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J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 141(4): 1450-1458, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28916186


BACKGROUND: Combined immunodeficiencies (CIDs) are diseases of defective adaptive immunity with diverse clinical phenotypes. Although CIDs are more prevalent in the Middle East than Western countries, the resources for genetic diagnosis are limited. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to characterize the categories of patients with CIDs in Iran clinically and genetically. METHODS: Clinical and laboratory data were obtained from 696 patients with CIDs. Patients were subdivided into those with syndromic (344 patients) and nonsyndromic (352 patients) CIDs. Targeted DNA sequencing was performed on 243 (34.9%) patients. RESULTS: The overall diagnostic yield of the 243 sequenced patients was 77.8% (189 patients). The clinical diagnosis of hyper-IgE syndrome (P < .001), onset of disease at greater than 5 years (P = .02), and absence of multiple affected family members (P = .04) were significantly more frequent in the patients without a genetic diagnosis. An autosomal recessive disease was found in 62.9% of patients, reflecting the high rate of consanguinity in this cohort. Mutations impairing VDJ recombination and DNA repair were the most common underlying causes of CIDs. However, in patients with syndromic CIDs, autosomal recessive mutations in ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), autosomal dominant mutations in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and microdeletions in 22q11.21 were the most commonly affected genomic loci. Patients with syndromic CIDs had a significantly lower 5-year survival rate rather than those with nonsyndromic CIDs. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides proof of principle for the application of targeted next-generation sequencing panels in countries with limited diagnostic resources. The effect of genetic diagnosis on clinical care requires continued improvements in therapeutic resources for these patients.

Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Consanguinidade , Feminino , Genes Recessivos/genética , Genes Recessivos/imunologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/mortalidade , Lactente , Irã (Geográfico) , Síndrome de Job/genética , Síndrome de Job/imunologia , Síndrome de Job/mortalidade , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Mutação/imunologia , Fenótipo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/imunologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Taxa de Sobrevida
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 136(2): 402-12, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25724123


BACKGROUND: Mutations in dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) cause a combined immunodeficiency (CID) also classified as autosomal recessive (AR) hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES). Recognizing patients with CID/HIES is of clinical importance because of the difference in prognosis and management. OBJECTIVES: We sought to define the clinical features that distinguish DOCK8 deficiency from other forms of HIES and CIDs, study the mutational spectrum of DOCK8 deficiency, and report on the frequency of specific clinical findings. METHODS: Eighty-two patients from 60 families with CID and the phenotype of AR-HIES with (64 patients) and without (18 patients) DOCK8 mutations were studied. Support vector machines were used to compare clinical data from 35 patients with DOCK8 deficiency with those from 10 patients with AR-HIES without a DOCK8 mutation and 64 patients with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) mutations. RESULTS: DOCK8-deficient patients had median IgE levels of 5201 IU, high eosinophil levels of usually at least 800/µL (92% of patients), and low IgM levels (62%). About 20% of patients were lymphopenic, mainly because of low CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell counts. Fewer than half of the patients tested produced normal specific antibody responses to recall antigens. Bacterial (84%), viral (78%), and fungal (70%) infections were frequently observed. Skin abscesses (60%) and allergies (73%) were common clinical problems. In contrast to STAT3 deficiency, there were few pneumatoceles, bone fractures, and teething problems. Mortality was high (34%). A combination of 5 clinical features was helpful in distinguishing patients with DOCK8 mutations from those with STAT3 mutations. CONCLUSIONS: DOCK8 deficiency is likely in patients with severe viral infections, allergies, and/or low IgM levels who have a diagnosis of HIES plus hypereosinophilia and upper respiratory tract infections in the absence of parenchymal lung abnormalities, retained primary teeth, and minimal trauma fractures.

Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/deficiência , Síndrome de Job/complicações , Fenótipo , Dermatopatias/complicações , Viroses/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Antígenos de Bactérias/sangue , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/sangue , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Infecções Bacterianas/genética , Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Infecções Bacterianas/mortalidade , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eosinófilos/imunologia , Eosinófilos/patologia , Feminino , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunoglobulina E/genética , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/genética , Lactente , Síndrome de Job/genética , Síndrome de Job/imunologia , Síndrome de Job/mortalidade , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/imunologia , Dermatopatias/genética , Dermatopatias/imunologia , Dermatopatias/mortalidade , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Análise de Sobrevida , Viroses/genética , Viroses/imunologia , Viroses/mortalidade
J Clin Immunol ; 35(2): 189-98, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25627830


Mutations in DOCK8 result in autosomal recessive Hyper-IgE syndrome with combined immunodeficiency (CID). However, the natural course of disease, long-term prognosis, and optimal therapeutic management have not yet been clearly defined. In an international retrospective survey of patients with DOCK8 mutations, focused on clinical presentation and therapeutic measures, a total of 136 patients with a median follow-up of 11.3 years (1.3-47.7) spanning 1693 patient years, were enrolled. Eczema, recurrent respiratory tract infections, allergies, abscesses, viral infections and mucocutaneous candidiasis were the most frequent clinical manifestations. Overall survival probability in this cohort [censored for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)] was 87 % at 10, 47 % at 20, and 33 % at 30 years of age, respectively. Event free survival was 44, 18 and 4 % at the same time points if events were defined as death, life-threatening infections, malignancy or cerebral complications such as CNS vasculitis or stroke. Malignancy was diagnosed in 23/136 (17 %) patients (11 hematological and 9 epithelial cancers, 5 other malignancies) at a median age of 12 years. Eight of these patients died from cancer. Severe, life-threatening infections were observed in 79/136 (58 %); severe non-infectious cerebral events occurred in 14/136 (10 %). Therapeutic measures included antiviral and antibacterial prophylaxis, immunoglobulin replacement and HSCT. This study provides a comprehensive evaluation of the clinical phenotype of DOCK8 deficiency in the largest cohort reported so far and demonstrates the severity of the disease with relatively poor prognosis. Early HSCT should be strongly considered as a potential curative measure.

Estudos de Associação Genética , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/deficiência , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Incidência , Lactente , /epidemiologia , Síndrome de Job/complicações , Síndrome de Job/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Job/genética , Síndrome de Job/imunologia , Síndrome de Job/mortalidade , Síndrome de Job/terapia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 119(5): 1234-40, 2007 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17335882


BACKGROUND: Hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) is characterized by recurrent pyogenic infections, eczema, increased serum IgE levels, and a variety of connective tissue and skeletal system abnormalities. Little has been published regarding the causes of death in these patients or pathologic findings. OBJECTIVE: To identify the cause of death in patients with HIES and to describe pathologic findings in fatal HIES. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records and autopsy slides of 6 patients with HIES with autopsies performed at our institution. RESULTS: All 6 patients with HIES were women and ranged in age from 24 to 40 years. All patients had a history of cystic lung disease and had pneumonia at the time of death, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fungal organisms predominating. Pulmonary fungal vascular invasion with fatal hemorrhage was observed in 3 patients, and metastatic fungal disease to the brain was observed in 2 patients caused by Aspergillus fumigatus and Scedosporium prolificans. Four patients had evidence of renal tubular injury, which was likely from amphotericin B toxicity; 3 patients had glomerulosclerosis; and 1 patient had 2 kidney angiomyolipomas. CONCLUSIONS: Our series highlights the important role Pseudomonas and Aspergillus species play in patients with HIES with cystic lung disease. Intensified antifungal and gram-negative bacterial prophylaxis need evaluation as possible strategies to prevent these infectious complications in patients with cystic lung disease. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Fungal and Pseudomonas infection of cystic lung disease in HIES may be life threatening, and the proper management and prevention of these infections need continued investigation.

Síndrome de Job/complicações , Síndrome de Job/mortalidade , Síndrome de Job/patologia , Pneumonia/etiologia , Adulto , Autopsia , Encefalopatias/etiologia , Encefalopatias/patologia , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Nefropatias/etiologia , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Pneumopatias/patologia , Micoses/etiologia , Micoses/patologia , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Pneumonia/patologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos