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1.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(5): 1853-1862, 2021 May.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076126

RESUMO

This essay reflects on sexual practices and prevention in the contexts of the AIDS and COVID-19 pandemics. It analyses data collected between July and October 2020 through participant observation, as part of an ethnographic research project on HIV vulnerability and prevention among men who have sex with men in the Metropolitan Region of Recife, state of Pernambuco (PE), Brazil. The results point to the relevance of physical appearance and the affective bond between partners in engendering emotions that mediate coping with the risk of infection during both pandemics. It indicates the need to incorporate those communicational dimensions into informational materials to make them more effective.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Sexualidade
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 469, 2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although great progress has been made in the prevention and treatment of AIDS, there are still a considerable number of new infections annually, especially in adolescents. With the advance of technology, game-based education has gradually become an important tool for changing healthy behaviors among youth. METHODS: A protocol for conducting a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the "AIDS Fighter · Health Defense", a game-based AIDS education project aimed at improving the ability of adolescents to prevent AIDS. During the four-week intervention, participants will receive: 1) A virus combat game; 2) Goal setting to eliminate HIV; 3) Questions to be answered to be resurrected in the game; 4) Points ranking; 5) Recognition and Rewards. The primary outcomes include changes in participants' knowledge, stigma attitude, and risk behaviors attitude related to AIDS after four weeks of intervention. The secondary outcomes are the participants' AIDS-related risk behaviors three and six months after the intervention. DISCUSSION: AIDS Fighter· Health Defense may be an innovative approach to help adolescents improve AIDS prevention capabilities, fill the gap in game-based AIDS prevention education in China, and gain experience of AIDS management. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR2000040195 . Registered 25 November 2020.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Atitude , Conscientização , HIV , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Jogos de Vídeo , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Adolescente , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
3.
AIDS Educ Prev ; 33(3): 169-186, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014113

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of two psychosocial interventions (Didactic and ACCENT) on socio-cognitive risk factors, in vulnerable Mozambican women at risk for HIV/AIDS infection. The study design was a randomized controlled trial on Mozambican women at HIV/AIDS risk (n = 150). The participants were randomized into three groups: Didactic Intervention (experimental group), ACCENT intervention (experimental group), and control group. We used an adapted version of the Women's Health Questionnaire, which includes a series of scales and questionnaires assessing psychosocial relevant dimensions to female protection towards HIV/AIDS: HIV/AIDS knowledge, condom use negotiation self-efficacy, and perceived barriers against safer sex. Both interventions were equally effective in increasing HIV/AIDS knowledge. The ACCENT intervention was especially effective in promoting condom use negotiation self-efficacy and in decreasing perceived barriers against safer sex, essential variables for sexual protection. These results support the adaptation of Western interventions to the African context.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Negociação , Intervenção Psicossocial , Autoeficácia , Adolescente , Adulto , Cognição , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Sexo Seguro , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Saúde Sexual , Inquéritos e Questionários , Saúde da Mulher
4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(6): 1553-1560, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34013858

RESUMO

June 2021 marks the 40th anniversary of the first description of AIDS. On the 30th anniversary, we defined priorities as improving use of existing interventions, clarifying optimal use of HIV testing and antiretroviral therapy for prevention and treatment, continuing research, and ensuring sustainability of the response. Despite scientific and programmatic progress, the end of AIDS is not in sight. Other major epidemics over the past decade have included Ebola, arbovirus infections, and coronavirus disease (COVID-19). A benchmark against which to compare other global interventions is the HIV/AIDS response in terms of funding, coordination, and solidarity. Lessons from Ebola and HIV/AIDS are pertinent to the COVID-19 response. The fifth decade of AIDS will have to position HIV/AIDS in the context of enhanced preparedness and capacity to respond to other potential pandemics and transnational health threats.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Enferm Clin ; 31 Suppl 2: S447-S449, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849221

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine the influence of health counseling on HIV/AIDS stigma among prisoners at the Women's Prison. The research was conducted using a pre-experimental with one group pretest-posttest design. The sample using purposive sampling and consisted of 30 inmates. Health education was using lectures and media leaflets. Analyses were conducted using dependent t-tests. Prior to receiving health education, just over half of the sample reported high levels of stigma (n=17, 56.7%). After the health counseling, the majority of the sample reported low levels of stigma (n=25, 83.3%). The results indicate that health education about HIV/AIDS had a positive influence on the stigma levels of prison inmates at the Women's Prison (p<0.05). Women's prisons can collaborate with the health department or related agencies through the AIDS Commission to provide regular counseling about HIV/AIDS.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , Prisioneiros , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Prisões
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 26, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777294

RESUMO

Introduction: Mozambique has a generalized HIV epidemic, among pregnant women, HIV prevalence is estimated at 15.8% with a vertical transmission rate of 14%, more than double global targets. We evaluate electronic national health information system (SIS-MA) performance to verify if the data flow procedures met its objectives and evaluated the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) surveillance system to access its attributes and usefulness. Methods: we conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional evaluation of the PMTCT surveillance system in eight facilities in Gaza and Inhambane provinces using the centers for disease control and prevention guidelines (2001). For data quality, we cross-referenced patient registries from health facilities against the SIS-MA. We also interviewed 34 health technicians, using a Likert scale, to assess the following attributes of the PMTCT surveillance system: simplicity, stability, flexibility, acceptability, timeliness and data quality, usefulness of the system and knowledge of PMTCT. Results: regarding the simplicity measure, we verified that the registry books contain more than 30 variables. The system was 83% flexible in maintaining functionality with the introduction of new health facilities in the system. The completeness of the data was 50% and concordance of data from the register book and monthly reports was 89%. Conclusion: the PMTCT SIS-MA is useful in supporting the collection, analysis, interpretation and continuous and systematic dissemination of health data that are used to define and monitor public health policies in Mozambique. However, continued efforts are needed to improve data quality to ensure that the SIS-MA can adequately monitor the PMTCT program and contribute to reduced vertical transmission.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Moçambique , Vigilância da População , Gravidez , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Sex Health ; 18(1): 41-49, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653504

RESUMO

The 2016 global commitments towards ending the AIDS epidemic by 2030 require the Asia-Pacific region to reach the Fast-Track targets by 2020. Despite early successes, the region is well short of meeting these targets. The overall stalled progress in the HIV response has been further undermined by rising new infections among young key populations and the unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic. This paper examines the HIV situation, assesses the gaps, and analyses what it would take the region to end AIDS by 2030. Political will and commitments for ending AIDS must be reaffirmed and reinforced. Focused regional strategic direction that answers the specific regional context and guides countries to respond to their specific needs must be put in place. The region must harness the power of innovative tools and technology in both prevention and treatment. Community activism and meaningful community engagement across the spectrum of HIV response must be ensured. Punitive laws, stigma, and discrimination that deter key populations and people living with HIV from accessing health services must be effectively tackled. The people-centred public health approach must be fully integrated into national universal health coverage while ensuring domestic resources are available for community-led service delivery. The region must utilise its full potential and draw upon lessons that have been learnt to address common challenges of the HIV and COVID-19 pandemics and achieve the goal of ending AIDS by 2030, in fulfillment of the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/transmissão , Ásia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Objetivos , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Ilhas do Pacífico , Política , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/organização & administração
8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 105: 769-775, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618006

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe epidemiological trends and spatial distributions of HIV/AIDS among older adults (aged ≥50) in Sichuan Province, China during 2008-19, and provide scientific reference for HIV/AIDS prevention, intervention and treatment. METHODS: Data on HIV/AIDS cases reported in 2008-19 was extracted from the Case Report System. The Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to determine epidemic trends. Spatial autocorrelation and space-time analysis were conducted with ArcGIS10.6 and ArcGIS Pro2.4, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 77854 HIV/AIDS cases among older adults were included in the study. Newly reported cases increased from 320 in 2008 to 22189 in 2019, and the reported incidence rate (number of new reported cases/older adult population) rose from 0.001% to 0.077%. Infections through heterosexual transmission increased from 65.3% to 98.2% of total cases in older adults in this period. Spatial analysis at the county-level showed significant clustering throughout Sichuan, with the main hot spots concentrated in the southeast. Spatiotemporal analysis indicated that most of the southeastern counties/districts were Consecutive Hot Spots. CONCLUSIONS: Older adults have become a key population in the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Sichuan; comprehensive prevention and intervention measures targeted to older adults are urgently needed to control the spread of HIV/AIDS.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Epidemias , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Análise Espacial , Análise Espaço-Temporal
9.
Lancet HIV ; 8(2): e106-e113, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539757

RESUMO

Ending the AIDS epidemic by 2030 will require addressing stigma more systematically and at a larger scale than current efforts. Existing global evidence shows that stigma is a barrier to achieving each of the 90-90-90 targets; it undermines HIV testing, linkage to care, treatment adherence, and viral load suppression. However, findings from both research studies and programmatic experience have helped to inform the growing body of knowledge regarding how to reduce stigma, leading to key principles for HIV stigma reduction. These principles include immediately addressing actionable drivers of stigma, centring groups affected by stigma at the core of the response, and engaging opinion leaders and building partnerships between affected groups and opinion leaders. Although there is still room to strengthen research on stigma measurement and reduction, in particular for intersectional stigma, the proliferation of evidence over the past several decades on how to measure and address stigma provides a solid foundation for immediate and comprehensive action.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Medo/psicologia , Estigma Social , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/virologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Feminino , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV/crescimento & desenvolvimento , HIV/patogenicidade , Teste de HIV/ética , Humanos , Masculino , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento/psicologia , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Arch Virol ; 166(5): 1273-1282, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507389

RESUMO

In 2006 we discovered a new type of mucosal vaccine against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in Chinese macaques. Here, we review 15 years of our published work on this vaccine, which consists of inactivated SIVmac239 particles adjuvanted with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, Lactobacillus plantarum, or Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Without adjuvant, the vaccine administered by the intragastric route induced the usual SIV-specific humoral and cellular immune responses but provided no protection against intrarectal challenge with SIVmac239. In contrast, out of 24 macaques immunized with the adjuvanted vaccine and challenged intrarectally with SIVmac239 or SIVB670, 23 were sterilely protected for up to five years, while all control macaques were infected. This protection was confirmed by an independent group from the Pasteur Institute. During the past 15 years, we have identified the mechanism of action of the vaccine and discovered that the vaccinated macaques produced a previously unrecognized class of MHC-Ib/E-restricted CD8+ T cells (which we refer to as tolerogenic CD8+ T cells) that suppressed the activation of SIV-RNA-infected CD4+ T cells and thereby inhibited the (activation-dependent) reverse transcription of the virus, which in turn prevented the establishment of SIV infection. Importantly, we discovered also that the tolerogenic CD8+ T cell subset observed in vaccinated Chinese macaques could also be found in human elite controllers, a small group of HIV-infected patients in whom these tolerogenic CD8+ T cells were shown to naturally suppress viral replication. Given that SIV and HIV require activated immune cells in which to replicate, the specific prevention of activation of SIV-RNA-containing CD4+ T cells by a tolerogenic vaccine approach offers an exciting new avenue in HIV vaccine research.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/imunologia , Vacinas contra a AIDS/administração & dosagem , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/virologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/fisiologia , Replicação Viral
12.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(3): e20200236, 2021. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1149301

RESUMO

Resumo Objetivos identificar a realização da testagem para o HIV e o conhecimento sobre profilaxia pós-exposição (PEP) entre homens; e comparar os dados entre homens que fazem (ou não) sexo com homens. Método estudo transversal realizado com 271 homens participantes do carnaval no Rio de Janeiro, selecionados através da amostragem por conveniência. Os dados foram coletados no sambódromo, com auxílio de um questionário em fevereiro de 2017. A análise foi realizada por meio do software SPSS. Resultados houve disparidades na realização de testagem para o HIV e conhecimentos sobre PEP entre homens que fazem (ou não) sexo com homens. Homens que fazem sexo com homens possuem comportamentos e conhecimento melhores de enfrentamento ao HIV. Conclusão e implicações para a prática as políticas de enfrentamento ao HIV têm conseguido alcançar uma das populações-chave da epidemia, os homens que fazem sexo com homens, contudo homens que não fazem sexo com homens continuam vulneráveis.


Resumen Objetivos identificar la realización de pruebas de VIH y el conocimiento sobre la profilaxis posterior a la exposición (PEP) entre hombres; y comparar datos entre hombres que tienen (o no) relaciones sexuales con hombres. Método estudio transversal llevado a cabo con 271 hombres que participan en el carnaval de Rio de Janeiro, seleccionados mediante muestra de conveniencia. Los datos fueron recolectados en el sambódromo (lugar de espectáculo de danza), con la ayuda de un cuestionario, en febrero de 2017. El análisis se realizó utilizando el software SPSS. Resultados hubo disparidades en las pruebas de VIH y el conocimiento sobre PEP entre hombres que tienen (o no) relaciones sexuales con hombres. Los hombres que tienen relaciones con hombres tenían mejores comportamientos y conocimientos para enfrentar el VIH. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica las políticas para combatir el VIH han logrado llegar a una de las poblaciones clave de la epidemia, los hombres que tienen relaciones con hombres, sin embargo, los hombres que no tienen sexo con hombres siguen vulnerables.


Abstract Objectives identify HIV testing and knowledge about post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) among men; and compare data among men who have (or do not have) sex with men. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted with 271 men participating in Carnival in Rio de Janeiro, selected through convenience sampling. The data were collected in the Sambadrome, with the help of a questionnaire in February 2017. The analysis was performed through the SPSS software. Results There were disparities in HIV testing and knowledge about PEP among men who have (or do not have) sex with men. Men who have sex with men have better behaviors and knowledge of coping with HIV. Conclusion and implications for practice HIV policies have managed to reach one of the key populations of the epidemic, men who have sex with men, yet men who do not have sex with men remain vulnerable.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Testes Sorológicos , HIV , Homossexualidade Masculina , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Saúde do Homem/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(11): 1180-1183, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147913

RESUMO

In 2014, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) put forward the goal of ending HIV epidemic by 2030 at the International AIDS Conference and proposed the strategic goal of achieving "three 90%" by 2020. This year is the closing year of this strategic goal, and all regions have begun to evaluate the progress of implementing the goal. This article discussed the progress of the implementation of the "three 90%", and scientifically interpreted the strategic goal. It is proposed that the goal is a relative and dynamic concept, and only if we sieze the opportunity to achieve the strategic goal and continuously enhance comprehensive prevention and control, can the HIV epidemic be better controlled.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Objetivos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Nações Unidas
14.
Global Health ; 16(1): 101, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081805

RESUMO

Corruption is recognized by the global community as a threat to development generally and to achieving health goals, such as the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal # 3: ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all. As such, international organizations such as the World Health Organizations and the United Nations Development Program are creating an evidence base on how best to address corruption in health systems. At present, the risk of corruption is even more apparent, given the need for quick and nimble responses to the COVID-19 pandemic, which may include a relaxation of standards and the rapid mobilization of large funds. As international organizations and governments attempt to respond to the ever-changing demands of this pandemic, there is a need to acknowledge and address the increased opportunity for corruption.In order to explore how such risks of corruption are addressed in international organizations, this paper focuses on the question: How are international organizations implementing measures to promote accountability and transparency, and anti-corruption, in their own operations? The following international organizations were selected as the focus of this paper given their current involvement in anti-corruption, transparency, and accountability in the health sector: the World Health Organization, the United Nations Development Program, the World Bank Group, and the Global Fund to Fight Aids, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Our findings demonstrate that there has been a clear increase in the volume and scope of anti-corruption, accountability, and transparency measures implemented by these international organizations in recent years. However, the efficacy of these measures remains unclear. Further research is needed to determine how these measures are achieving their transparency, accountability, and anti-corruption goals.


Assuntos
Revelação , Fraude/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global/economia , Responsabilidade Social , Nações Unidas , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle
15.
Enferm. glob ; 19(60): 379-388, oct. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-200744

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: El objetivo del estudio fue identificar el perfil de las personas que buscaron atención en un Servicio de Atención Especializada (SAE) en ETS/SIDA para orientación, prevención y profilaxis del VIH después de la exposición sexual. MÉTODO: Estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo, basado en datos secundarios de 312 informes de diciembre de 2010 a diciembre de 2014 en un SAE de Porto Alegre/Brasil. Los datos seleccionados fueron: edad; sexo; rutas de exposición; casos positivos/negativos en la primera prueba; regreso para seguimiento de antirretrovirales utilizados em las profilaxis. RESULTADO: Predominó el género masculino (73.7%), el grupo de edad con mayor incidencia fue entre 20 y 39 años (75.1%). La ruta más elegida para la práctica sexual fue la vaginal 52.6%. En el 63.3% de los casos, los pacientes desconocían la serología de sus parejas y el 35.7% sabían que su pareja era VIH, pero no usaban condones. A pesar de exponerse a parejas con serología del VIH desconocida o conocida, el 61,6% no regresó a SAE. Los dos antirretrovirales más recetados fueron los recomendados por el Ministerio de Salud en ese momento. CONCLUSIÓN: Se sugiere implementar medidas y campañas que ayuden en la prevención del SIDA y, además, refuercen la importancia de llevar a cabo todas las etapas del monitoreo después de la exposición sexual


OBJETIVO: O objetivo do estudo foi identificar o perfil dos indivíduos que procuraram por atendimento em um Serviço de Atenção Especializada (SAE) em DST/AIDS para orientação, prevenção e profilaxia para HIV após exposição sexual. MÉTODO: Estudo quantitativo, descritivo, baseado em dados secundários de 312 boletins de atendimento do período de dezembro de 2010 a dezembro de 2014 em um SAE de Porto Alegre/Brasil. Os dados selecionados foram: faixa etária dos indivíduos; sexo; vias de exposição; casos positivos/negativos na primeira testagem; retorno para acompanhamento e antirretrovirais utilizados nas profilaxias. RESULTADOS: Predominou o sexo masculino (73,7%), a faixa etária de maior incidência foi entre 20 a 39 anos (75,1%). A via de maior escolha para prática sexual foi a vaginal 52,6%. Em 63,3% dos casos os pacientes desconheciam a sorologia dos parceiros e 35,7% sabiam que seu parceiro era HIV, porém não fizeram o uso do preservativo. Mesmo se expondo com parceiros de sorologia desconhecida ou sabidamente HIV, 61,6% não retornaram ao SAE. Os dois antirretrovirais mais prescritos foram os recomendados pelo Ministério da Saúde na época. CONCLUSÕES: Sugere-se a implementação de medidas e campanhas que auxiliem na prevenção da AIDS e, também, reforcem a importância na realização de todas as etapas do acompanhamento após a exposição sexual


OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify the profile of the individuals searching for care in a Specialized Care Service (SCS) in HIV/AIDS for guidance, prevention and prophylaxis for HIV after sexual exposure. METHODS: Quantitative, descriptive study, based on secondary data from 312 service reports from December 2010 to December 2014 in an SCS in Porto Alegre/Brazil. The selected data were: age; sex; exposure routes; positive / negative cases in the first test; return for follow-up and antiretrovirals used in prophylaxis. RESULTS: Male gender predominated (73.7%), the age group with the highest incidence was between 20 and 39 years old (75.1%). The most chosen route for sexual practice was the vaginal one with 52.6%. In 63.3% of cases, patients were unaware of their partners' serology and 35.7% knew their partner had the HIV virus, but did not use a condom. Even if exposed to partners with unknown or known HIV serology, 61.6% did not return to SCS. The two most prescribed antiretrovirals were those recommended by the Ministry of Health at the time. CONCLUSION: It is suggested to implement measures and campaigns to assist in the prevention of AIDS and, also, reinforce the importance of carrying out all stages of monitoring after sexual exposure


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Sexo sem Proteção/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Sexo sem Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS/estatística & dados numéricos , Assunção de Riscos , Tratamento de Emergência/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
AIDS ; 34(12): 1761-1763, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889851

RESUMO

: As coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) restrictions upend the community bonds that have enabled African communities to thrive in the face of numerous challenges, it is vital that the gains made in community-based healthcare are preserved by adapting our approaches. Instead of reversing the many gains made through locally driven development partnerships with international funding agencies for other viral diseases like HIV, we must use this opportunity to adapt the many lessons learned to address the burden of Covid-19. Programs like the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare are currently leveraging widely available technologies in Africa to prevent patients from experiencing significant interruptions in care as the healthcare system adjusts to the challenges presented by Covid-19. These approaches are designed to preserve social contact while incorporating physical distancing. The gains and successes made through approaches like group-based medical care must not only continue but can help expand upon the extraordinary success of programs like President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Modelos Organizacionais , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , África , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Governo Federal , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
18.
Public Health Rep ; 135(1_suppl): 65S-74S, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735198

RESUMO

In 2014, New York State became the first jurisdiction to launch a statewide initiative to end AIDS by reducing the number of persons living with HIV for the first time since effective HIV treatment became available. The Ending the Epidemic (ETE) initiative encompasses (1) identifying and linking undiagnosed persons with HIV to care, (2) retaining persons with HIV in care, and (3) facilitating access to preexposure prophylaxis for persons at risk for acquiring HIV. We used a framework for public health program implementation to describe key characteristics of the ETE initiative, present progress toward 13 ETE target metrics, and identify areas in need of increased programming. We provide evidence suggesting that New York State is on track to end AIDS as an epidemic by the end of 2020. As of 2017, 76% of progress toward our primary ETE target had been achieved. Substantial progress on several additional metrics critical to decreasing HIV prevalence and to improving the health of persons living with HIV had also been achieved. Lessons learned included the following: (1) ETE-based programming should be tailored to each jurisdiction's unique political and social climate, HIV epidemiology, fiscal resources, and network of HIV service providers; (2) key stakeholders should be involved in developing ETE metrics and setting targets; (3) performance-based measurement and timely communication to key stakeholders in real time are essential; and (4) examining trends in HIV prevention and care metrics is important for developing realistic ETE timelines.


Assuntos
Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Comunicação , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Relações Interinstitucionais , New York , Cooperação do Paciente , Política , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Prevalência , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
Public Health Rep ; 135(1_suppl): 158S-171S, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735199

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In 2014, the governor of New York announced the Ending the Epidemic (ETE) plan to reduce annual new HIV infections from 3000 to 750, achieve a first-ever decrease in HIV prevalence, and reduce AIDS progression by the end of 2020. The state health department undertook participatory simulation modeling to develop a baseline for comparing epidemic trends and feedback on ETE strategies. METHODS: A dynamic compartmental model projected the individual and combined effects of 3 ETE initiatives: enhanced linkage to and retention in HIV treatment, increased preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among men who have sex with men, and expanded housing assistance. Data inputs for model calibration and low-, medium-, and high-implementation scenarios (stakeholders' rollout predictions, and lower and upper bounds) came from surveillance and program data through 2014, the literature, and expert judgment. RESULTS: Without ETE (baseline scenario), new HIV infections would decline but remain >750, and HIV prevalence would continue to increase by 2020. Concurrently implementing the 3 programs would lower annual new HIV infections by 16.0%, 28.1%, and 45.7% compared with baseline in the low-, medium-, and high-implementation scenarios, respectively. In all concurrent implementation scenarios, although annual new HIV infections would remain >750, there would be fewer new HIV infections than deaths, yielding the first-ever decrease in HIV prevalence. PrEP and enhanced linkage and retention would confer the largest population-level changes. CONCLUSIONS: New York State will achieve 1 ETE benchmark under the most realistic (medium) implementation scenario. Findings facilitated framing of ETE goals and underscored the need to prioritize men who have sex with men and maintain ETE's multipronged approach, including other programs not modeled here.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Simulação por Computador , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , New York , Cooperação do Paciente , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Prevalência , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
20.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 19(2): 117-122, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780680

RESUMO

The HIV/AIDS pandemic is compounded by the continued stigmatization of the virus/disease and of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Employing structuration theory, this study sought to examine the perceptions of Kenyans toward their government's efforts to curtail HIV/AIDS as well as their attitudes toward PLWHA. Data for this study were collected using an open-ended online survey. In total, 103 participants (25.3%) completed the survey. We used snowball sampling to select prospective participants known to the researcher; they were sent a link to the survey via email or direct message on a social networking site like Facebook or WhatsApp, and were asked to share the survey with people in their social circles. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Findings revealed that some participants had confidence in the Kenyan government's efforts to address the HIV/AIDS pandemic, while others showed no confidence in government-led initiatives. Consistent with previous research, this study found that stigma towards HIV/ AIDS and PLWHA still exists. Practical and theoretical implications of the findings are discussed.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Pandemias/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Percepção Social , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Programas Governamentais , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estigma Social , Estereotipagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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