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1.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(690): 744-748, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32301309

RESUMO

Medical advances in the treatment of HIV over the last 35 years mean that people living with HIV (PLHIV) now have a life expectancy close to that of the general population. Further, when successfully treated, PLHIV cannot transmit the virus. Despite this, HIV-related stigma remains widespread, including within healthcare settings. Stigma is not a vague sociological notion but represents a real threat to public health, with repercussions for both PLHIV and HIV-negative individuals. Stigma has been shown to have a negative impact on HIV prevention, testing, access to health services, and on the healthcare management of PLHIV. Taking stigma into consideration is essential, both in meeting the medical and psycho-social needs of PLHIV and in order to effectively combat HIV/AIDS.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Saúde Pública , Estigma Social , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/transmissão , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Soronegatividade para HIV , Soropositividade para HIV/diagnóstico , Soropositividade para HIV/psicologia , Soropositividade para HIV/transmissão , Humanos
3.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 27: e42264, jan.-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1046225

RESUMO

Objetivo: conhecer as dificuldades encontradas pela família para o cuidado à criança/adolescente com HIV. Metodologia: pesquisa qualitativa realizada em um Hospital Dia no sul do Brasil em 2018. Participaram 20 familiares cuidadores de crianças/adolescentes soropositivas. Os dados foram coletados por entrevistas e submetidos à Análise de Conteúdo. Respeitaram-se os princípios éticos. Resultados: as famílias afirmaram não ter facilidades no cuidado. Referiram dificuldades em manter o sigilo do diagnóstico para a criança/adolescente; na adesão desta à medicação e minimização dos seus efeitos colaterais, em seguir os horários de administração; na assiduidade às consultas; em sofrer preconceito e na aceitação da sociedade diante da doença, incluindo a preocupação com o futuro da criança/adolescente. Conclusão: verificou-se como importante a atuação dos profissionais da saúde/ enfermeiros investindo em uma assistência voltada para a promoção de saúde de crianças e adolescentes com HIV, promovendo educação em saúde e o manejo das dificuldades enfrentadas com o cuidado.


Objective: to learn the difficulties encountered by families in caring for children or adolescents with HIV. Methodology: this qualitative study was conducted at a day hospital in southern Brazil in 2018. The participants were 20 family caregivers of seropositive children or adolescents. Data were collected through interviews and subjected to Content Analysis. Ethical principles were respected. Results: the families claimed to have no care facilities. They reported difficulties in keeping the children's or adolescents' diagnosis confidential; securing adherence to medication and administration schedules; minimizing side effects; attending appointments; suffering prejudice and gaining social acceptance of the disease, which included concern for the children's or adolescents' futures. Conclusion: it was found to be important that health professionals' or nurses' invest in care focused on promoting the health of children and adolescents with HIV, furthering health education and managing the difficulties encountered in care.


Objetivo: conocer las dificultades encontradas por la familia para el cuidado al niño/adolescente con VIH. Método: investigación cualitativa realizada en un Hospital Día en el sur de Brasil en 2018. Participaron 20 familiares cuidadores de niños/adolescentes seropositivos. Los datos fueron recolectados por entrevistas y sometidos al Análisis de Contenido. Se respetaron los principios éticos. Resultados: las familias afirmaron no tener facilidades en el cuidado. Dijeron que tienen dificultades para mantener el secreto del diagnóstico junto al niño/adolescente, también para su adherencia a la medicación y minimización de sus efectos colaterales, para seguir los horarios correctos de administración; la asiduidad de las consultas; por sufrir con los prejuicios y la dificultad de aceptación social de la enfermedad y la preocupación por el futuro del niño/adolescente. Conclusión: se verificó que es muy importante la actuación de los profesionales de salud/enfermeros que invierten en una atención volcada a la promoción de salud de niños y adolescentes con VIH, promoviendo la educación sanitaria y la gestión de las dificultades enfrentadas con el cuidado.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Família , Criança , Saúde da Família , Adolescente , HIV , Enfermagem , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa
4.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 36(3): 331-339, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral treatment (ART) is essential in HIV/AIDS patients. Suppressing viral load requires strict adherence to ART in addition to the patient's commitment to treatment. The failure of ART is mainly due to lack of adherence, which may in turn be due to poor quality of life and/or to psychological variables. AIM: To determine the quality of life and psychological variables and adherence to ART, in patients with HIV/AIDS. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 160 patients diagnosed with HIV/AIDS and with ART were included. The MOS SF-36 and VPAD-24 instruments, a socio-demographic survey, and clinical data were collected. Quantitative and qualitative associations were made between the variables. RESULTS: The adherence to ART was associated with avoidance of depressive behavior and with the absence of addictions. Depressive behavior associated with addictions. 87% of patients ranked in the best quality of life. Below the average of the general health score were males, with MSM sexual orientation, single, in vitality at ≥ 38 years, in corporal pain and with social function to three ART schemes. CONCLUSION: Good adherence to ART was associated with avoiding depressive behavior and with non-addictions and not associated with quality of life.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/psicologia , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 18(3): 198-204, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575338

RESUMO

Background: South Africa has the largest HIV/AIDS epidemic globally and the largest anti-retroviral treatment (ART) programme in the world, yet HIV incidence is still chronically high in South Africa, especially in KwaZulu-Natal province (KZN). In light of this, a study was conducted to investigate the extent of challenges making the management of HIV/AIDS difficult in people living with HIV (PLWH) in KZN, South Africa. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 297 study participants living with HIV and receiving ART from three selected clinics in the Ethekwini Metro of KZN. A self-administered questionnaire assessed the challenges experienced by PLWH, their knowledge of their condition and their management thereof. One-way frequency tables were used to descriptively assess participant responses. Associations between certain demographic characteristics and responses to HIV treatment management challenges were assessed using chi-square tests, with statistical significance set at p < 0.05. Results: One-fifth of the participants (n = 60; 20.1%) were within the 18-23 age group, with over 53% (n = 158) having secondary level education. Some of the challenges cited included: difficulty in obtaining medication, mainly due to cost; side effects resulting in non-adherence; shame for taking medication in public (younger patients were more likely to feel ashamed for taking their medication in public [χ2 = 20.3, p = 0.009]); and non-disclosure of HIV-positive status to partners. We found a significant association between education and financial status and management of their condition [χ2 = 11.2, p = 0.011]. Conclusion: These findings that challenges still exist have implications for more robust programmes on education and counselling to address such challenges.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/economia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Aconselhamento , Estudos Transversais , Epidemias , Feminino , HIV , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parceiros Sexuais , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 11(5): 1260-1265, out.-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1022614

RESUMO

Objective: The study's purpose has been to scrutinize the changes in women's daily life, as well as to investigate how they stand after the diagnosis of HIV/AIDS and the introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART). Methods: It is a descriptive and prospective study with a qualitative approach. Semi-structured interviews were performed with twenty-two HIV positive women, who were enrolled in the immunology ambulatory of a university hospital located in the Rio de Janeiro city. This research was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (CAAE: 45955315.0.0000.5285). Results: Most women dealt positively with the changes in their daily lives after discovering the disease, looking for a way of life with quality, although they still show some difficulties in that regard. Concerning the ART, there was struggle in its beginning; however, as the time went by the adaptations occurred mainly with the family support. Conclusion: It is essential to provide better support towards women during both HIV diagnosis and treatment, so that they can improve their coping strategies


Objetivo: Investigar as mudanças no cotidiano e analisar o enfrentamento de mulheres após o diagnóstico do HIV/AIDS e a introdução da Terapia Antirretroviral (TARV). Método: Estudo descritivo e prospectivo de natureza qualitativa. Realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com vinte e duas mulheres HIV positivas, matriculadas no ambulatório de imunologia de um hospital universitário do Rio de Janeiro. Aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética CAAE: 45955315.0.0000.5285. Resultados: A maioria das mulheres enfrentou positivamente as mudanças no seu cotidiano após a descoberta da doença, buscando viver com qualidade, embora ainda apresentem dificuldades na retomada de suas vidas. Com relação à TARV houve dificuldade em seu início, no entanto com o passar do tempo ocorreram adaptações principalmente com o apoio da família. Conclusão: É fundamental que haja um maior apoio as mulheres durante o diagnóstico e tratamento do HIV, para que possam elaborar melhor suas estratégias de enfrentamento


Objetivo: Investigar los cambios en la rutina y hacer un análisis del enfrentamiento de mujeres tras el diagnóstico del VIH/sida y la introducción de la Terapia Antirretroviral (TARV). Método: Estudio descriptivo y prospectivo de naturaleza cualitativa. Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas con veintidós mujeres VIH positivas, matriculadas en el ambulatorio inmunológico de un hospital universitario de Río de Janeiro. Aprobado por el Comité de Ética CAAE: 45955315.0.0000.5285. Resultados: La mayoría de las mujeres enfrentó positivamente los cambios en su cotidiano después del descubrimiento de la enfermedad, buscando vivir con calidad, aunque todavía presentan dificultades en la reanudación de sus vidas. En cuanto a la TARV hubo dificultad en su inicio, sin embargo con el paso del tiempo ocurrieron adaptaciones principalmente con el apoyo de la familia. Conclusión: El apoyo a las mujeres durante el diagnóstico y tratamiento del VIH es fundamental, para que puedan elaborar sus estrategias de enfrentamiento


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Apoio Social , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , HIV , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/psicologia , Família/psicologia
7.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 11(5): 1326-1332, out.-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1022724

RESUMO

Objective: The study's purpose has been to describe the life quality of HIV/AIDS bearing people through their own perspective. Methods: It is a descriptive study with a qualitative approach. This research counted with the participation of 21 individuals enrolled in a municipality from the Paraná State. Data were analyzed by the content analysis method. Results: Two central points were identified, as follows: 1. Unveiling the knowledge about HIV/AIDS. The understanding vis-à-vis contamination, condom use, and virus detection time was considered satisfactory; some participants were unaware of gestational transmission and also neglected the use of condoms; 2. Recognizing the life quality determinants after the diagnosis. The participants have pointed out discomforts at the beginning of treatment, changes in routine, social and financial aspects, as well as discontentment in doing both physical and sexual activities. Conclusion: The individuals' perception concerning their quality of life are influenced by the biopsychosocial alterations and aggravating factors in their way of life, so it is important to improve the health professional planning towards the educational practices of those individuals


Objetivo: Descrever a percepção da qualidade de vida de indivíduos com HIV/AIDS. Método: Estudo descritivo com abordagem qualitativa. Participaram 21 indivíduos cadastrados em um município no Paraná. Os dados foram analisados pelo método da análise de conteúdo. Resultados: Identificou-se dois eixos: 1. Desvelando o conhecimento sobre HIV/AIDS. O conhecimento foi satisfatório sobre contágio, uso do preservativo e tempo de detecção do vírus; alguns desconheciam sobre transmissão gestacional e ignoravam a utilização do preservativo; 2. Reconhecendo os determinantes na qualidade de vida após o diagnóstico. Apontou desconfortos no início do tratamento, alterações na rotina, nos aspectos sociais, financeiros, e insatisfação com a prática de atividade física e sexual. Conclusão: As percepções da qualidade de vida destes indivíduos são influenciadas pelas alterações e agravantes biopsicossociais no modo de viver, por isso é importante o planejamento dos profissionais de saúde nas práticas educativas destes indivíduos


Objetivo: Describir la percepción de la calidad de vida de los individuos con VIH/SIDA. Método: Estudio descriptivo con enfoque cualitativo. Participaron 21 individuos registrados en un municipio de Paraná. Los datos fueron analizados por el método del análisis de contenido. Resultados: Se identificaron dos ejes: 1. Desvelando el conocimiento sobre VIH/ SIDA. El conocimiento fue satisfactorio sobre contagio, uso del preservativo y tiempo de detección del virus; algunos desconocían sobre transmisión gestacional e ignoraban la utilización del preservativo; 2. Reconociendo los determinantes en la calidad de vida después del diagnóstico. Se señalaron molestias al inicio del tratamiento, alteraciones en la rutina, en los aspectos sociales, financieros, e insatisfacción con la práctica de actividad física y sexual. Conclusión: Las percepciones de la calidad de vida de estos individuos son influenciadas por las alteraciones y agravantes biopsicosociales en el modo de vivir, por eso es importante la planificación de los profesionales de salud en las prácticas educativas de estos individuos


Assuntos
Humanos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Perfil de Impacto da Doença , Educação em Saúde , HIV
8.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(9): 1259-1265, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489863

RESUMO

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of knowledge about HIV, and intraoral signs that can be seen in HIV positive patients and the interpretation of attitudes toward HIV positive patients of fourth- and fifth-grade students at Marmara University Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul, Turkey. Material and Methods: In our study, a questionnaire consisting of 23 questions was applied to 100 fourth- and 100 fifth-grade students totalling 200 dental students who are educated in Marmara University Faculty of Dentistry. Besides the knowledge level of the students, their attitudes were evaluated using the survey conducted. Chi-square (or Fisher's exact test at appropriate locations) was used to examine the relationship between categorical variables. Statistical significance level was determined as P < 0.05. Results: Of the 200 participants, 46 (23.0%) were males and 154 (77.0%) were females. One hundred people (50%) are fourth grade, 100 people (50%) are fifth grade. The rate of fifth grade agreements for the question "Treatment of HIV positive patient increases the risk of transmission of HIV infection to dentist" was statistically higher than that of fourth-grade students (Fisher's exact P < 0,05). Fifth-grade knowledge of oral symptoms of HIV/AIDS was statistically higher than fourth grades (Fisher's exact P < 0.05). Conclusion: As the grade level increases, the knowledge about HIV/AIDS raises portraying a relevant approach to patients with AIDS. Comprehensive training and motivation for improving dentistry students' awareness against HIV-positive patients will also improve knowledge and attitudes of the students that enable them to take better care of HIV-positive patients.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudantes de Odontologia/psicologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/transmissão , Adulto , Educação em Odontologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia
9.
BMJ Support Palliat Care ; 9(4): 404-412, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537580

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The incidence of some fatal diseases, including HIV/AIDS, accompanied by depression has become a significant concern in developed, developing and underdeveloped countries. A great deal of time and money are spent on controlling and reducing the complications of this infection across the world. Accordingly, the main purpose of this study was to clarify the global prevalence rate of depression in patients living with HIV/AIDS via a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODOLOGY: All articles in English, published between 2000 and 2018, were systematically searched from the original databases of Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and Embase. As a result, a total of 118 articles were identified. RESULTS: The total sample size in these articles was 51143 people, and the number of patients suffering from moderate and severe levels of depression was 14 942. The results of the analysis based on the random-effects (DerSimonian and Laird) model revealed that the prevalence rate of depression in patients with HIV/AIDS was 31% (95% CI 28% to 34%), with a 98% heterogeneity index which was reported significant. Meanwhile, the highest prevalence rate of depression based on continent was in South America at 44% (95% CI 35% to 53%) and the lowest rate was in Europe at 22% (95% CI 17% to 27%). CONCLUSION: In general, there was a higher prevalence rate of depression in developing and underdeveloped countries than in developed countries, which could be attributed to the advancement of science and the possibilities for early diagnosis of this syndrome. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019119137.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Prevalência
10.
Psico USF ; 24(3): 475-487, jul.-set. 2019. tab, il
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040776

RESUMO

Objetivo: Avaliar as propriedades psicométricas do questionário WHOQOL-HIV Bref em pessoas com HIV/AIDS. Método: O instrumento foi aplicado a 226 pessoas com HIV/AIDS do Norte de Minas Gerais. As propriedades psicométricas foram avaliadas pela validade de construto, análise da confiabilidade e validade de critério. Resultados: O modelo com seis domínios apresentou ajustamento aceitável (χ2/gl= 1,77, p <0,001, GFI = 0,85, CFI= 0,89, RMSEA = 0,058 ). O WHOQOL-HIV Bref apresentou correlações estatisticamente significativas entre os seis domínios, consistência interna e reprodutibilidade satisfatórias. Os escores dos domínios demonstraram correlação significativa com o escore da qualidade de vida geral e dos itens que avaliam a autopercepção da qualidade de vida e da saúde, correlação significativa com o resultado global da depressão e diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre subgrupos de pacientes segundo variáveis socioeconômicas e clínicas. Conclusões: O WHOQOL-HIV Bref apresentou-se válido, confiável para medir a qualidade de vida de pessoas com HIV/AIDS. (AU)


Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the WHOQOL-HIV Bref questionnaire in people with HIV / AIDS. Method: The questionnaire was applied to 226 people living with HIV/AIDS in the Northern part of the state of Minas Gerais. The psychometric properties were evaluated by construct validity, reliability analysis, and criteria validity. Results: The model with six domains had an acceptable adjustment (χ2 / gl = 1.77, p <0.001, GFI = 0.85, CFI = 0.89, RMSEA = 0.058). The WHOQOL-HIV Bref showed statistically significant correlations among the six domains, satisfactory internal consistency and reproducibility. The instrument scores showed a significant correlation with the general quality of life score and the items that assess the self-perception of quality of life and health, a significant correlation with the overall result of depression, and statistically significant differences between subgroups of patients. Conclusions: The WHOQOL-HIV Bref was valid, reliable to measure the quality of life of people with HIV/AIDS. (AU)


Objetivo: Evaluar las propiedades psicométricas del cuestionario WHOQOL- HIV Bref en personas con HIV/SIDA. Método: El instrumento fue aplicado a 226 personas con HIV/SIDA del Norte de Minas Gerais. Las propiedades psicométricas fueron evaluadas por validez de constructo, análisis de confiabilidad, y validez de criterio. Resultados: El modelo con seis dominios presentó un ajuste aceptable (χ2 / gl = 1,77, p <0,001, GFI = 0,85, CFI = 0,89, RMSEA = 0,058). El WHOQOL-HIV Bref presentó correlaciones estadísticamente significativas entre los seis dominios, consistencia interna, y reproductibilidad satisfactorias. Los resultados de los dominios demostraron correlación significativa con el resultado de calidad de vida general y de los ítems que evalúan la autopercepción de calidad de vida y de la salud, correlación significativa con el resultado global de depresión y diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre subgrupos de pacientes según variables socioeconómicas y clínicas. Conclusiones: El WHOQOL- HIV Bref se presentó como válido y confiable para medir la calidad de vida de personas con HIV/SIDA. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Qualidade de Vida , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , HIV , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
Psychiatriki ; 30(2): 120-128, 2019.
Artigo em Grego Moderno | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425140

RESUMO

Despite the large progress during the last decades in the medical treatment of HIV/AIDS infection, people living with HIV nevertheless face multiple adversities at various levels of their lives. Mental disorders, in particular, are the most common comorbidities in HIV infection with negative consequences in adherence to antiretroviral medication, disease progress and overall quality of life. HIVrelated stigma, still quite intense in Greece, is one of the most debilitating factors concerning people's living with HIV mental health. The present study looked at the clinical presentation at intake and treatment requests of 191 (83% males) people living with HIV who addressed the psychological support service of the non-governmental organization 'Centre for Life' during the years 2016- 18. Data were collected through a semi-structured clinical interview and administration of adapted questionnaires (PHQ-9, BAI, CAGE), which resulted in 7 dichotomous variables related to clinical presentation and 13 dichotomous variables related to treatment requests at intake. To analyze data, we constructed frequency tables and performed chi-square tests. In the whole sample, 42.2% presented anxiety disorders, 40.3% depression, 28.8% occasional substance use, 17.5% problematic use of alcohol and 13.6% intravenous drug use. Moreover, 14% reported at least one suicide attempt in the past and 9.2% current suicidal ideation. Apart from more frequent intravenous drug use among heterosexual males and more frequent occasional/recreational drug use among men who have sex with men, no other differences related to gender, age group, sexual orientation or ethnicity were observed in the initial clinical presentation. Similarly, the most frequent treatment requests were homogenously distributed in our sample, such as depressive symptoms (58.6%), difficulties in romantic relationships (48.7%), accepting being HIV positive (42.9%), anxiety symptoms (42.4%) and issues of negative self-esteem (40.8%). The presence of clinically significant depression was found to be related to a wider range of treatment requests compared to other mental health problems. A large group of requests focused on interpersonal relationships difficulties (e.g. disclosure anxiety, social isolation, disturbed relationships with familiar persons). This indicates an important area of psychological intervention. HIV infection may affect many levels of an individual's life, including their mental health. Respectively, HIV treatment needs to adopt a more holistic approach.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/terapia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Psicoterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Aconselhamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Grécia/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/reabilitação , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Autoimagem , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/reabilitação , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 527, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429805

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and factors associated with depression among people living with HIV/AIDS attending Gimbi General hospital, West Ethiopia. Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted on 404 HIV/AIDS patients, from March 01 to March 30, 2018. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with depression. Possible association and statistical significance were measured using odds ratio at 95% confidence interval and P-value less than 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 393 HIV/AIDS patients were included in this study. Out of this, 41.7% had depression. Perceived social stigma (AOR = 6.98, 95% CI 3.07, 15.86), opportunistic infection (AOR = 9.38, 95% CI 4.21, 20.89), adverse drug reaction (AOR = 3.73, 95% CI 1.58, 8.81), absence of family/social support (AOR = 9.97, 95% CI 3.57, 27.86), and presence of other chronic diseases (AOR = 6.14, 95% CI 1.66, 22.68) were significantly associated with depression. The level of depression among HIV/AIDS patient in this study was high. The clinician should early recognize and treat drug side effects, early detect and manage opportunistic infection and other chronic diseases, and give health information about the disease for the community to reduce social stigma.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Depressão/epidemiologia , Hospitais Gerais , Adulto , Comportamento , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada
13.
Rev. Rol enferm ; 42(7/8): 488-495, jul.-ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-187129

RESUMO

El presente artículo describe un caso clínico de un paciente atendido en la consulta de atención primaria por presentar afrontamiento defensivo frente a su enfermedad, causado por una infección de VIH+ en estadio de SIDA. Se realiza seguimiento del usuario en la consulta de enfermera de familia, se desarrolla el plan de cuidados siguiendo el modelo AREA (Análisis del Resultado del Estado Actual) para la priorización de diagnósticos, teniendo en cuenta las preferencias del propio usuario. Se siguen las directrices CARE para la elaboración del caso


The present article describes a clinical case of a patient taken care of in the primary care consultation who pre-sent defensive facing against his disease, caused by an infection of VIH+ in stage of SIDA. The user is followed up in the Family Nursing consultation, the care plan is developed following the AREA model for the prioritization of diagnoses, taking into account the preferences of the user. The CARE guidelines are followed for the preparation of the case


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/enfermagem , Enfermagem Familiar , Autoimagem , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/diagnóstico , Candidíase Bucal/diagnóstico , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Terminologia Padronizada em Enfermagem
14.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 18(2): 104-114, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282302

RESUMO

In South Africa, African traditional healers and biomedical practitioners play important roles in the management of HIV and AIDS, but provide healthcare services in isolation of each other, despite legislative recognition of both types of healing. An interpretive, qualitative research approach was employed to elicit the views of both groups regarding the feasibility of collaboration. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample of 20 participants with 10 persons from each group. Key findings were that African traditional healers referred their patients to hospitals but never received referrals from biomedical health care practitioners. The traditional healers took precautions to avoid drug interactions between their medicines and antiretrovirals (ARVs). Biomedical healthcare practitioners recommended that traditional medicine only be used externally to avoid interaction with ARVs. Lack of shared knowledge, poor dosages and medical complications due to the use of African traditional medicine were viewed as threats to the collaboration between the two groups, while open communication, research into the efficacy, scientific administration and proper dosages of African traditional medicine were articulated as facilitating factors. The main conclusion was that biomedical practitioners, traditional healers and government officials responsible for formulating healthcare policies need to be involved in devising a framework that would facilitate ways of encouraging collaboration between these two healthcare systems.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/terapia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Política de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Encaminhamento e Consulta , África do Sul , Terapias Espirituais , Adulto Jovem
15.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(7): 800-804, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357802

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the status quo of social support for and social adaptation of HIV/AIDS patients in Henan province, analyze the relationship between social support and social adaptation, and provide reference for improving the quality of life of HIV/AIDS patients. Methods: A multi-stage stratified random sampling method was adopted to select HIV/AIDS patients in high HIV prevalence areas (Shangcai, Shenqiu), middle epidemic areas (Queshan, Yongcheng), low prevalence areas (Jiyuan, Sanmenxia) in Henan province. A social support scale was used to investigate the three dimensions of objective support, subjective support and support utilization. A social adaptation scale was used to investigate the three dimensions of patient cognitive willingness, social interaction and role adaptation. Finally, the characteristics of the social support, social adaptation and their relationships were analyzed. Results: The overall score of 506 HIV/AIDS patients' social support was 36.30±9.34, the score of objective support was 7.48±3.01, the score of subjective support was 22.35±5.79, and the score of support utilization was 6.28±2.38, the overall score and the scores of three dimensions of social support of HIV/AIDS patients were lower than the national levels, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). The overall score of patients' social adaptation was39.10±7.10, the score of cognitive willingness was 9.96±3.23, the score of social interaction was 18.57±3.25, and the score of role adaptation was 10.57±2.52. The average score of social adaptation of patients was less than 2/3 of the overall score, and the average cognitive willingness score was less than 1/2 of the overall score. The differences in social support score and social adaptation score among patients with different gender, age, marital status, occupation, transmission route, number of symptoms were statistically significant (P<0.05). For the HIV/AIDS patients, there was a correlation between the social support and the social adaptation (r=0.14, P<0.05). Conclusion: HIV/AIDS patients had a low level of social support and social adaptation, and social support might be a contributing factor to the social adaptation of HIV/AIDS patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Ajustamento Social , Apoio Social , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/terapia , China , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349674

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the quality of life (QOL) status and related factors in young human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) aged 16 to 24 years in Zhejiang province. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 22 counties of Zhejiang province, and 395 subjects took part in our research. A t-test, one-way Analysis of variance (ANOVA), and multivariate stepwise linear regression analysis were used to investigate the factors associated with QOL in young HIV-infected MSM. RESULTS: The total score on the QOL was 86.86 ± 14.01. The multivariate stepwise linear regression analysis revealed that self-efficacy and discrimination were associated with all domains on the QOL assessment, monthly income was associated with QOL for all domains except spirituality and consistent condom use during oral sex with men in the past three months was associated with QOL for all domains except the relationship domain. Those individuals within the group of young HIV-infected MSM who have higher self-efficacy, a higher monthly income, greater social support, safer sexual behaviors, a higher level of education, and a higher cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) count have a better QOL. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that to improve the QOL of this population, greater emphasis should be placed on improving social support, self-efficacy, and antiviral therapy adherence and on reducing discrimination, disease progression, and high-risk behaviors.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Sexo Seguro/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 720, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adherence to ART is the primary determinant of viral suppression and the risk of transmission, disease progression and death. Adherence of at least 95% is needed for optimal suppression. This study aimed at determining the adherence to Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) and its associated factors among People Living with HIV and AIDS in ART Center of Chitwan, Nepal. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 231 clients aged 18 years to 49 years taking ART from Bharatpur Hospital of Chitwan and those who have been enrolled in ART for at least 6 months, were interviewed. Systematic Sampling technique was used. Semi-structured questionnaire was prepared by taking reference from the AIDS Clinical Trial group questionnaire (ACTG). Adherence was measured by patient self report. Data was entered Epi Data 3.1 and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software where the P value of < 0.05 was accepted as being statistically significant. The independent variables which were found significant at p-value 0.10 in bivariate analysis were fitted in multivariable logistic regression model. Multivariable logistic regression model was performed to know the net effect of the independent variables on Adherence to ART medication. RESULTS: The overall adherence in the last month was found to be 87.4%. Wrist watch and mobiles were seen as a facilitating factor for taking ART on time as clients taking ART used to set alarm to get informed of the medication time. Adherence was associated with female sex (AOR = 10.550 CI: 1.854-60.046), family consisting only parents and their children (AOR = 4.877, CI: 1.246-19.079), having no habit of taking alcohol (AOR = 5.842 CI: 1.294-26.383), HIV duration of more than 3 years (AOR = 10.055 CI: 2.383-42.430), picking up ART medications on their own (AOR = 7.861, CI: 1.670-36.998) and not having side effects of ART (AOR = 8.832, CI: 2.059-37.890). CONCLUSION: Identifying and evaluating the problems faced by ARV drug users can foster the achievement of ART related goals and addressing ART related problems in a rational way. Effective and appropriate monitoring of non adherence behaviors can help patients increase adherence level fostering improvement in treatment outcome.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
18.
Glob Health Action ; 12(1): 1617393, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154917

RESUMO

Background: While multisectoral action (MSA) is advocated as one of the strategies to address complex health and development challenges, there is limited clarity about the process of multisector collaboration in practice. Objectives: Informed by the findings of the research on implementation of the multisectoral response to HIV in South Africa, and drawing from the existing literature; we propose a framework for multisector and multilevel collaboration. The framework describes key components of the process of multisector collaboration, and aims to inform policy and practice. Methods: An integrative review and synthesis of existing frameworks, models and approaches on multisectoral action in public health, governance and health, and in public administration was conducted to inform the development of the proposed framework. Results: There are seven key components that are critical in the process of multisector collaboration namely: preconditions; key drivers; structure; mechanisms; administration; execution and evaluation. Multisector collaboration is presented as an iterative process that allow for improvement and learning. The framework is presented through a visual representation which shows how the seven elements are connected, and how learning happens through-out the multisector collaboration process. Structure and mechanisms are the two central and interrelated elements of the proposed framework. Conclusion: The framework does not suggest that multisector collaboration is a panacea, but that MSA remains critical to address complex health and development issues. Focus should be on finding innovative ways to inform and strengthen its implementation in practice. The framework can be used by practitioners and policy makers to inform design, implementation, and evaluation of multisector collaborations. It reflects on complexities of MSA, and brings to the fore critical information to assess readiness and to inform the decision whether to engage in MSA or not.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/terapia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Colaboração Intersetorial , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , África do Sul
19.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20180355, 2019 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141049

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated knowledge about HIV/AIDS in elders using the services of Family Health Strategy. METHODS: Cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study involving 238 participants. Mini-Mental State Examination and QHIV3I were applied. RESULTS: About 30% of participants had active sexual lives and 5.5% used condoms consistently. The question with the highest score of right answers was about transmission through needles (95%) and the lowest (52.5%) was about whether individuals infected with the virus always displayed symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to train health professionals to develop actions that encourage elders to take preventive measures.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/transmissão , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana
20.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35(3): e00064618, 2019 03 25.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30916176

RESUMO

This article sought to estimate factors associated with the psychological well-being of transvestites and trans women. It is a cross-sectional study with 602 transvestites and trans individuals in seven cities in the state of São Paulo, Brazil from 2014 to 2015. We carried out a sample selection through a consecutive approach and using the snowball technique. The dependent variable was psychological well-being (WHOQOL-BREF) and the independent variables were: sociodemographic characteristics, body modifications, health conditions, violence and incarceration. We used a multiple variance analysis to identify associated factors. Most were black or brown and were aged between 25 and 39 years, had up to complete secondary education, individual income of up to two times the minimum wage and worked, and 42.3% were sex workers. Around one-quarter had been incarcerated. Around one-quarter were in treatment for HIV. Mean psychological well-being score was 63.2 (95%CI: 61.8-64.6). In the multiple analysis, the factors associated with lower psychological well-being were: not having a fixed address, having lower educational levels, being dissatisfied with personal relationships, friend support or the gender-affirming procedures they had undergone and having suffered verbal or sexual violence. While worse living conditions and exposure to violence harm the psychological well-being of transvestites and trans women, the possibility of undergoing desired body transformations and having their social name respected interfere positively in their evaluations of their lives.


Assuntos
Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Travestilidade/psicologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Homofobia , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pessoas Transgênero/estatística & dados numéricos
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