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2.
Lancet HIV ; 8(2): e106-e113, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539757

RESUMO

Ending the AIDS epidemic by 2030 will require addressing stigma more systematically and at a larger scale than current efforts. Existing global evidence shows that stigma is a barrier to achieving each of the 90-90-90 targets; it undermines HIV testing, linkage to care, treatment adherence, and viral load suppression. However, findings from both research studies and programmatic experience have helped to inform the growing body of knowledge regarding how to reduce stigma, leading to key principles for HIV stigma reduction. These principles include immediately addressing actionable drivers of stigma, centring groups affected by stigma at the core of the response, and engaging opinion leaders and building partnerships between affected groups and opinion leaders. Although there is still room to strengthen research on stigma measurement and reduction, in particular for intersectional stigma, the proliferation of evidence over the past several decades on how to measure and address stigma provides a solid foundation for immediate and comprehensive action.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Medo/psicologia , Estigma Social , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/virologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Feminino , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV/crescimento & desenvolvimento , HIV/patogenicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento/psicologia , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e39144, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1120225

RESUMO

Objetivo: analisar estudos referentes à avaliação da qualidade de vida de pessoas vivendo com HIV no Brasil, por meio de uma revisão integrativa da literatura. Método: trata-se de revisão integrativa que incluiu 22 artigos científicos publicados no período de 2011 a 2019. Resultados: os principais instrumentos utilizados na avaliação da qualidade de vida foram o WHOQOL-HIV bref e o HAT-QOL. Os domínios com maiores escores na avaliação foram confiança no médico, psicológico e espiritualidade; as piores avaliações relacionavam-se com os domínios meio ambiente e preocupação com o sigilo. A exposição do diagnóstico impacta negativamente para a qualidade de vida bem como as condições de vida e saúde. Considerações finais: a qualidade de vida é um construto multidimensional e subjetivo com implicação direta na saúde e tratamento das pessoas vivendo com HIV, portanto, compreender os fatores que impactam sua avaliação é primordial na elaboração de políticas públicas e melhores condições de vida.


Objective: to analyze studies on evaluating the quality of life of people living with HIV in Brazil, by integrative literature review. Method: this integrative review included 22 scientific articles published from 2011 to 2019. Results: the instruments most used to assess quality of life were the WHOQOL-HIV bref and the HAT-QOL. The highest-scoring domains were trust in the doctor, psychology and spirituality, while the lowest scores related to the environment and confidentiality concerns. Exposing the diagnosis has adverse impacts on both quality of life and conditions of life and health. Final considerations: quality of life is a multidimensional, subjective construct with direct implications for the health and treatment of people living with HIV. Accordingly, in order to develop public policies and improve conditions of life, it is essential to understand the factors that impact on its assessment.


Objetivo: analizar estudios sobre la evaluación de la calidad de vida de las personas que viven con el VIH en Brasil, mediante revisión integradora de la literatura. Método: esta revisión integradora incluyó 22 artículos científicos publicados entre 2011 y 2019. Resultados: los instrumentos más utilizados para evaluar la calidad de vida fueron el WHOQOL-HIV bref y el HAT-QOL. Los dominios de mayor puntuación fueron la confianza en el médico, la psicología y la espiritualidad, mientras que las puntuaciones más bajas se relacionaron con el medio ambiente y las preocupaciones de confidencialidad. Exponer el diagnóstico tiene impactos adversos tanto en la calidad de vida como en las condiciones de vida y salud. Consideraciones finales: la calidad de vida es un constructo subjetivo multidimensional con implicaciones directas para la salud y el tratamiento de las personas que viven con el VIH. En consecuencia, para desarrollar políticas públicas y mejorar las condiciones de vida, es fundamental conocer los factores que inciden en su evaluación.


Assuntos
Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , HIV , Brasil , Revisão , Confidencialidade/psicologia , Confiança/psicologia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243969, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315916

RESUMO

This study assessed the determinants that shape HIV knowledge and attitudes among South Sudanese women by analysing a Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey collected from 9,061 women in 9,369 households. Generalised linear mixed model regression was performed. Fifty percent of respondents were aware of HIV/AIDS, with 21% and 22% exhibiting good knowledge and positive attitudes towards people with HIV/AIDS, respectively. When controlled for individual and community-level variables, younger women (AOR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.01-162), women with primary (AOR = 2.19; 95% CI: 1.86-2.58) and secondary (AOR = 4.48; 95% CI: 3.38-5.93) education, and those living in urban areas (AOR = 1.40; 95% CI: 1.12-1.76) had significantly good knowledge. Women in the richer (AOR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.08-2.36) and the richest (AOR = 2.02; 95% CI: 1.35-3.02) wealth quintiles had significant positive attitudes towards people with HIV/AIDS. Well-designed social and behavioural campaigns targeting uneducated women and those living in rural and remote settings will enhance knowledge of perceived risk, awareness, and ability to carry out preventive behaviours.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Escolaridade , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural , Sudão do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 50, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: From 2010 to 2015, there was a twofold growth of new HIV/AIDS infection in Beijing among young students aged 15-24. HIV/AIDS education was found effective in promoting positive behavior change related to HIV/AIDS prevention. However, little evidence was found on the evaluation of HIV/AIDS education policy. This study aimed to evaluate the college-based HIV/AIDS education policy in Beijing. METHODS: By using a mixed method approach, the current study reviewed college-based HIV/AIDS education policy at national level and in Beijing from 1985 to 2016 and conducted policy content analysis to evaluate the policy ability to structure implementation. Cross-sectional surveys in 2006 and 2016 were used to evaluate college's implementation of relevant policies. T test, χ2 test, and logistic regression were used to analyze college students' perception of HIV/AIDS education provided in their colleges and their knowledge of HIV/AIDS and their risk factors. RESULTS: Fourteen pieces of national policy and four pieces of Beijing's policy were identified. Policy's ability to structure implementation was at moderate level. The percentage of students in Beijing who ever perceived HIV/ADIS education at colleges decreased from 71.14 to 39.80%, and the percentage of students with comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS dropped from 50.00% in 2006 to 40.42% in 2016. CONCLUSIONS: HIV/AIDS education in college had drawn considerable attentions from the Chinese government, while the policy implementation needs further strengthening.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Política de Saúde , Adolescente , Pequim , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 714, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency virus continues to be a major global health problem infecting 75 million and killing 32 million people since the beginning of the epidemic. It badly hit Sub Saharan Africa than any country in the world and youths are sharing the greatest burden. The study aims to assess the level of HIV-knowledge and its determinants among Ethiopian youths using the 2016 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey data. METHODS: A nationally representative 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey data were used. A total of 10,903 youths comprising 6401 females and 4502 males were included in the study. Descriptive statistics and multilevel order logistic regression were used and confidence interval was used to declare statistical significance in the final model. RESULTS: The mean age and SD of youths included in this study was 19.10 (±2.82). Among Ethiopian youths, 20.92% (95% CI: 18.91, 23.09%) had low knowledge of HIV whereas, 48.76% (95% CI: 47.12, 50.41%) and 30.31% (95% CI: 28.51, 32.18%) of them had moderate and comprehensive HIV knowledge respectively. Being male, access to TV and radio, ever tested for HIV/AIDS, owning a mobile telephone, and attending primary school and above compared to non-attendants were associated with having higher HIV knowledge. But, dwelling in rural Ethiopia, being in the Protestant and Muslim religious groups as compared to those of Orthodox followers and being in married groups were associated with having lower HIV knowledge. Approximately, 12% of the variation in knowledge of HIV was due to regions. CONCLUSION: Only one-third of Ethiopian youths have deep insight into the disease, whereas, nearly one-fifth of them have lower HIV-knowledge. There is a significant disparity in HIV-related knowledge among Ethiopian youths living in different regions. Rural residents, less educated, female, and married youths have less knowledge of HIV as compared to their counterparts. Youths who do not have a mobile phone, who lack health insurance coverage, and who have limited access to media have less knowledge about HIV. Therefore, the due focus should be given to the aforementioned factors to minimize the disparities between regions and to enhance Ethiopian youths' HIV-knowledge.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Conscientização , Conhecimento , Acesso à Informação , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , População Rural , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
8.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 19(3): 222-230, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892711

RESUMO

Sub-Saharan Africa is a region that is severely affected by the HIV and AIDS pandemic with females disproportionately affected. Having accurate and comprehensive knowledge about HIV and AIDS is a major strategy in the fight against the pandemic. This study sought to examine the individual and contextual predictors of comprehensive HIV and AIDS knowledge among young women in Ghana. The study used the females' file from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey dataset. A total of 1 407 young women were used for the analysis. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were done. The results showed that about 22% of the respondents had comprehensive HIV and AIDS knowledge. Young women with secondary and higher levels of education (AOR = 2.85, p < 0.01) and those from the Upper East Region (AOR = 7.15, p < 0.001) had higher odds of comprehensive HIV and AIDS knowledge. However, those cohabiting (AOR = 0.57, p < 0.01) and those who do not watch TV at all (AOR = 0.50, p < 0.01) had lower odds of comprehensive HIV and AIDS knowledge. Comprehensive HIV and AIDS knowledge is low among young women in Ghana and the predictors are both individual (marital status and education) and contextual (region, watching television and listening to radio). A concerted effort is needed to improve the HIV and AIDS knowledge of young people. Mass media campaigns aimed at improving comprehensive HIV and AIDS knowledge should appreciate the individual and contextual factors that influence the comprehensive HIV & AIDS knowledge of young women.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Análise Multivariada , Adulto Jovem
9.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 232-241, mayo 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cardinal aim of the present study was to assess the level of social support, self esteem and quality of life among people living with HIV/AIDS in Jammu and Kashmir State of India. Further, the study strived to explore the relationship between independent and dependent variables. METHOD: The study consists a sample of 460 AIDS patients selected through purposive sampling technique, out of them 177 (38.3%) were male, 283 (61.5%) were female patients; 295 (64.1%) were married and 165 (35.9%) were unmarried. Measures included Enriched Social Support Inventory by Mitchell et al., (2003), Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (1965) and Quality of Life Scale by Sharma & Nasreen (2014). For the statistical analysis of data Mean, Standard deviation, Frequency distribution, t-test, one way analysis of variance, correlation analysis and Scheffe's post hoc test was applied by SPSS 20.0 version. Findings: The findings illustrated that majority of patients have poor social support, lower self-esteem and poor quality of life; also it reveals that patient's social support, and self-esteem differs by age, occupation, duration of illness, gender, and marital status. However their quality of life differs only by their age, occupation, duration of illness, and marital status. Further the result shows social support and self-esteem are positively correlated with quality of life


ANTECEDENTES: El objetivo principal del presente estudio fue evaluar el nivel de apoyo social, autoestima y calidad de vida entre las personas que viven con el VIH / SIDA en Jammu y el Esta do de Cachemira de la India. Además, el estudio se esforzó por explorar la relación entre variables independientes y dependientes. Método: El estudio consiste en una muestra de 460 pacientes con SIDA seleccionados mediante una técnica de muestreo intencional, de ellos 177 (38.3%) eran hombres, 283 (61.5%) eran pacientes femeninas; 295 (64.1%) estaban casados y 165 (35.9%) no estaban casados. Las medidas incluyeron el Inventario de apoyo social enriquecido de Mitchell et al. (2003), la Escala de autoestima de Rosenberg (1965) y la Escala de calidad de vida de Sharma y Nasreen (2014). Para el análisis estadístico de los datos, la versión SPSS 20.0 aplicó la media, la desviación estándar, la distribución de frecuencia, la prueba t, el análisis de varianza unidireccional, el cuadrado de eta, el análisis de correlación y la prueba post hoc de Scheffe. Hallazgos: Los hallazgos ilustran que la mayoría de los pacientes tienen poco apoyo social, baja autoestima y mala calidad de vida; también revela que el apoyo social y la autoestima del paciente difieren según la edad, la ocupación, la duración de la enfermedad, el género y el estado civil. Sin embargo, su calidad de vida difiere solo por su edad, ocupación, duración de la enfermedad y estado civil. Además, el resultado muestra que el apoyo social y la autoestima se correlacionan positivamente con la calidad de vida


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Apoio Social , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Autoimagem , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Índia/epidemiologia , Análise de Variância
10.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 19(2): 117-122, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780680

RESUMO

The HIV/AIDS pandemic is compounded by the continued stigmatization of the virus/disease and of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Employing structuration theory, this study sought to examine the perceptions of Kenyans toward their government's efforts to curtail HIV/AIDS as well as their attitudes toward PLWHA. Data for this study were collected using an open-ended online survey. In total, 103 participants (25.3%) completed the survey. We used snowball sampling to select prospective participants known to the researcher; they were sent a link to the survey via email or direct message on a social networking site like Facebook or WhatsApp, and were asked to share the survey with people in their social circles. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Findings revealed that some participants had confidence in the Kenyan government's efforts to address the HIV/AIDS pandemic, while others showed no confidence in government-led initiatives. Consistent with previous research, this study found that stigma towards HIV/ AIDS and PLWHA still exists. Practical and theoretical implications of the findings are discussed.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Pandemias/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Percepção Social , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Programas Governamentais , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estigma Social , Estereotipagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Cross Cult Gerontol ; 35(3): 311-328, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32566982

RESUMO

With the continued loss of lives due to HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa, grandparents bear the stress of caring for children affected by the epidemic, often with very limited resources. Yet, despite the acknowledgement that these older adults serve as the backbone and safety net of the African family in this HIV/AIDS era, very limited research has focused on investigating the specific health outcomes of caregivers in this region and how these changes in health status impact the overall quality of life of caregivers. This study highlights the stress perceived by Ugandan grandparent-caregivers, its impact on their overall quality of life, and the coping strategies they use to manage their stress. Thirty-two grandparent-caregivers (age 50 years and older) were recruited from urban and rural areas in Uganda and individually interviewed in 2016. Using constructivist grounded theory as the qualitative methodology, the narratives generated from the semi-structured, one-on-one interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using both open and axial coding as well as reflexive and analytic memoing. Descriptions of caregiver stress (physical, emotional, financial, and social) were reported. Additionally, study findings uniquely explore the impact of the perceived stress on the grandparents' overall quality of life. Study findings provide a foundation upon which clinicians, researchers, and policy-makers can design and implement effective interventions to improve the health and quality of life of grandparent-caregivers in sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Cuidadores/psicologia , Avós/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233849, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep is a natural, restorative, physiological process that is characterized by perceptual disengagement from and unresponsiveness to whatever going around, which is reversible. Sleep quality refers to a sense of being rested and refreshed after waking up from sleep. People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are vulnerable to poor sleep quality as they suffer from social stigma and Anti-Retroviral drug side effects. The study aimed to examine the quality of sleep and its associated factors among people living with HIV/AIDS attending Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) clinic at Hawassa University comprehensive specialized hospital. METHOD: Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted among PLWHA attending ART clinic at Hawassa University comprehensive specialized hospital from May 1-30, 2019. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select an estimated 422 study participants and data was collected using interviewer-administered technique. Sleep Quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS 22 software. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with quality of sleep. An adjusted odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval was computed to determine the level of significance with P-value less than 0.05. RESULT: Out of 422 respondents, 389 participated in the study giving a response rate of 92.1%. The prevalence of poor quality of sleep among study participants was found to be 57.6% (95% CI: 54.72, 60.48). 31.9% (124) and 30.6% (119) of study participants had anxiety and depression respectively. Being between the age of 55-64 years (AOR = 5.7, 95% CI (1.9, 17.8), Age ≥ 65 (AOR:6.6, 95% CI (1.2, 36.9), Monthly income <1656 Ethiopian Birr (ETB) (AOR = 2.17, 95% CI (1.06, 4.4), having anxiety (AOR = 4.4, 95% CI (2.12, 9.2), having depression (AOR = 4.97, 95% CI (2.28, 10) and poor social support (AOR = 2.9, 95% CI (1.16, 7.3) were factors associated with poor quality of sleep. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of poor quality of sleep among PLWHA was significantly high. Average monthly income, age, anxiety, depression, and social support were found to be significantly associated with poor sleep quality. Health care professionals working at the ART clinic need to assess the sleep pattern of ART clients, give psychoeducation on the prevention and management of sleep pattern problems.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , HIV , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Ansiedade/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/complicações , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza , Prevalência , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/etiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/etiologia , Estigma Social , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 751, 2020 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A gender gap exists in knowledge regarding persons living with HIV/AIDS in Ghana. Women living with HIV/AIDS (WLHIV) greatly outnumber males living with HIV/AIDS (MLHIV) in Ghana and Sub-Saharan Africa generally. This necessitates more gender-nuanced evidence-based information on HIV/AIDS to guide individuals, healthcare workers, and other stakeholders in Ghana particularly. This paper undertook a gender-focused analysis of the experiences of WLHIV and MLHIV in a municipal area in Ghana which has been most impacted by HIV/AIDS. METHODS: In-depth interviews of 38 HIV-positive persons recruited using combined purposive and random sampling for one month, were tape recorded and analyzed using thematic content analysis. Participants were out-patients who were receiving routine care for co-morbidities at two specially equipped HIV/AIDS Voluntary Counseling and Testing Centers in the Lower Manya Krobo Municipality (LMKM), Eastern Region, Ghana. RESULTS: Our data yielded three major themes: characteristics of participants, health status and health seeking behavior, and challenges encountered living with HIV/AIDS. Except for feeling of sadness due to their HIV/AIDS-positive status, there were significant differences in the experiences of MLHIV, compared to WLHIV. WLHIV were more likely to be housing insecure, unemployed due mostly to stigmatization/self-stigmatization, less likely to have revealed their HIV-positive status to multiple family members, and had more profound challenges regarding their healthcare. Most MLHIV expected, demanded, and had support from their wives; WLHIV were mostly single-never married, divorced or widowed (mostly due to HIV/AIDS). The vast majority of WLHIV complained of near-abject poverty, including for most of them, lack of food for taking their anti-retroviral medicines and/or taking it on time. CONCLUSIONS: The experiences of the MLHIV and WLHIV with living and coping with the virus mostly differed. These experiences were unequivocally shaped by differential socio-cultural tenets and gendered nuances; WLHIV had more negative experiences. Public education on the extra burden of HIV/AIDS on WLHIV, more social support, and affirmative action in policy decisions in favor of WLHIV in the study district are needed to seek public sympathy and improve health outcomes and livelihoods of WLHIV particularly. Further studies using multiple sites to explore these differences are warranted.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Estigma Social , Apoio Social , Estereotipagem , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , População Urbana
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 338, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peer education has become a strategy for health promotion among high-risk groups for HIV infection worldwide. However, the extent to which peer education could have an impact on HIV prevention or the long-term effect of this impact is still unknown. This study thus quantifies the impact of peer education over time among high-risk HIV groups globally. METHOD: Following the PRISMA guidelines, a systematic review and meta-analysis was used to assess the effects and duration of peer education. A thorough literature search of PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and Cochrane Library was performed, and studies about peer education on high-risk HIV groups were reviewed. Pooled effects were calculated and the sources of heterogeneity were explored using meta-regression and subgroup analysis. RESULTS: A total of 60 articles with 96,484 subjects were identified, and peer education was associated with 36% decreased rates of HIV infection among overall high risk groups (OR: 0.64; 95%CI: 0.47-0.87). Peer education can promote HIV testing (OR = 3.19; 95%CI:2.13,4.79) and condom use (OR = 2.66, 95% CI: 2.11-3.36) while reduce equipment sharing (OR = 0.50; 95%CI:0.33,0.75) and unprotected sex (OR = 0.82; 95%CI: 0.72-0.94). Time trend analysis revealed that peer education had a consistent effect on behavior change for over 24 months and the different follow-up times were a source of heterogeneity. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that peer education is an effective tool with long-term impact for behavior change among high-risk HIV groups worldwide. Low and middle-income countries are encouraged to conduct large-scale peer education.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Grupo Associado , Adolescente , Adulto , Preservativos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/tendências , Assunção de Riscos , Sexo sem Proteção/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 382, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disclosure of Human Immunodeficiency Virus positive status significantly reduced the transmission of HIV; yet, it remains a challenge for many HIV patients. Disclosure serves plays a crucial role to raise awareness and to reduce risky behaviors. Hence, this study aimed to determine the pooled prevalence and effect sizes of determinant factors of HIV positive status disclosure through a systematic review and meta-analysis of the results of the existing primary studies in Ethiopia. METHOD: This systematic review and meta-analysis was aimed to determine prevalence of HIV positive status disclosure and associated factors by considering and searching published primary articles from different sources. A sensitivity test was conducted to evaluate the presence of influential studies. Besides, the heterogeneity test has been conducted; and publication bias was examined through observing the funnel plot as well as objectively by interpreting the Egger's regression test. Following the Egger's regression test, P-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant at 95% Confidence Interval. RESULT: A total of 18 primary studies were searched from different data sources. The overall pooled prevalence of HIV positive status disclosure among adult PLWHA in Ethiopia was indicated to be 75.95% (95% CI:69.93-81.98); the highest and lowest pooled estimated HIV status disclosure was in Amhara (82.78%) and Tigray (54.31%) regions respectively. Furthermore, Knowing the HIV positive status of sexual partner, AOR = 19.66(95% CI: 10.19-37.91), having prior discussion about HIV testing with their partner, AOR = 9.18(95% CI: 5.53-15.24), got Human Immunodeficiency Virus pretest counseling service AOR = 4.29(95% CI: 2.56-7.21) and being a member of HIV/AIDS associations, AOR = 3.34(95% CI: 2.17-5.12), were significantly associated with HIV positive status disclosure among People living With HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia. CONCLUSION: The pooled national estimate of HIV/AIDS positive status disclosure is low as compared to the WHO disclosure rate of developing countries and the findings of other national and international studies. Ministry of health and other stakeholders shall design new approaches and strategies to encourage disclosure of HIV status, educate the public about the negative impact of nondisclosure within family members. Health care providers working at Human HIV test centers shall emphasis extensive counseling on disclosure of status to a partner. Moreover, different stakeholders, health workers and community members shall establish, organize, and support HIV/AIDS Associations and motivate HIV positive people to be engaged and participated.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , HIV , Autorrevelação , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Revelação da Verdade , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/transmissão , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/virologia , Adulto , Aconselhamento/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Família , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Prevalência , Assunção de Riscos
17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1228: 411-421, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342474

RESUMO

Physical exercise is a common type of planned physical activity in order to enhance or maintain a person's physical fitness. Physical exercise may act as an effective strategy to take control of certain conditions associated with HIV-1 infection. HIV infection and its related treatments not only affect the immune system but also cause several musculoskeletal disorders including pre-sarcopenia or sarcopenia, myalgia, and low bone mineral density. Moderate- to high-intensity aerobic exercise, progressive resistance exercise, or a combination of both is considered as a complementary part of medical care and treatment of HIV-infected individuals. In the present chapter, the results of recent investigations regarding the effects of physical activity on muscle strength and function, mental health, and immune system of HIV infected individuals will be discussed.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Qualidade de Vida , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/imunologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/terapia , HIV/imunologia , HIV/patogenicidade , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos
19.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(690): 744-748, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32301309

RESUMO

Medical advances in the treatment of HIV over the last 35 years mean that people living with HIV (PLHIV) now have a life expectancy close to that of the general population. Further, when successfully treated, PLHIV cannot transmit the virus. Despite this, HIV-related stigma remains widespread, including within healthcare settings. Stigma is not a vague sociological notion but represents a real threat to public health, with repercussions for both PLHIV and HIV-negative individuals. Stigma has been shown to have a negative impact on HIV prevention, testing, access to health services, and on the healthcare management of PLHIV. Taking stigma into consideration is essential, both in meeting the medical and psycho-social needs of PLHIV and in order to effectively combat HIV/AIDS.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Saúde Pública , Estigma Social , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/transmissão , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Soronegatividade para HIV , Soropositividade para HIV/diagnóstico , Soropositividade para HIV/psicologia , Soropositividade para HIV/transmissão , Humanos
20.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(3): 999-1010, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159669

RESUMO

This article analyzes changes and continuities in partner search criteria by homosexual men considering the impact of the HIV-AIDS epidemic in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Thus, it compares two different historical moments: between 1979 and 1981 (pre-epidemic) and 2015 to 2017 (post-epidemic). In the first period, the source incorporated 120 classified ads collected from the Lampião da Esquina newspaper and in the second period, the preferences and criteria used to search for partners were analyzed using geolocalized applications, based on 120 online profiles. The data show that that between 1979-1981 the search for "discreet" partners took place, while the sexual panic created in the deadliest period of the AIDS epidemic boosted the use of the Internet in search of partners less likely to be infected with HIV, the "out of the (gay) scene". Since then, the search for "discreet and out of the (gay) scene" has consolidated itself by shaping the body's ideals and conduct that shape the current São Paulo online sex market in which part of the homosexuals take part.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
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