out the prevalence of low Cluster of Differentiation 4+ T Cell Count in the People Living with human immunodeficiency virus/ acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between June to August 2018 in the Human Immunodeficiency virus and Hepatitis Reference Unit of National Public Health Laboratory, Ministry of Health and Population Teku. Ethical approval was taken (Reference Number 2912) and a total of 550 seropositive cases of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 undergoing antiretroviral therapy were studied. Convenient sampling technique was used. Data was analysed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. RESULTS: Seventeen (3.1%) of patients had Cluster of Differentiation 4+ T cell counts below 100 cells/mm3 of blood. The mean Cluster of Differentiation 4+ T cell count was 509.3 cells/mm3 of blood. Of the total samples, 280 (50.9%) were males, 268 (48.7%) were females, and the rest 2 (0.4%) were of other gender. CONCLUSIONS: Majority of people living with human immunodeficiency virus/ acquired immunodeficiency syndrome were found immune-competent.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Contagem de Células , Diferenciação Celular , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Laboratórios , Masculino
3.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 38(2): 278-283, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468576

RESUMO

This study was carried out to describe and compare the demographic, clinical, and therapeutic characteristics of HIV patients who developed some cancer. We identified 276 cancer cases diagnosed at Hospital Cayetano Heredia between 2000 and 2018. 80,8% (223/276) had AIDS-defining-cancers (ADCs), being Kaposi's Sarcoma the most frequent type; meanwhile, among non-AIDS-defining-cancers (NADCs), the most frequent was Hodgkin lymphoma. The median age was 36,5 years, being highest among the cases diagnosed with NADCs. Concerning CD4 lymphocyte counts, the median among ADCs was much lower than NADCs, 87,5 cells/µl and 216 cells/µl, respectively. Therefore, NADCs cases have a longer history of HIV infection, and an older age at cancer diagnosis, as well as higher CD4 cells counts.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , Neoplasias , Sarcoma de Kaposi , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Peru/epidemiologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Fatores de Risco , Sarcoma de Kaposi/diagnóstico , Sarcoma de Kaposi/epidemiologia
5.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 30(3): 263-267, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476442

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To monitor oral candida infection and immune status of HIV/AIDS patients during the first year of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and to explore the relationship between oral candida infection and immune status. METHODS: A total of 46 HIV/AIDS patients were followed up. At baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months after HAART, CD4+T lymphocytes were measured, oral examinations of patients were carried out and the occurrence of oral candidiasis was recorded. Oral rinses were collected, and Sabourd's dextrose agar and CHROMagar candida medium were used to culture and identify oral candida. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 25.0 software package. RESULTS: The counts of CD4+T lymphocytes in HIV/AIDS patients at 3, 6 and 12 months after HAART were (327.91±138.82), (329.65±142.66) and (319.98±97.90) cells/mm3, respectively, which were significantly higher than CD4+T lymphocytes(263.39±126.01) at baseline(P<0.05). The prevalence of oral candidiasis at 3, 6 and 12 months after HAART was 26.09%, 21.74% and 23.91%, respectively, which was significantly lower than that(52.17%) at baseline(P<0.05). The prevalence of oral candidiasis in patients with CD4+T lymphocyte <200 cells/mm3 was significantly higher than that in patients with CD4+T lymphocyte ≥200 cells/mm3(P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: HAART can increase CD4+T lymphocytes, reconstruct the immunity of patients and reduce the incidence of oral candidiasis, but the incidence of oral candidiasis significantly increased in patients with CD4+T lymphocyte <200 cells/mm3 .


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Candidíase Bucal , Infecções por HIV , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Candidíase Bucal/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase Bucal/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
6.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 55: e20200309, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477196

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of risk factors for infection that add up to the nursing diagnosis risk of infection in people with AIDS who are hospitalized. METHOD: Accuracy study with case-control design carried out with a total of 208 people living with AIDS and hospitalized between 2010 and 2016. The cases comprised people living with HIV, hospitalized and who developed infection related to health care and controls to those who did not develop it. Secondary data from medical records and research forms were used to respond to the data collection instrument for sociodemographic, clinical evaluation and investigation of the presence or absence of risk factors. The accuracy of clinical diagnostic indicators was measured through specificity, sensitivity and predictive values. RESULTS: The risk factor that showed the greatest sensitivity and specificity was chronic illness, while the invasive procedure and the change in the integrity of the skin had the highest positive predictive value. CONCLUSION: Accurate diagnoses allow nurses to build a nursing intervention plan aimed at the needs of this population.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Diagnóstico de Enfermagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360891

RESUMO

Globally, HIV/AIDS and cancer are increasingly public health problems and continue to exist as comorbidities. The sub-Saharan African region has the largest number of HIV infections. Malignancies previously associated with HIV/AIDS, also known as the AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs) have been documented to decrease, while the non-AIDS defining cancer (NADCs) are on the rise. On the other hand, cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease and precision oncology as the most effective cancer therapy is gaining attraction. Among HIV-infected individuals, the increased risk for developing cancer is due to the immune system of the patient being suppressed, frequent coinfection with oncogenic viruses and an increase in risky behavior such as poor lifestyle. The core of personalised medicine for cancer depends on the discovery and the development of biomarkers. Biomarkers are specific and highly sensitive markers that reveal information that aid in leading to the diagnosis, prognosis and therapy of the disease. This review focuses mainly on the risk assessment, diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic role of various cancer biomarkers in HIV-positive patients. A careful selection of sensitive and specific HIV-associated cancer biomarkers is required to identify patients at most risk of tumour development, thus improving the diagnosis and prognosis of the disease.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , HIV-1 , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/virologia , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/classificação , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Comorbidade , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Vírus Oncogênicos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e050133, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404712

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the temporal trend and identify risk factors associated with the absence of previous HIV testing prior to their diagnosis among HIV-positive persons in Singapore. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We analysed data of HIV-positive persons infected via sexual transmission, who were notified to the National HIV Registry in 2012-2017. OUTCOMES: Epidemiological factors associated with the absence of HIV testing prior to diagnosis were determined separately for two groups of HIV-positive persons: early and late stages of HIV infection at diagnosis. RESULTS: 2188 HIV-positive persons with information on HIV testing history and CD4 cell count were included in the study. The median age at HIV diagnosis was 40 years (IQR 30-51). Nearly half (45.1%) had never been tested for HIV prior to their diagnosis. The most common reason cited for no previous HIV testing was 'not necessary to test' (73.7%). The proportion diagnosed at late-stage HIV infection was significantly higher among HIV-positive persons who had never been tested for HIV (63.9%) compared with those who had undergone previous HIV tests (29.0%). Common risk factors associated with no previous HIV testing in multivariable logistic regression analysis stratified by stage of HIV infection were: older age at HIV diagnosis, lower educational level, detection via medical care and HIV infection via heterosexual transmission. In the stratified analysis for persons diagnosed at early-stage of HIV infection, in addition to the four risk factors, women and those of Malay ethnicity were also less likely to have previous HIV testing prior to their diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Targeted prevention efforts and strategies are needed to raise the level of awareness of HIV/AIDS and to encourage early and regular screening among the at-risk groups by making HIV testing more accessible.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Teste de HIV , Humanos , Singapura/epidemiologia
10.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(8): 2052-2057, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418028

RESUMO

Early sexual debut is common in Nigeria and increases HIV risk among adolescents. About 152,000 adolescents are living with HIV. Lack of knowledge and appropriate sexual reproductive health services are some factors responsible. This paper estimated the cost of secondary school-based HIV/AIDS intervention for schools in Enugu State, Nigeria. The rationale for estimation is to avoid unaffordable and ineffective interventions. The cost was estimated between March to October 2019 for schools in urban and rural areas with population of 1595 students. The cost estimation was aided through UNAID proposed guideline. The estimation was done by classifying intervention into cost of training, cost of services and cost of commodities. The cost was estimated at $5954. The estimated cost in urban is lesser than that of rural. This estimated cost of intervention may inform stakeholders with the knowledge of cost implications to avoid unaffordable school-based HIV interventions in Enugu State, Nigeria.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , Adolescente , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Nigéria , Percepção , Instituições Acadêmicas
11.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 55: e20200192, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423798

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the representational contents of pregnant women living with HIV. METHOD: Exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study, conducted with pregnant women with HIV from August 2017 to January 2018. Semi-structured interview was opted for. The IRAMUTEQ software was used for analysis, organizing the data into 2 blocks: a) moment of discovery, impacts, representational contents of HIV; and b) representational contents in living with the disease. RESULTS: The participating pregnant women amounted to 25. Initially, the social representation of HIV translated the representation of death; however, this construction changes as women understand information of the pathology, which starts to be seen as a disease which demands more care. CONCLUSION: The conception of HIV as frightful is mainly due to concern about transmission to the fetus. The resignification of HIV was perceived among pregnant women, which favors new behaviors and attitudes towards the representational contents related to a deeper knowledge about the virus, demystifying the idea that this is a deadly disease.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Gestantes
13.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e931595, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Mycobacterium avium intracellulare complex (MAI) is a member of the non-tuberculous mycobacteria family, which can cause both pulmonary and non-pulmonary disease. In patients with advanced HIV, it is known to cause disseminated disease. We present a case of a 65-year-old man who has sex with men (MSM) with AIDS, found to have spondylodiscitis and an epidural abscess, who had recently completed treatment for disseminated MAI. CASE REPORT The patient was a 65-year-old with AIDS secondary to HIV and a prior history of disseminated MAI, who presented with severe back pain. Upon presentation to the hospital, an MRI was performed, which was suggestive of spondylodiscitis and an epidural abscess. He was taken to surgery for a minimally invasive T12-L1 laminectomy and evacuation of the epidural abscess. Both traditional cultures and acid-fast bacillus (AFB) cultures were negative. Due to worsening pain, he was taken back to surgery for a repeat debridement and biopsy. Repeat cultures were positive for MAI. He was started on rifabutin, ethambutol, azithromycin, and moxifloxacin. Moxifloxacin was subsequently discontinued. He has had problems tolerating the treatment regimen, but is planned to complete an 18-24-month course. CONCLUSIONS For patients with AIDS who have a diagnosis of spondylodiscitis and an epidural abscess, an opportunistic infection such as MAI should be considered. A repeat biopsy should be considered if suspicion is still high, even despite initially negative cultures. Treatment regimens should be prolonged, despite difficulty with medication compliance.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Discite , Abscesso Epidural , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Idoso , Discite/diagnóstico , Abscesso Epidural/complicações , Abscesso Epidural/diagnóstico , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Complexo Mycobacterium avium , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/complicações , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/diagnóstico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia
14.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 24, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34394815

RESUMO

Introduction: palliative care offers a care and support system to people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). In Nigeria, the palliative care (PC) practice generally is new and still developing. While most studies on HIV/AIDS assess drug treatment and adherence for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), there is paucity of data on PC services available for them. We therefore assessed the PC services offered and referral services available to PLWHA in health facilities. Methods: we conducted a cross-sectional study across all public secondary and tertiary health facilities offering HIV care services in Abuja, Nigeria between February and May 2017. We used an interviewer-administered semi-structure questionnaire to collect information from the heads of health facilities. The questionnaire assessed palliative care and referral services for PLWHA. Frequencies and proportions were calculated using Microsoft-Excel. Results: of the 17 health facilities assessed, only 6 (35.3%) have constituted a palliative care team but only 3 (17.6%) had some sources of fund for PC. Twelve (70.6%) provided nutritional support for PLWHA, 6 (35.3%) provided spiritual and 8 (47.1%) offered bereavement support for families of PLWHA. Sixteen (94.1%) had well-established referral services for PLWHA. Conclusion: palliative care services for PLWHA were generally poor in all the health facilities. There exists a well-established referral services for PLWHA in most of the health facilities. We recommend that the PC structure for PLWHA should be improved by increasing and ensuring compliance to guidelines and the established referral network should continue to be strengthened.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/terapia , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados Paliativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Nigéria , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e931821, 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Opportunistic infections are commonly seen in immunocompromised patients. Here, we present an interesting case of a patient with poorly controlled human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who presented with multiple opportunistic infections. CASE REPORT A 44-year-old woman with medical history of HIV infection (CD4 <20 cells/µl, viral load 172 996 copies/ml), presented with symptoms of headache for 2 days and changes in mentation. She was recently treated for pulmonary mycobacterium avium complex infection. Her physical examination revealed normal breath sounds and her abdominal examination was unremarkable. She did not have any focal neurological deficits, nuchal rigidity, or papilledema on examination. Computed tomography (CT) head was negative for any acute lesions. She was empirically started on vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam. Due to persistent symptoms, a lumbar puncture was performed, which revealed elevated total proteins in CSF, and a viral polymerase chain reaction test was positive for herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed mild enhancement of the ventricular lining. She was treated with acyclovir, which was later changed to ganciclovir, with resulting clinical improvement. The patient had clinical improvement and was discharged home. CONCLUSIONS Multiple opportunistic co-infections should be considered in patients with poorly controlled HIV infection.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Coinfecção , Encefalite , Infecções por HIV , Adulto , Citomegalovirus , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Herpesvirus Humano 2 , Humanos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444384

RESUMO

HIV-related stigma and discrimination are recognized barriers to HIV prevention, testing and treatment among people of Sub-Saharan African descent (SSA) origin living in Belgium, but insights into HIV related-stigma mechanisms and outcomes are lacking for this population with high HIV prevalence. Guided by Earnshaw and Chaudoir's stigma framework (2009), we conducted this qualitative study using 10 focus-groups with 76 SSA community members and 20 in-depth interviews with SSA descendants living with HIV to explore specific HIV-stigma mechanisms and outcomes and underlying drivers. Inductive and deductive thematic analysis showed high degrees of stigma among SSA communities driven by fear of HIV acquisition and misconceptions in a migration context, negatively affecting SSA descendants living with HIV. The results allowed for contextualization of the framework: At the community level, prejudices and stereotypes were major stigma mechanisms, while physical distancing, gossips, sexual rejection, violence and increased HIV prevalence emerged as stigma outcomes. Among SSA descendants living with HIV, enacted, anticipated and internalized stigmas were validated as stigma mechanisms, with witnessed stigma as an additional mechanism. Self-isolation, community avoidance and low utilization of non-HIV specialized healthcare were additional outcomes. These results are relevant for tailoring interventions to reduce HIV-related stigma.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estigma Social
17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1333: 1-15, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339008

RESUMO

Understanding and measuring the burden of HIV faces several remaining challenges around the globe. HIV prevention, care, and treatment efforts, including advocacy for populations at risk of HIV, the design and implementation of national guidelines, monitoring the coverage of HIV programs and evaluating their impact, are not feasible without relatively precise estimates of the impact and magnitude of HIV among different subpopulations.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos
18.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 21(1): 159, 2021 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332540

RESUMO

AIM: HIV prevention measures in sub-Saharan Africa are still short of attaining the UNAIDS 90-90-90 fast track targets set in 2014. Identifying predictors for HIV status may facilitate targeted screening interventions that improve health care. We aimed at identifying HIV predictors as well as predicting persons at high risk of the infection. METHOD: We applied machine learning approaches for building models using population-based HIV Impact Assessment (PHIA) data for 41,939 male and 45,105 female respondents with 30 and 40 variables respectively from four countries in sub-Saharan countries. We trained and validated the algorithms on 80% of the data and tested on the remaining 20% where we rotated around the left-out country. An algorithm with the best mean f1 score was retained and trained on the most predictive variables. We used the model to identify people living with HIV and individuals with a higher likelihood of contracting the disease. RESULTS: Application of XGBoost algorithm appeared to significantly improve identification of HIV positivity over the other five algorithms by f1 scoring mean of 90% and 92% for males and females respectively. Amongst the eight most predictor features in both sexes were: age, relationship with family head, the highest level of education, highest grade at that school level, work for payment, avoiding pregnancy, age at the first experience of sex, and wealth quintile. Model performance using these variables increased significantly compared to having all the variables included. We identified five males and 19 females individuals that would require testing to find one HIV positive individual. We also predicted that 4·14% of males and 10.81% of females are at high risk of infection. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide a potential use of the XGBoost algorithm with socio-behavioural-driven data at substantially identifying HIV predictors and predicting individuals at high risk of infection for targeted screening.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Gravidez
19.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1508, 2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV epidemic remains a major public health issue in Malawi especially among adolescent girls and young women (AGYW). Comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge (defined as correct knowledge of two major ways of preventing the sexual transmission of HIV and rejection of three misconceptions about HIV) is a key component of preventing new HIV infections among AGYW. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the correlates of comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge among AGYW in Malawi. METHODS: The study was based on cross-sectional data from the 2015-2016 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey. It involved 10,422 AGYW aged 15-24 years. The outcome variable was comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariable logistic regression model. All the analyses were performed using complex sample analysis procedure of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences to account for complex survey design. RESULTS: Approximately 42.2% of the study participants had comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge. Around 28% of the participants did not know that using condoms consistently can reduce the risk of HIV and 25% of the participants believed that mosquitoes could transmit HIV. Multivariable logistic regression model demonstrated that having higher education (AOR = 2.97, 95% CI: 2.35-3.75), belonging to richest households (AOR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.05-1.45), being from central region (AOR = 1.65, 95% CI:1.43-1.89), southern region (AOR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.43-1.90),listening to radio at least once a week (AOR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.15-1.40) and ever tested for HIV (AOR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.68-2.09) were significantly correlated with comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge among AGYW in Malawi is low. Various social-demographic characteristics were significantly correlated with comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge in this study. These findings suggest that public health programmes designed to improve comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge in Malawi should focus on uneducated young women, those residing in northern region and from poor households. There is also a need to target AGYW who have never tested for HIV with voluntary counselling and testing services. This measure might both improve their comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge and awareness of their health status.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Prevalência
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