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1.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 23(8): e25587, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767707

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic reached the African continent in less than three months from when the first cases were reported from mainland China. As COVID-19 preparedness and response plans were rapidly instituted across sub-Saharan Africa, many governments and donor organizations braced themselves for the unknown impact the COVID-19 pandemic would have in under-resourced settings with high burdens of PLHIV. The potential negative impact of COVID-19 in these countries is uncertain, but is estimated to contribute both directly and indirectly to the morbidity and mortality of PLHIV, requiring countries to leverage existing HIV care systems to propel COVID-19 responses, while safeguarding PLHIV and HIV programme gains. In anticipation of COVID-19-related disruptions, PEPFAR promptly established guidance to rapidly adapt HIV programmes to maintain essential HIV services while protecting recipients of care and staff from COVID-19. This commentary reviews PEPFAR's COVID-19 technical guidance and provides country-specific examples of programme adaptions in sub-Saharan Africa. DISCUSSION: The COVID-19 pandemic may pose significant risks to the continuity of HIV services, especially in countries with high HIV prevalence and weak and over-burdened health systems. Although there is currently limited understanding of how COVID-19 affects PLHIV, it is imperative that public health systems and academic centres monitor the impact of COVID-19 on PLHIV. The general principles of the HIV programme adaptation guidance from PEPFAR prioritize protecting the gains in the HIV response while minimizing in-person home and facility visits and other direct contact when COVID-19 control measures are in effect. PEPFAR-supported clinical, laboratory, supply chain, community and data reporting systems can play an important role in mitigating the impact of COVID-19 in sub-Saharan Africa. CONCLUSIONS: As community transmission of COVID-19 continues and the number of country cases rise, fragile health systems may be strained. Utilizing the adaptive, data-driven programme approaches in facilities and communities established and supported by PEPFAR provides the opportunity to strengthen the COVID-19 response while protecting the immense gains spanning HIV prevention, testing and treatment reached thus far.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Assistência à Saúde , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/mortalidade , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prevalência
2.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 23(8): e25587, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-641138

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic reached the African continent in less than three months from when the first cases were reported from mainland China. As COVID-19 preparedness and response plans were rapidly instituted across sub-Saharan Africa, many governments and donor organizations braced themselves for the unknown impact the COVID-19 pandemic would have in under-resourced settings with high burdens of PLHIV. The potential negative impact of COVID-19 in these countries is uncertain, but is estimated to contribute both directly and indirectly to the morbidity and mortality of PLHIV, requiring countries to leverage existing HIV care systems to propel COVID-19 responses, while safeguarding PLHIV and HIV programme gains. In anticipation of COVID-19-related disruptions, PEPFAR promptly established guidance to rapidly adapt HIV programmes to maintain essential HIV services while protecting recipients of care and staff from COVID-19. This commentary reviews PEPFAR's COVID-19 technical guidance and provides country-specific examples of programme adaptions in sub-Saharan Africa. DISCUSSION: The COVID-19 pandemic may pose significant risks to the continuity of HIV services, especially in countries with high HIV prevalence and weak and over-burdened health systems. Although there is currently limited understanding of how COVID-19 affects PLHIV, it is imperative that public health systems and academic centres monitor the impact of COVID-19 on PLHIV. The general principles of the HIV programme adaptation guidance from PEPFAR prioritize protecting the gains in the HIV response while minimizing in-person home and facility visits and other direct contact when COVID-19 control measures are in effect. PEPFAR-supported clinical, laboratory, supply chain, community and data reporting systems can play an important role in mitigating the impact of COVID-19 in sub-Saharan Africa. CONCLUSIONS: As community transmission of COVID-19 continues and the number of country cases rise, fragile health systems may be strained. Utilizing the adaptive, data-driven programme approaches in facilities and communities established and supported by PEPFAR provides the opportunity to strengthen the COVID-19 response while protecting the immense gains spanning HIV prevention, testing and treatment reached thus far.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Assistência à Saúde , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/mortalidade , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prevalência
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 473, 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People living with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (PLHIV) have an increased susceptibility to develop non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). Infection with HIV contributes to the development of CVD independent of traditional risk factors, with endothelial dysfunction being the central physiological mechanism. While HIV-related mortality is declining due to antiretroviral treatment (ART), the number of deaths due to CVD is rising in South Africa - the country with the highest number of PLHIV and the world's largest ART programme. The EndoAfrica study was developed to determine whether HIV infection and ART are associated with cardiovascular risk markers and changes in vascular structure and function over 18 months in adults from different provinces of South Africa. This paper describes the rationale, methodology and baseline cohort profile of the EndoAfrica study conducted in the North West Province, South Africa. METHODS: In this case-control study, conducted between August 2017 and June 2018, 382 volunteers of African descent (276 women; 106 men), comprising of 278 HIV infected and 104 HIV free individuals were included. We measured health behaviours, a detailed cardiovascular profile, and performed biomarker analyses. We compared baseline characteristics, blood pressure, vascular function and biochemical markers between those infected and HIV free. RESULTS: At baseline, the HIV infected participants were older (43 vs 39 years), less were employed (21% vs 40%), less had a tertiary education (7% vs 16%) and their body mass index was lower (26 vs 29 kg/m2) than that of the HIV free participants. While the cardiovascular profile, flow-mediated dilation and pulse wave velocity did not differ, glycated haemoglobin was lower (p = 0.017) and total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, gamma-glutamyltransferase and tobacco use were higher (all p < 0.047) in PLHIV. CONCLUSION: Despite PLHIV being older, preliminary cross-sectional analysis suggests that PLHIV being treated with ART do not have poorer endothelial or vascular function compared to the HIV free participants. More detailed analyses on the baseline and follow-up data will provide further clarity regarding the cardiovascular profile of South Africans living with HIV.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , HIV , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/sangue , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos de Casos e Controles , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue
5.
S Afr Med J ; 110(4): 313-319, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The goal of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is to suppress viral replication to undetectable levels. These low viral load (VL) levels may not be attained in some patients, a situation representing potential virological failure during the course of treatment. OBJECTIVES: To present the results of a Markov model exploring how virological failure and active tuberculosis (TB) affect the progression of HIV in patients on ART. METHODS: A continuous-time non-homogeneous Markov model was used to model the progression of HIV/AIDS in patients on combination ART (cART). We define seven states in our model. The first five states are based on VL levels and the other two are absorbing states: death and withdrawal from the study. The effects of TB co-infection, baseline VL, lactic acidosis and treatment failure on transition intensities were assessed. RESULTS: The model shows that VL-based transition intensities do not follow a constant rate; rather, there are two different trends in HIV/AIDS progression. The first trend is an increase in the prevalence of state 1 (undetectable VL levels) in the first 0.5 years of treatment. The second trend follows thereafter and shows a slow decrease. Within the first 0.5 years of therapeutic intervention, the undetectable VL state is therefore attainable from any VL state. However, when virological failure occurs, there is an increased risk of death. Developing active TB while on cART increases the risk of viral rebound from undetectable levels to VLs between 50 and 10 000 copies/mL by ~1.03-fold. From a VL between 10 000 and 100 000 copies/mL, developing TB while on cART increases the rate of viral rebound by ~2.5-fold. However, if TB is detected and treated at enrolment, rates of viral rebound from undetectable levels are reduced. CONCLUSIONS: The model confirms that virological failure, coupled with developing active TB while on cART, increases mortality rates irrespective of patient CD4+ count status. It also suggests that while TB at the time of cART initiation does not increase the risk of viral rebound, development of active TB after cART initiation does increase this risk. These findings highlight the importance of strengthening VL monitoring, which should be performed every 2 months, especially in patients with TB, and addressing unsuppressed VLs appropriately if they are detected.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Acidose Láctica/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/sangue , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Progressão da Doença , Interações Medicamentosas , Farmacorresistência Viral , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Tuberculose Latente/complicações , Masculino , Cadeias de Markov , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/induzido quimicamente , População Rural , África do Sul , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Falha de Tratamento , Tuberculose/complicações , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008383, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urogenital schistosomiasis and HIV/AIDS infections are widespread in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) leading to substantial morbidity and mortality. The co-occurrence of both diseases has led to the possible hypothesis that urogenital schistosomiasis leads to increased risk of acquiring HIV infection. However, the available evidence concerning this association is inconsistent. The aim of this study was to systematically review and quantitatively synthesize studies that investigated the association between urogenital schistosomiasis and HIV/AIDS infection. METHODS: A systematic review basing on PRISMA guidelines was conducted. It is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42018116648. We searched four databases, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health and Global Index Medicus for studies investigating the association between urogenital schistosomiasis and HIV infection. Only studies published in English were considered. Results of the association were summarised by gender. A meta-analysis was performed for studies on females using random-effects model and a pooled OR with 95% confidence interval was reported. RESULTS: Of the 993 studies screened, only eight observational studies met the inclusion criteria. Across all studies, the reported unadjusted OR ranged from 0.78 to 3.76. The pooled estimate of unadjusted OR among females was 1.31 (95% CI: 0.87-1.99). Only four of the eight studies reported an adjusted OR. A separate meta-analysis done in the three studies among females that reported an adjusted OR showed that the pooled estimate was 1.85 (95% CI: 1.17-2.92). There were insufficient data to pool results for association between urogenital schistosomiasis and HIV infection in the males. CONCLUSION: Our investigation supports the hypothesis of an association between urogenital schistosomiasis with HIV/AIDS infection in females. Due to insufficient evidence, no conclusion could be drawn in males with urogenital schistosomiasis. Large-scale prospective studies are needed in future.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Esquistossomose Urinária/complicações , África ao Sul do Saara , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(18): e19930, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358363

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated smooth muscle tumors (SMTs) usually present under the condition of immunosuppression, including congenital immunodeficiency syndrome-SMT, post-transplantation-SMT and HIV-SMT. HIV-SMTs are most likely to invade the central nervous system, followed by the liver, lungs, and other locations. Many laboratory techniques, including serological techniques, polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry (IHC), are employed to determine the aetiologies of these tumours. With respect to therapy, surgical resection is the main treatment. In patients with immunodeficiency, improving immune status is significant for defending against other viruses. We describe a case of the primary focus of SMT in the liver of HIV-positive patient without any metastasis. PATIENT CONCERNS: A young male HIV-positive patient complained of fever and abdominal pain for 2 months. DIAGNOSIS: IHC of liver tissue confirmed the finding: EBV-related smooth muscle tumor. INTERVENTIONS: Given the patient's general condition, he was not a suitable candidate for surgical resection. He was given antibiotics, antifungal agents and EBV-directed agents to control infection as well as highly active antiretroviral therapy to enhance the immunity. OUTCOMES: The patient's symptoms improved. He was discharged. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, EBV-related HIV-SMTs is a rare neoplasm found in the liver among immunodeficient patients. This case highlights that a variety of examinations such as IHC for smooth muscle markers (smooth muscle actin and desmin) and EBER, as well as polymerase chain reaction for EBV DNA should be done when diagnoses are ambiguous.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Fígado/patologia , Tumor de Músculo Liso/complicações , Tumor de Músculo Liso/diagnóstico , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino
10.
PLoS Med ; 17(5): e1003125, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the United States, approximately one-fifth of transgender women are living with HIV-nearly one-half of Black/African American (Black) transgender women are living with HIV. Limited data are available on HIV-related clinical indicators among transgender women. This is because of a lack of robust transgender data collection and research, especially within demographic subgroups. The objective of this study was to examine retention in care and viral suppression among transgender women accessing the Health Resources and Services Administration's (HRSA) Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program (RWHAP)-supported HIV care, compared with cisgender women and cisgender men. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed the association between gender (cisgender or transgender) and (1) retention in care and (2) viral suppression using 2016 client-level RWHAP Services Report data. Multivariable modified Poisson regression models adjusting for confounding by age, race, health care coverage, housing, and poverty level, overall and stratified by race/ethnicity, were used to calculate adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In 2016, the RWHAP served 6,534 transgender women (79.8% retained in care, 79.0% virally suppressed), 143,173 cisgender women (83.7% retained in care, 84.0% virally suppressed), and 382,591 cisgender men (81.0% retained in care, 85.9% virally suppressed). Black transgender women were less likely to be retained in care than Black cisgender women (aPR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.92-0.97, p < 0.001). Black transgender women were also less likely to reach viral suppression than Black cisgender women (aPR: 0.55, 95%I CI: 0.41-0.73, p < 0.001) and Black cisgender men (aPR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.42-0.73, p < 0.001). A limitation of the study is that RWHAP data are collected for administrative, not research, purposes, and clinical outcome measures, including retention and viral suppression, are only reported to the RWHAP for the approximately 60% of RWHAP clients engaged in RWHAP-supported outpatient medical care. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed disparities in HIV clinical outcomes among Black transgender women. These results fill an important gap in national HIV data about transgender people with HIV. Reducing barriers to HIV medical care for transgender women is critical to decrease disparities among this population.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/fisiopatologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Pessoas Transgênero/estatística & dados numéricos , United States Health Resources and Services Administration/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Feminino , HIV/patogenicidade , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 360, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, very little information is available concerning the relationship between acanthosis nigricans (AN) and infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). CASE PRESENTATION: Herein, we report the case of a middle-aged man admitted for fever and progressively worsening dyspnea in the context of an opportunistic pneumonia and firstly diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). At the time of diagnosis, physical examination revealed the presence of a palpable, hyperpigmented skin lesion on the left areola with surface desquamation and velvety texture consistent with AN. Of note, the most common primary etiologies related to AN were excluded and the complete regression of the skin lesion was observed once antiretroviral therapy was started. CONCLUSION: This is the second report of AN found in patients with AIDS and apparently responsive to prolonged antiretroviral treatment. Possible explanations of this association are still not completely understood, probably related to virus-induced changes in lipid metabolism. Our experience suggests that HIV testing should always be considered in the setting of apparently idiopathic AN.


Assuntos
Acantose Nigricans/etiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Acantose Nigricans/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , HIV-1/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ativação Viral
12.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 56(4): 258-265, 2020 Apr 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306617

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the characteristics of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in AIDS patients with normal fundus, HIV-related microvascular retinopathy (MVR), and cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMVR). Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 111 patients were diagnosed with AIDS from 2012 to 2017 by infectious disease physicians in Beijing You'an Hospital. There were 105 males and 6 females, aged 20-65 years. According to the results of ophthalmic examination, the patients were divided into three groups: 31 patients in the active-stage CMVR group, 47 patients in the MVR group, and 33 patients with normal fundus in the control group. RNFL thickness was measured by optical coherence tomography in all patients. At the same time, visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and fundus were examined, and AIDS-related systemic examination (CD4(+) T lymphocyte count, HAART treatment status, and blood cytomegalovirus DNA level) was performed. The measurement data were compared by t-test, variance analysis or rank sum test. The counting data were compared by chi square test or Fisher exact probability method. Results: In the control group, the thickness of RNFL in the superior quadrant in the left and right eyes was 145 (79, 231) µm and 142 (46, 179) µm, respectively; the difference was statistically significant (Z=-2.481, P=0.013). The RNFL thickness of the diseased and healthy eyes in the MVR group was 116 (91, 138) µm and 122 (82, 192) µm, respectively, with no significant difference (Z=-0.861, P=0.389); the best corrected visual acuity was 0.0 (0.0, 0.2) and 0.0 (0.0, 0.2), respectively, with no significant difference (Z=-0.378, P=0.705). In the CMVR group, the best corrected visual acuity of the diseased and healthy eyes was (0.23±0.48) and (0.02±0.82), respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (t=-2.944, P=0.003); the RNFL thickness was 133 (61, 219) µm and 121 (69, 146), respectively, in the whole optic disc, with statistically significant difference (Z=-2.385, P=0.017), 104 (41, 374) µm and 82 (55, 121) µm, respectively, in the nasal quadrant, and 99 (14, 173) µm and 72 (36, 111) µm, respectively, in the temporal quadrant, with statistically significant difference (Z=-2.045, -2.543; P=0.041, 0.011). The RNFL thickness in the CMVR group, the MVR group, and the control group was 149 (61, 350) µm, 126 (71, 304) µm, and 113 (87, 149) µm, respectively, with statistically significant difference (H=20.908, P=0.000). Conclusions: The fundus of AIDS patients had different characteristics on optical coherence tomography. In active CMVR patients, the thickness of RNFL was generally thickened. In MVR patients, the average thickness of RNFL was thicker than that in the normal control group.(Chin J Ophthalmol, 2020, 56:258-265).


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Retinite por Citomegalovirus/patologia , Fibras Nervosas/patologia , Disco Óptico , Doenças Retinianas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Retinite por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Feminino , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Retinianas/complicações , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 309, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical manifestations of extraneural infection with the pork tapeworm Taenia solium typically affect the muscles, eyes, alimentary canal, and/or subcutaneous tissues. Children living with HIV are at increased risk for more widespread and severe manifestations of food-borne opportunistic infections, including T. solium, due to fluctuating levels of immunosuppression. We present a case of disseminated T. solium in a HIV-positive child with Kaposi sarcoma living in Tanzania with cysticercosis presenting as widespread subcutaneous nodules. CASE PRESENTATION: A 4-year-old HIV-positive boy in Southern Tanzania presented for evaluation of > 30 violaceous skin lesions, few subcutaneous nodules, and a circumferential violaceous penile lesion which rapidly grew after initiation of ART. The patient was clinically diagnosed with Kaposi sarcoma and started on chemotherapy with bleomycin, vincristine, and doxorubicin. He completed 10 cycles of chemotherapy, with full resolution of the violaceous skin and penile lesions but persistence of his subcutaneous nodules, thus paclitaxel was added. After 12 additional cycles of paclitaxel, his subcutaneous nodules enlarged, and biopsy of a scapular subcutaneous nodule was performed. Histopathology revealed a cystic structure with a central larval scolex and serrated spiral canal consistent with T. solium, which confirmed a diagnosis of disseminated cysticercosis. He completed a 10-day course of praziquantel and albendazole with resolution of the subcutaneous nodules. CONCLUSIONS: Disseminated cysticercosis is an unusual opportunistic infection which can present as subcutaneous nodules without other typical cysticercosis symptoms. Immunosuppression - from HIV and/or chemotherapy - may unmask cysticercosis in children in endemic regions and result in more severe manifestations of this disease. Cysticercosis should remain on a clinician's differential for subcutaneous nodules, especially in children living with HIV. Cysticercosis can mimic Kaposi sarcoma, and histopathology is essential to accurately diagnose and manage patients with concerning skin lesions.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/parasitologia , Cisticercose/tratamento farmacológico , Sarcoma de Kaposi/parasitologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anticestoides/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Pré-Escolar , Cisticercose/etiologia , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Masculino , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Sarcoma de Kaposi/tratamento farmacológico , Tela Subcutânea/parasitologia , Tela Subcutânea/patologia , Taenia solium/patogenicidade , Tanzânia
14.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(1): 81-86, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130386

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with HIV/AIDS. METHODS: The systematic review included articles indexed in MEDLINE (by PubMed), Web of Science, IBECS, and LILACS. Studies eligible included the year of publication, diagnose criteria of NAFLD and HIV, and were published in English, Portuguese, or Spanish from 2006 to 2018. The exclusion criteria were studies with HIV-infection patients and other liver diseases. Two reviewers were involved in the study and applied the same methodology, according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses). RESULTS: One hundred and sixteen papers were selected, including full articles, editorial letters, and reviews. Twenty-seven articles were excluded because they did meet the inclusion criteria. A total of 89 articles were read, and 13 were considered eligible for this review. Four case series used imaging methods to identify NAFLD, and nine included histology. The prevalence of NAFLD in HIV-patients ranged from 30%-100% and, in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), from 20% to 89%. A positive association between dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and body mass index was observed. There was no agreement between the studies that evaluated the relationship between antiretroviral drugs and NAFLD. CONCLUSION: This systematic review showed a high prevalence of NAFLD in HIV-patients, which was associated with metabolic risk factors. The possible association between antiretroviral therapy and NAFLD needs further studies.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
15.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 27(1): 63-66, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003365

RESUMO

A 35-year-old highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-naïve woman diagnosed 2 years earlier presented with complaints of cough, fever and progressive weight loss of 5 months and skin rashes of 2 months. Clinical examination revealed a chronically ill-looking young woman who was wasted and pale, with purplish flat-topped papules and nodules on the skin of her neck, trunk, forearms and thighs. She also had a single lesion on the hard palate. Chest examination shows reduced breath sounds with crepitations. Sputum acid-fast bacilli were positive, and skin biopsy taken for histology confirmed Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). The patient recovered fully on antiretroviral and antituberculosis therapy without the need for any specific chemotherapy for KS. We report this case to elucidate the role of immune reconstitution as a treatment modality for AIDS-related KS, as well as to point out the possibility of multiple opportunistic conditions coexisting amongst patients with advanced HIV disease.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Reconstituição Imune , Sarcoma de Kaposi , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Nigéria , Sarcoma de Kaposi/tratamento farmacológico , Sarcoma de Kaposi/etiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/complicações
16.
Gastroenterology ; 158(6): 1546-1547, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017908

Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Granuloma/diagnóstico , Proctite/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/imunologia , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Ceftriaxona/administração & dosagem , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Coinfecção/imunologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Colonoscopia , Citomegalovirus/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Doxiciclina/administração & dosagem , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Granuloma/tratamento farmacológico , Granuloma/imunologia , Granuloma/microbiologia , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação , Proctite/tratamento farmacológico , Proctite/imunologia , Proctite/microbiologia , Reto/diagnóstico por imagem , Reto/microbiologia , Reto/patologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/imunologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Valganciclovir/administração & dosagem
17.
Hum Immunol ; 81(1): 26-31, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866063

RESUMO

Human gammaherpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is the etiologic agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), one of the most common cancers in people living with HIV/AIDS. It is believe that the course of both HIV and HHV-8 infection is associated with the imbalance of anti- and/or pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here, we evaluated the IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, CCL2 and CXCL10 serum concentrations in HIV- and HIV/HHV-8 (without KS) individuals, and in patients with cutaneous or visceral AIDS-KS. Serum concentrations of IL-6, IL-10 and CXCL10 were significantly higher in the AIDS-KS group compared to HIV and HIV/HHV-8 individuals. Similarly, the concentrations of theses cytokines were higher in patients with visceral than in those with cutaneous AIDS-KS. The TNF-α concentration was significantly higher in the HIV group compared to HIV/HHV-8 (with and without KS) individuals, and CCL2 levels did not present significant difference among the groups. The HIV viral load was undetectable in all patients from the HIV and HIV/HHV-8 groups. On the other hand, in the AIDS-KS group, most patients had detectable HIV viral load. In this context, we believe that the cytokine levels in AIDS-KS may be result of a complex interaction between HIV, HHV-8 and immunity.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/sangue , Quimiocina CXCL10/sangue , HIV-1/metabolismo , Herpesvirus Humano 8/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Sarcoma de Kaposi/sangue , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sarcoma de Kaposi/complicações
18.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 36(3): 331-339, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral treatment (ART) is essential in HIV/AIDS patients. Suppressing viral load requires strict adherence to ART in addition to the patient's commitment to treatment. The failure of ART is mainly due to lack of adherence, which may in turn be due to poor quality of life and/or to psychological variables. AIM: To determine the quality of life and psychological variables and adherence to ART, in patients with HIV/AIDS. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 160 patients diagnosed with HIV/AIDS and with ART were included. The MOS SF-36 and VPAD-24 instruments, a socio-demographic survey, and clinical data were collected. Quantitative and qualitative associations were made between the variables. RESULTS: The adherence to ART was associated with avoidance of depressive behavior and with the absence of addictions. Depressive behavior associated with addictions. 87% of patients ranked in the best quality of life. Below the average of the general health score were males, with MSM sexual orientation, single, in vitality at ≥ 38 years, in corporal pain and with social function to three ART schemes. CONCLUSION: Good adherence to ART was associated with avoiding depressive behavior and with non-addictions and not associated with quality of life.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/psicologia , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1063, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contacting patients with tuberculosis have a substantial risk of developing the disease. Household contact screening has recently been recommended as a strategy to enhance case detection in high-burden countries. But there is no enough information in Gondar town regarding household contact screening practice among TB patients. METHODS: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March 1 to 30, 2019 on 404 tuberculosis patients attending at health facilities in Gondar Town. Epi-Info version 7 for data entry and SPSS version 20 for data analysis were used. Descriptive statistics were carried out to illustrate the means, standard deviations, and frequencies. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify significantly associated variables with the dependent variable. RESULTS: From 412 study populations, 404 were completed the study with 98.06% response rate. The overall household contact TB screening adherence was 47.5% (95% CI: 43.1, 52.5). In the multivariable analysis, having certificate and above educational level (AOR = 2.83, 95% CI:1.40,5.67), having sufficient knowledge about TB (AOR = 8.26, 95% CI:4.34,15.71), being satisfied with health care service (AOR = 3.26, 95% CI:1.58,6.76), health education given by health care workers (AOR = 2.60, 95% CI:1.54,4.40),and having HIV/AIDS co-infection (AOR = 3.54, 95% CI:1.70,7.39), were factors associated with household contact TB screening adherence. CONCLUSION: Compared to other previous studies, the current finding was high but it was low as compared with WHO and Ethiopian Ministry of Health recommendations (all persons having TB contact should be screened). Educational status, knowledge on TB, satisfaction with delivered health care service, health education given by HCWs about TB and HIV/AIDS co-infection were factors associated with household contact TB screening practice. Thus, strengthening household TB contact screening and educational programs regarding the risk of getting TB infection from household contacts is crucial.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Cooperação do Paciente , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/virologia , Adulto , Coinfecção , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Educação em Saúde , Instalações de Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tuberculose/complicações , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 367-376, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851879

RESUMO

The dimorphic fungus Talaromyces marneffei (TM) is a common cause of HIV-associated opportunistic infections in Southeast Asia. Cotrimoxazole (CTX) inhibits folic acid synthesis which is important for the survival of many bacteria, protozoa, and fungi and has been used to prevent several opportunistic infections among HIV/AIDS patients. We question whether CTX is effective in preventing TM infection. To investigate this question, we conducted an 11-year (2005-2016) retrospective observational cohort study of all patients on the Chinese national antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme in Guangxi, a province with high HIV and TM burden in China. Survival analysis was conducted to investigate TM cumulative incidence, and Cox regression and propensity score matching (PSM) were used to evaluate the effect of CTX on TM incidence. Of the 3359 eligible individuals contributing 10,504.66 person-years of follow-up, 81.81% received CTX within 6 months after ART initiation, and 4.73% developed TM infection, contributing 15.14/1,000 person-year TM incidence rate. CTX patients had a significantly lower incidence of TM infection than non-CTX patients (4.11% vs. 7.53%; adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 0.50, 95% CI 0.35-0.73). CTX reduced TM incidence in all CD4+ cell subgroups (<50 cells/µL, 50-99 cells/µL, 100-199 cells/µL), with the highest reduction observed in patients with a baseline CD4+ cell count <50 cells/µL in both Cox regression and the PSM analyses. In conclusion, in addition to preventing other HIV-associated opportunistic infections, CTX prophylaxis has the potential to prevent TM infection in HIV/AIDS patients receiving ART.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Micoses/prevenção & controle , Talaromyces/efeitos dos fármacos , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/administração & dosagem , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/microbiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , China , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
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