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1.
Lancet HIV ; 8(2): e106-e113, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539757

RESUMO

Ending the AIDS epidemic by 2030 will require addressing stigma more systematically and at a larger scale than current efforts. Existing global evidence shows that stigma is a barrier to achieving each of the 90-90-90 targets; it undermines HIV testing, linkage to care, treatment adherence, and viral load suppression. However, findings from both research studies and programmatic experience have helped to inform the growing body of knowledge regarding how to reduce stigma, leading to key principles for HIV stigma reduction. These principles include immediately addressing actionable drivers of stigma, centring groups affected by stigma at the core of the response, and engaging opinion leaders and building partnerships between affected groups and opinion leaders. Although there is still room to strengthen research on stigma measurement and reduction, in particular for intersectional stigma, the proliferation of evidence over the past several decades on how to measure and address stigma provides a solid foundation for immediate and comprehensive action.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Medo/psicologia , Estigma Social , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/virologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Feminino , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV/crescimento & desenvolvimento , HIV/patogenicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento/psicologia , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
ABCS health sci ; 46: e021201, 09 fev. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147201

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The city of Santarém, the regional healthcare center in the western Pará State, lacks studies on the epidemic of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), in particular, on the causes of death. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the sociodemographic and clinical profile related to the evolution of HIV infection to death. METHODS: The sample consisted of 94 medical records of patients from a reference center in the city of Santarém-PA, who died between 2010-2018. Data were collected on the sociodemographic profile, immunological and clinical characteristics of the patients. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics, adopting p<0.05. RESULTS: Most deaths were male (67%), aged between 15-29 years (39%) and diagnosed between 30-44 years (41%), single (54%), mixed race (91.5%), from Santarém (77%) and with sexual intercourse being the main type of exposure (95.7%). Most patients were not being treated at the moment of death (56.4%), the main cause of death was respiratory failure (5%), in which, these individuals had, at the moment of death, TCD4+ lymphocytes <200 cell/mm3 (26%) and detectable viral load (29%). CONCLUSION: The lifetime from diagnosis to death was 48.45±50,30 months, and immunosuppression in the diagnosis was positively associated with the shortest survival time. However, sex was not associated with the immunological profile, age at the time of diagnosis, and death. There was only a tendency for women towards immunosuppression and detectable viral load.


INTRODUÇÃO: A cidade de Santarém, o polo assistencial da região oeste do Pará, carece de estudos sobre a epidemia do vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV), especialmente, sobre as causas de óbitos. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar o perfil sociodemográfico e clínico relacionado à evolução da infecção pelo HIV até a morte. MÉTODO: A amostra foi de 94 prontuários de pacientes de um centro de referência do município de Santarém-PA, que evoluíram a óbito entre os anos de 2010-2018. Foram levantados os dados sobre o perfil sociodemográfico, características imunológicas e clínicas dos pacientes. Os dados foram analisados por estatística descritiva e inferencial, adotando-se p<0,05. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos óbitos foi de indivíduos do sexo masculino (67%), com faixa etária do diagnóstico entre 15-29 anos (39%) e de falecimento entre 30-44 anos (41%), solteiros (54%), pardos (91,5%), procedentes de Santarém (77%) e com a relação sexual sendo o principal tipo de exposição (95,7%). A maioria dos pacientes não estava em tratamento no momento do óbito (56,4%), a principal causa de morte foi por insuficiência respiratória (5%), no qual, esses indivíduos apresentavam, no momento da morte, linfócitos TCD4+ <200 cél/mm3 (26%) e carga viral detectável (29%). CONCLUSÃO: O tempo de vida do diagnóstico ao óbito foi de 48,45±50,30 meses e a presença de imunossupressão no diagnóstico associou-se positivamente com o menor tempo de sobrevida. Contudo, o sexo não apresentou associação com o perfil imunológico, a idade no momento do diagnóstico e do óbito, apenas notou-se uma tendência das mulheres para a imunossupressão e carga viral detectável.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Perfil de Saúde , Demografia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/mortalidade , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Centros de Saúde , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/diagnóstico , Carga Viral
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 48, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Morocco, of the estimated 29,000 people living with HIV in 2011, only 20% were aware of their HIV status. More than half of diagnoses were at the AIDS stage. We assumed that people who were unaware of their infection had contacts with the healthcare system for HIV indicators that might prompt the healthcare provider to offer a test. The aim was to assess missed opportunities for HIV testing in patients newly diagnosed with HIV who accessed care in Morocco. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012-2013 in six Moroccan HIV centers. Participants were aged ≥18, and had sought care within 6 months after their HIV diagnosis. A standardized questionnaire administered during a face-to-face interview collected the patient's characteristics at HIV diagnosis, HIV testing and medical history. Contacts with care and the occurrence of clinical conditions were assessed during the 3 years prior to HIV diagnosis. Over this period, we assessed whether healthcare providers had offered HIV testing to patients with HIV-related clinical or behavioral conditions. RESULTS: We enrolled 650 newly HIV-diagnosed patients (median age: 35, women: 55%, heterosexuals: 81%, diagnosed with AIDS or CD4 < 200 cells/mm3: 63%). During the 3 years prior to the HIV diagnosis, 71% (n = 463) of participants had ≥1 contact with the healthcare system. Of 323 people with HIV-related clinical conditions, 22% did not seek care for them and 9% sought care and were offered an HIV test by a healthcare provider. The remaining 69% were not offered a test and were considered as missed opportunities for HIV testing. Of men who have sex with men, 83% did not address their sexual behavior with their healthcare provider, 11% were not offered HIV testing, while 6% were offered HIV testing after reporting their sexual behavior to their provider. CONCLUSIONS: Among people who actually sought care during the period of probable infection, many opportunities for HIV testing, based on at-risk behaviors or clinical signs, were missed. This highlights the need to improve the recognition of HIV clinical indicators by physicians, further expand community-based HIV testing by lay providers, and implement self-testing to increase accessibility and privacy.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Programas de Rastreamento , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Heterossexualidade , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243773, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351812

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to elucidate the burden, risk factors, and prognosis of serious non-AIDS-defining events among admitted cART-naive AIDS patients in China. The evaluation of the burden, risk factors and prognosis of serious NADEs was carried out among 1309 cART-naive AIDS patients (median age: 38.2 years, range: 18-78 years) admitted in Beijing Ditan Hospital between January 2009 and December 2018. Among 1309 patients, 143 patients (10.9%) had at least one serious NADEs, including 49 (3.8%) with cerebrovascular diseases, 37 (2.8%) with non-AIDS-defining cancers, 28 (2.1%) with chronic kidney diseases, 26 (2.0%) with cardiovascular diseases, and 18 (1.4%) with liver cirrhosis. Serious NADEs distributed in different age and CD4 levels, especially with age ≥50 years and CD4 ≤350 cells/ul. Other traditional risk factors, including cigarette smoking (OR = 1.9, 95%CI = 1.3-2.8, p = 0.002), hypertension (OR = 2.5, 95%CI = 1.7-3.7, p<0.001), chronic HCV infection (OR = 2.8, 95%CI = 1.4-5.6, p = 0.004), and hypercholesterolemia (OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 1.2-14.1, p = 0.026), were also associated with serious NADEs. Seventeen cases (1.3%) with serious NADEs died among hospitalized cART-naive AIDS patients, and severe pneumonia (HR = 5.5, 95%CI = 1.9-15.9, p<0.001) and AIDS-defining cancers (HR = 3.8, 95%CI = 1.1-13.2, p = 0.038) were identified as risk factors associated with an increased hazard of mortality among these patients with serious NADEs. Serious NADEs also occurred in cART-naive AIDS patients in China with low prevalence. Our results reminded physicians that early screening of serious NADEs, timely intervention of their risk factors, management of severe AIDS-defining events, multi-disciplinary cooperation, and early initiation of cART were essential to reduce the burden of serious NADEs.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/imunologia , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239087, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uganda has been making progress towards universal HIV test and treat since 2013 and the 2016 test and treat policy was expanded from the 2013 guidelines. The expanded policy was rolled out in 2017 across the country. The treatment outcomes of this new policy have not yet been assessed at program level. The objective of this study was to determine the treatment outcome of the HIV test and treat policy in TASO Tororo Clinic, Eastern Uganda. METHODOLOGY: This was a retrospective cohort study using secondary data. The study involved 580 clients who were newly diagnosed HIV positive in TASO Tororo clinic between June 2017 and May 2018, who were then followed up for ART initiation, retention in care, viral load monitoring and viral load suppression. The data was analyzed using Stat 14.0 version statistical software application. RESULTS: Of the 580 clients, 93.1%(540) were adults aged ≥20 years. The uptake of test and treat was at 92.4%(536) and 12 months retention was at 78.7% (422). The factors associated with retention in care were a) being counselled before ART initiation, AOR 2.41 (95%CI, 1.56-3.71), b) having a treatment supporter, AOR 1.57 (95%CI, 1.02-2.43) and having an opportunistic infection, AOR 2.99 (95%CI:1.21-7.41). The viral load coverage was 52.4% (221) and viral load suppression rate was 89.1% (197) of clients monitored. Age <20 years was the only identified factor associated with vial load non suppression, AOR 7.35 (95% CI = 2.23-24.24). CONCLUSION: This study found high uptake of ART under test and treat policy, with very low viral load coverage, and a high viral load suppression rate among those monitored. The study therefore highlights a need to differentiate viral load testing based on the population needs and ensure each client testing positive receives pre-ART initiation counselling so as to improve retention in care.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Uganda/epidemiologia , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 451, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In line with the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) 90-90-90 target, Norway aims for at least 90% of people living with HIV (PLHIV) to know their HIV-status. We produced current estimates of the number of PLHIV and undiagnosed population in Norway, overall and for six key subpopulations: Norwegian-born men who have sex with men (MSM), migrant MSM, Norwegian-born heterosexuals, migrant Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)-born heterosexuals, migrant non-SSA-born heterosexuals and people who inject drugs. METHODS: We used the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) HIV Modelling Tool on Norwegian HIV surveillance data through 2018 to estimate incidence, time from infection to diagnosis, PLHIV, and the number and proportion undiagnosed. As surveillance data on CD4 count at diagnosis were not collected in Norway, we ran two models; using default model CD4 assumptions, or a proxy for CD4 distribution based on Danish national surveillance data. We also generated alternative overall PLHIV estimates using the Spectrum AIDS Impact Model, to compare with those obtained from the ECDC tool. RESULTS: Estimates of the overall number of PLHIV in 2018 using different modelling approaches aligned at approximately 5000. In both ECDC models, the overall number undiagnosed decreased continuously from 2008. The proportion undiagnosed in 2018 was lower using default model CD4 assumptions (7.1% [95%CI: 5.3-8.9%]), than the Danish CD4 proxy (10.2% [8.3-12.1%]). This difference was driven by results for heterosexual migrants. Estimates for Norwegian-born MSM, migrant MSM and Norwegian-born heterosexuals were similar in both models. In these three subpopulations, incidence in 2018 was < 30 new infections, and the number undiagnosed had decreased in recent years. Norwegian-born MSM had the lowest estimated number of undiagnosed infections (45 [30-75], using default CD4 assumptions) and undiagnosed fraction (3.6% [2.4-5.7%], using default CD4 assumptions) in 2018. CONCLUSIONS: Results allow cautious confidence in concluding that Norway has achieved the first UNAIDS 90-90-90 target, and clearly highlight the success of prevention strategies among MSM. Estimates for subpopulations strongly influenced by migration remain less clear, and future modelling should appropriately account for all-cause mortality and out-migration, and adjust for time of in-migration.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/etnologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , HIV , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/diagnóstico , África ao Sul do Saara/etnologia , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Usuários de Drogas , Feminino , Previsões , Heterossexualidade , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Noruega/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Migrantes
9.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(690): 744-748, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32301309

RESUMO

Medical advances in the treatment of HIV over the last 35 years mean that people living with HIV (PLHIV) now have a life expectancy close to that of the general population. Further, when successfully treated, PLHIV cannot transmit the virus. Despite this, HIV-related stigma remains widespread, including within healthcare settings. Stigma is not a vague sociological notion but represents a real threat to public health, with repercussions for both PLHIV and HIV-negative individuals. Stigma has been shown to have a negative impact on HIV prevention, testing, access to health services, and on the healthcare management of PLHIV. Taking stigma into consideration is essential, both in meeting the medical and psycho-social needs of PLHIV and in order to effectively combat HIV/AIDS.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Saúde Pública , Estigma Social , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/transmissão , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Soronegatividade para HIV , Soropositividade para HIV/diagnóstico , Soropositividade para HIV/psicologia , Soropositividade para HIV/transmissão , Humanos
10.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep ; 17(2): 77-87, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124189

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study proposes to describe the impact of a publicly funded Treatment as Prevention (TasP) strategy in British Columbia (BC), Canada, in decreasing the individual and public health impact of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic. RECENT FINDINGS: In BC, TasP has been associated with a steady decline in HIV-related morbidity and mortality. At the same time, a demographic transition was observed among people living with HIV (PLWH), with the majority of those on antiretroviral treatment (ART) now ≥ 50 years of age, living with at least one comorbidity, and dying from age-associated comorbidities. We also documented a progressive increase in the proportion of viral load suppression as a result of ART expansion. While the pre-ART CD4 T cell count has increased steadily in recent years, there is still a large proportion of PLWH being diagnosed in later stages of HIV infection. New HIV diagnoses have been rapidly declining, however to a lesser extent among men who have sex with men (MSM), and BC is currently experiencing an increase in infectious syphilis cases in this population. These facts reinforce the effectiveness of TasP in decreasing HIV transmission, but at the same time, it highlights the need for further innovation to enhance the control of HIV and syphilis among MSM. This study supports the development of new approaches that address existing gaps in the TasP strategy in BC, and the future health needs of PLWH.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/métodos , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Adulto , Colúmbia Britânica/epidemiologia , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , Programas Governamentais/métodos , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Int J Infect Dis ; 90: 18-20, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648004

RESUMO

According to the United Nations AIDS reports in 2018, the Middle East and North Africa region is considered an area of increasing concern for HIV infection due to high mortality associated with AIDS. The incidence of HIV/AIDS in Palestine between 1988 and 2017 as reported by the Palestinian Ministry of Health was analyzed. A total of 98 cases were reported (79 AIDS patients and 19 HIV positives). A nationwide surveillance is needed to understand the epidemiology of HIV infection in the country. Identification of the HIV risk factors and health outreach directed to the public are essentially crucial prevention measures that should be implemented by the Palestinian Ministry of Health.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , HIV/genética , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 24(2): e20190171, 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1090268

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo Analisar a percepção acerca do aconselhamento no contexto do teste rápido para o HIV. Método Pesquisa com abordagem qualitativa realizada no Centro de Testagem e Aconselhamento com profissionais de saúde e com usuários do Centro de Testagem e Aconselhamento. A análise seguiu os passos propostos na fenomenologia empírica de Giorgi articulando-a com a literatura. Resultados Identificaram-se cinco categorias: a experiência anterior à realização do Teste Rápido; Intencionalidade de sentimentos; Percepção do aconselhamento pelo usuário; Percepção do aconselhamento individual no pós-teste e; Percepção de profissionais sobre o aconselhamento. O aconselhamento coletivo é percebido pelos usuários como palestra sobre HIV/Aids com ênfase em consequências negativas; e o aconselhamento individual, como mais confortável e como possibilidade para exposição de dúvidas. Discussão Considera-se que, mesmo sabendo da importância do aconselhamento, este é realizado de forma empírica, reduzindo o ato ao repasse de informações com teor educativo, visando apenas à aprendizagem cognitiva como meio de disseminar o conhecimento, tentando, assim, reduzir a cadeia de transmissão da HIV/Aids.


RESUMEN Objetivo Analizar la percepción acerca del asesoramiento en el contexto de la prueba rápida para el VIH. Método Investigación con enfoque cualitativo realizada en el Centro de Pruebas y Asesoramiento con profesionales de salud y de los usuarios del Centro de Pruebas y Asesoramiento. El análisis siguió los pasos propuestos en la fenomenología empírica de Giorgi, articulando con la literatura. Resultados Se identificaron cinco categorías: la experiencia anterior a la realización de la prueba rápida; Intencionalidad de sentimientos; Percepción del asesoramiento por el usuario; Percepción del asesoramiento individual en el post-test y; Percepción de profesionales sobre el asesoramiento. El asesoramiento colectivo es percibido por los usuarios como conferencia sobre HIV / SIDA con énfasis en consecuencias negativas y el asesoramiento individual como más cómodo y posibilidad para la exposición de dudas. Discusión: Se considera que, aunque se sabe de la importancia del asesoramiento, éste se realiza de forma empírica, reduciendo el acto al traspaso de informaciones con contenido educativo, visando que el sólo el aprendizaje cognoscitivo y como medio de diseminar el conocimiento, intentando así reducir la cadena de transmisión de la HIV / SIDA.


ABSTRACT Objective To recognize the perception of counseling by professionals and users of the Testing and Counseling Center to perform the Rapid Test for the diagnosis of HIV. Method Qualitative research conducted at the Testing and Counseling Center. We interviewed users and professionals who performed the rapid test. The analysis followed the steps proposed in the empirical phenomenology of Giorgi, articulating with the literature. Results Five categories were identified: Prepredicative experience when performing The rapid test; Intent of feelings; Perception of user advice; Perception of individual counseling in the post-test and; Perception of professionals about counseling. Collective counseling is perceived by the users as a talk about STI / Aids with an emphasis on negative consequences and individual counseling as more comfortable and possibility for exposing doubts. Discussion It is considered that even knowing the importance of counseling, this is done in an empirical way, reducing the act to the transfer of information with educational content, aiming at only cognitive learning and as a means of disseminating knowledge, thus trying to reduce the HIV/ Aids transmission chain.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Percepção , Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS , Pessoal de Saúde , Aconselhamento , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/diagnóstico , HIV , Pesquisa Qualitativa
14.
AIDS Rev ; 21(4): 184-194, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834329

RESUMO

In recent years, there have been numerous calls by researchers to adopt multi-disciplinary and international perspectives to address the HIV pandemic. Meaningful and prudent public health policy should be based on sound empirical data and research. Henceforth, our study aims to contribute to the current literature by conducting a comprehensive global mapping and determine the landscapes of HIV/AIDS research covering the years between 1983 and 2017. Bibliometric and content analysis was used to describe trends in research productivity, usages, research collaborations, and clusters of research topics. Exploratory factor analysis, Jaccard's similarity index, and Ward dendrogram were applied to abstracts' contents to determine the development of interdisciplinary research landscapes. The United States of America continues to lead in research production and be main hub for author- and country-level collaborations. Research employing an epidemiological, social, and/or behavioral perspective for studying HIV/AIDS was found to dwarf in the presence of basic and biomedical HIV research. Interdisciplinary approaches to HIV research have been increasing with the creation of various research landscapes: strong constructs of studies examining health status, clinical responses, and HIV treatment, risk behaviors have been formed, while research topics relating to psycho-behavioral and cultural aspects as well as services have emerged along. To effectively prevent and control the disease, more researches are needed to provide culturally relevant and/or contextualized evidence of effective interventions. It is also necessary to enhance the ability and partnership of local researchers as well as invest in research infrastructure at national and regional levels to implement high-quality studies since they are the "gate-keepers" who could respond to local changes in a timely manner. These types of research could be a helpful guide for international donors, governments, and academicians to set up research priorities in target groups and settings, and to develop future research agendas globally.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Política de Saúde , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Cooperação Internacional , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Saúde Global , Humanos
15.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(12): 1278-1283, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795586

RESUMO

Objective: Using field epidemiological investigation and molecular analysis to construct the molecular transmission network of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome cases (HIV/AIDS) newly diagnosed in Huzhou in 2017, Zhejiang Province. Methods: A total of 160 participants were obtained through a web-based system from Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CCDC) with the features of diagnosed in Huzhou in 2017 who also had been collected samples for the first follow-up. The basic information of demographic characteristics and risk factors was extracted from the website. RNA was extracted from plasma samples of untreated cases, followed by RT-PCR and nest-PCR for pol gene amplification, sequencing. Phylogenetic tree was constructed by MEGA software for HIV gene subtyping. TN93 model was used for calculating the distance between two sequences. Cytoscape software was used for drawing molecular transmission network. And then an epidemiological survey was conducted to cases in the primary cluster. Results: A total of 138 sequenced individuals (86.3%) were acquired from 160 individuals. Among which, 123 (89.1%) were male. The highest proportion of subtype was CRF07_BC (60, 43.5%), followed by CRF01_AE (46, 33.3%), and with four cases of Unique Recombinant Form (URF, CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC) and one case of URF (subtype B and C). A total of 18 molecular clusters included 56 individuals (40.6%) were found in the transmission network under the optimal genetic distance threshold (1.0%). The clustering proportion of CRF07_BC (66.1%, 37 cases) was higher than that of CRF01_AE. There were 9 clusters formed among CRF07_BC, including 37 cases (accounting for 61.7%, 37/60). The primary transmission cluster contained 11 cases, among which 9 cases were transmitted by homosexual sex. The first time of the cases to have homosexual behavior is range from 2010 to 2016, whose media number (P(25), P(75)) of partners was 6 (3.5, 8.5). Most of the cases come from Anhui Province and engaged in garment industry (5 cases), between which there were 8 cases used Blued software to seek for casual partners, 1 case seeking for casual partners in garden. Conclusion: With CRF07_BC and CRF01_AE predominantly circulating, HIV genetic diversity had been noticed in this area. The primary cluster was consisted of high proportion of locally new infections, and a specific population aggregation in limited place existed.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/transmissão , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , HIV-1/genética , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/diagnóstico , China , Amplificação de Genes , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
17.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(10): 1222-1226, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658521

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the "Internet Plus-based AIDS Comprehensive Prevention Service System" among men who have sex with men in Guangzhou. Methods: Data through case-reporting and follow-up programs on MSM HIV/AIDS in Guangzhou was collected from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention, which including those from the referral and follow-up treatment compliance programs in 2008-2014 (pre-treatment) and 2017-2018 (post-treatment). According to the types of care services, three groups were set as: with "Internet Plus" service, with 'HIV counseling/testing service' or with 'routine medical service'. General Estimating Equation (GEE) was used to analyze the follow up situation of HIV/AIDS cases, annually. Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to analyze the proportions of treatment referral, within the 30 days of diagnosis. Results: Before the implementation of immediate treatment after HIV diagnosis, 90.6% (707/780) of the HIV/AIDS cases received the first follow up program including the CD(4)(+) T cells counts (CD(4)) test service within 90 days of diagnosis, in the "Internet Plus-based HIV/AIDS care service" group presented 1.19 times (95%CI: 1.14-1.25) of the routine medical service group. The implementation of immediate treatment after HIV diagnosis, compared with the routine medical service group, the "Internet Plus" service group presented 1.71 times (95%CI: 1.03- 2.83) more treatment referrals within the 30 days of diagnosis, when the first testing CD(4) was ≤200 cells/µl. Compared with the routine medical service group, the HIV counseling and testing service group showed 1.37 times (95%CI: 1.20-1.56) more of the treatment referrals within the 30 days of HIV diagnosis, after the first testing CD(4) counts as >200 cells/µl. Conclusion: Standardized care and follow-up service should be promoted as soon as the referral and treatment programs were set after the diagnosis was made, under the "Internet Plus-based AIDS Comprehensive Prevention Service System" for the MSM population, in Guangzhou.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , China , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Internet , Masculino
18.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(10): 1227-1233, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658522

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the effect of the "Interner Plus-based AIDS Comprehensive Prevention Service System" among MSM in Guangzhou, during 2010-2017, using a dynamic compartmental model. Methods: A dynamic compartmental model was developed to describe the HIV situation among MSM in Guangzhou. This model was parameterized on data from published literature or surveillance programs from the Guangzhou CDC. The Matlab 7.0 software was used for coding and analysis on collected data. HIV prevalence was analyzed among MSM under the status quo data and estimated the impact by the "Internet Plus" AIDS prevention services project. Results: HIV prevalence would have increased to 22.75% in 2017, and the total number of new HIV infections would have been 11 038, from 2010 to 2017, using the data status quo. Under the Guangzhou "Internet Plus" AIDS prevention services project, the prevalence of HIV among MSM from 2010 to 2017 was estimated to be 8.44%, 9.68%, 10.65%, 11.34%, 11.73%, 11.83%, 11.71% and 11.43% in Guangzhou, which were similar to the surveillance data. The total number of new infections in the past 8 years under the "Internet Plus" scenario was estimated to be 4 009. The "Internet Plus" program would have prevented 7 029 (63.68%) new infections during 2010-2017 as compared to the number, status quo. Conclusions: The fitting result of dynamic compartmental model seemed more reasonable, which was applicable to predict HIV epidemic among MSM in Guangzhou, suggesting that the increase of HIV prevalence had been curbed since the "Internet Plus" project which was launched in 2010, and the "Interner Plus-based AIDS Comprehensive Prevention Service System" had achieved the purpose as planned, epidemiologically.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Internet , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , China , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Assunção de Riscos
19.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 32(5): 554-563, Set.-Out. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1038052

RESUMO

Resumo Objetivo Analisar os aspectos associados ao desfecho dos casos de tuberculose nas pessoas que vivem com HIV. Métodos Estudo transversal, realizado entre 2010 a 2014 em um município de grande porte localizado no interior do estado de São Paulo, o qual é considerado prioritário para o controle da tuberculose. Utilizou-se dados secundários coletados nos sistemas de informação TBWEB, SINAN, SISCEL e SICLOM. Foram utilizadas técnicas de estatística descritiva e Regressão Logística Multinomial, considerando o desfecho (cura, abandono e óbito) como variável dependente e as informações sociodemográficas, clínicas e de acompanhamento clínico/terapêutico como independentes. Resultados Observou-se uma maior chance de ocorrência de desfecho desfavorável do tratamento da tuberculose entre as pessoas que viviam com HIV com menor escolaridade, com histórico de internação e sem o registro do tipo de tratamento realizado. Conclusão Reforça-se a necessidade de integração entre os programas de controle da tuberculose e de HIV/aids, bem como entre esses e os demais serviços das redes de atenção à saúde e rede de apoio social para a oferta de ações e serviços que contemplem as necessidades sociais, econômicas e de saúde, visando o adequado seguimento dos casos de coinfecção TB-HIV e a obtenção de desfechos favoráveis da tuberculose nas pessoas vivendo com HIV.


Resumen Objetivo analizar los aspectos asociados al desenlace de los casos de tuberculosis en personas que viven con el VIH. Métodos estudio transversal, realizado entre 2010 y 2014 en un municipio de gran tamaño localizado en el interior del estado de São Paulo, considerado prioritario para el control de la tuberculosis. Se utilizaron datos secundarios recolectados en los sistemas de información TBWEB, SINAN, SISCEL y SICLOM. Se utilizaron técnicas de estadística descriptiva y regresión logística multinomial, considerando el desenlace (cura, abandono y óbito) como variable dependiente y la información sociodemográfica, clínica y de seguimiento clínico/terapéutico como independiente. Resultados se observó una mayor posibilidad de desenlace desfavorable del tratamiento de la tuberculosis entre las personas que vivían con el VIH con menos escolaridad, con antecedentes de internación y sin registro del tipo de tratamiento realizado. Conclusión se refuerza la necesidad de integración entre los programas de control de la tuberculosis y de VIH/sida, así como también entre estos y los demás servicios de las redes de atención en salud y red de apoyo social para la oferta de acciones y servicios que contemplen las necesidades sociales, económicas y de salud, a fin de proporcionar un seguimiento adecuado de los casos de coinfección TB-HIV y obtener desenlaces favorables de la tuberculosis en las personas que viven con el VIH.


Abstract Objective To analyze the aspects associated with tuberculosis cases outcome among people living with HIV. Methods A cross-sectional study conducted between 2010 and 2014 in a large municipality located in the countryside of São Paulo State, which was considered a priority city for tuberculosis control. Secondary data collected in the TBWEB, SINAN, SISCEL and SICLOM information systems were used. Descriptive statistics and Multinomial Logistic Regression techniques were used, considering outcome (cure, default and death) as a dependent variable, and sociodemographic, clinical and clinical/therapeutic follow-up information as independent. Results A higher chance of occurrence of unfavorable TB treatment outcome in people living with HIV was observed among those with lower education degree, hospitalization history and without record of the treatment type received. Conclusion There should be integration between tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS control programs, as well as other services of health care networks and social support network for the provision of actions and services that address social, economic and health needs, aiming at the adequate follow-up of TB-HIV co-infection cases and the achievement of favorable tuberculosis outcomes in people living with HIV.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , HIV , Resultado do Tratamento , Estudos Transversais , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/diagnóstico
20.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 71, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508778

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological aspects of HIV infection and AIDS among indigenous peoples of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: This is a descriptive epidemiological study on the occurrence and distribution of HIV infection and AIDS in the indigenous population assisted by the Distrito Sanitário Especial Indígena (Indigenous Special Health District) Mato Grosso do Sul between 2001 and 2014, based on three secondary databases. Annual rates of HIV and AIDS detection and prevalence were calculated, considering case distribution according to village, Health Base Pole and sociodemographic variables. Accumulated rates of detection, mortality and case fatality were calculated by ethnic group and for the Health Base Pole with the highest number of cases. RESULTS: The HIV detection rate fluctuated between 0.0 and 18.0/100 thousand people in the study period. For AIDS, there was no notification before 2007, but in 2012 its rate reached 16.6/100 thousand. HIV prevalence grew between 2001 and 2011, and it continuously grew for AIDS starting from 2007. The highest HIV detection rates occurred among Guarani peoples (167.1/100 thousand) and for AIDS, among the Kaiowá peoples (79.3/100 thousand); mortality and fatality rates were higher among the Kaiowá. Regarding the Dourados Health Base Pole, the AIDS detection rate increased, and the mortality and fatality rates decreased. CONCLUSIONS: HIV infection and AIDS have been increasing among indigenous peoples, with distribution of the disease mainly in the Health Base Poles of the southern region of the state, where greater economic and social vulnerability are also observed. The endemic character of HIV and AIDS can become epidemic in some years given the existence of cases in other villages in the state. Its occurrence among the Guarani and Kaiowá populations indicates the need for expanded diagnosis, access to treatment and prevention measures.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/mortalidade , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Escolaridade , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Soroprevalência de HIV/tendências , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena , Humanos , Índios Sul-Americanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
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