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1.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 32(10): 1226-1230, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198869

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) and extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) in severity grading and prognosis prediction of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: Patients with ARDS aged 18-75 years admitted to the department of respiratory intensive care unit (RICU) of Zhengzhou Central Hospital Affiliated to Zhengzhou University from January 2019 to February 2020 were enrolled. All patients were treated with conventional therapies such as mechanical ventilation, anti-infection, stabilization of water, electrolytes and acid-base environment, blood purification and nutritional support according to their conditions. Besides, the pulse-indicated continuous cardiac output (PiCCO) was performed after admission to the department, and EVLWI before treatment and at 24, 48 and 72 hours of treatment were recorded. Serum GDF-15 level was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) during the same period. Patients were classified as mild, moderate, and severe degree according to the 2012 Berlin Definition of ARDS, and EVLWI and GDF-15 levels in patients with different disease levels before and after treatment were compared. In addition, the length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, ICU mortality, and 28-day mortality of patients with different GDF-15 or EVLWI levels were analyzed comparatively, with the GDF-15 3 458 ng/L and EVLWI 15 mL/kg as the cut point. RESULTS: A total of 82 patients with ARDS were enrolled, including 22 patients with mild ARDS, 28 patients with moderate ARDS, and 32 patients with severe ARDS. The GDF-15 and EVLWI levels in patients with moderate and severe ARDS at each time point before and after treatment were higher than those in patients with mild ARDS. Both GDF-15 and EVLWI levels in patients with severe ARDS were higher than those in the patients with moderate ARDS. The differences were statistically significant at all the time points except for the difference of GDF-15 levels at 24 hours after treatment (ng/L: 3 900.41±546.43 vs. 3 695.66±604.73, P > 0.05). [GDF-15 (ng/L): 3 786.11±441.45 vs. 3 106.83±605.09 before treatment, 3 895.48±558.96 vs. 3 333.29±559.66 at 48 hours, 3 397.33±539.56 vs. 3 047.53±499.57 at 72 hours; EVLWI (mL/kg): 19.06±1.91 vs. 14.31±1.50 before treatment, 18.56±2.23 vs. 13.26±1.69 at 24 hours, 17.23±1.76 vs. 12.45±1.36 at 48 hours, 15.47±1.81 vs. 11.13±2.19 at 72 hours, all P < 0.05]. According to the cut-off value, there were 23 patients with GDF-15 ≥ 3 458 ng/L and GDF-15 < 3 458 ng/L respectively and there were 23 patients with EVLWI ≥ 15 mL/kg and EVLWI < 15 mL/kg respectively. The length of ICU stay and 28-day mortality in patients with high GDF-15 were significantly higher than those in patients with low GDF-15 [length of ICU stay (days): 21.22±2.69 vs. 15.37±3.14, 28-day mortality: 56.5% vs. 21.7%, both P < 0.05]. The length of ICU stay and 28-day mortality in patients with high EVLWI were also significantly higher than those in patients with low EVLWI [length of ICU stay (days): 18.45±2.61 vs. 14.98±2.75, 28-day mortality: 47.8% vs. 17.4%, both P < 0.05]. CONCLUSIONS: To some extent, GDF-15 and EVLWI levels reflect the severity of patients with ARDS, and high GDF-15 and EVLWI levels are significantly associated with poor prognosis in patients with ARDS.


Assuntos
Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/análise , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Débito Cardíaco , Água Extravascular Pulmonar , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/diagnóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
2.
Emergencias ; 32(5): 320-331, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006832

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the organization of Spanish hospital emergency departments (EDs). To explore differences between Spanish autonomous communities or according to hospital size and disease incidence in the area. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Survey of the heads of 283 EDs in hospitals belonging to or affiliated with Spain's public health service. Respondents evaluated the pandemic's impact on organization, resources, and staff absence from work in March and April 2020. Assessments were for 15-day periods. Results were analyzed overall and by autonomous community, hospital size, and local population incidence rates. RESULTS: A total of 246 (87%) responses were received. The majority of the EDs organized a triage system, first aid, and observation wards; areas specifically for patients suspected of having COVID-19 were newly set apart. The nursing staff was increased in 83% of the EDs (with no subgroup differences), and 59% increased the number of physicians (especially in large hospitals and locations where the COVID-19 incidence was high). Diagnostic tests for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 were the resource the EDs missed most: 55% reported that tests were scarce often or very often. Other resources reported to be scarce were FPP2 and FPP3 masks (38% of the EDs), waterproof protective gowns (34%), and space (32%). More than 5% of the physicians, nurses, or other emergency staff were on sick leave 20%, 19%, and 16% of the time. These deficiencies were greatest during the last half of March, except for tests, which were most scarce in the first 15 days. Large hospital EDs less often reported that diagnostic tests were unavailable. In areas where the COVID-19 incidence was higher, the EDs reported higher rates of staff on sick leave. Resource scarcity differed markedly by autonomous community and was not always associated with the incidence of COVID-19 in the population. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic led to organizational changes in EDs. Certain resources became scarce, and marked differences between autonomous communities were detected.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Absenteísmo , Adulto , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Surtos de Doenças , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribução , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Número de Leitos em Hospital , Hospitais Públicos/organização & administração , Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Alocação de Recursos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Triagem/organização & administração
5.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(11): 2586-2597, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960072

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 emerged as a serious human pathogen in late 2019, causing the disease coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The most common clinical presentation of severe COVID-19 is acute respiratory failure consistent with the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Airway, lung parenchymal, pulmonary vascular, and respiratory neuromuscular disorders all feature in COVID-19. This article reviews what is known about the effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection on different parts of the respiratory system, clues to understanding the underlying biology of respiratory disease, and highlights current and future translation and clinical research questions.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pulmão/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Respiração , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/virologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/virologia , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Prognóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Embolia Pulmonar/virologia , Respiração Artificial , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Respiratória/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia Venosa/fisiopatologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/terapia , Tromboembolia Venosa/virologia
6.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(705): 1636-1644, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914595

RESUMO

Acute respiratory failure is a complex physiopathological process and the choice of the most appropriate therapy has to be made between standard oxygen therapy (SOT), high-flow oxygen therapy through nasal cannula (High-Flow Nasal Cannula (HFNC)), non- invasive ventilation (NIV) or invasive ventilation. HFNC can deliver a higher and consistent inspired fraction of oxygen than SOT, but has not clearly demonstrated a clinical advantage over other methods. NIV is a therapy of choice in the management of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, but its effectiveness in other indications is questionable. In any case, early detection of treatment failure is essential to avoid late tracheal intubation, which is associated with increased mortality.


Assuntos
Ventilação não Invasiva , Oxigenoterapia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/mortalidade , Insuficiência Respiratória/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Respiratória/mortalidade , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia
7.
Respir Med ; 172: 106135, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947171

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients hospitalized for infection with SARS-CoV-2 typically present with pneumonia. The respiratory failure is frequently complicated by pulmonary embolism in segmental pulmonary arteries. The distribution of pulmonary embolism in regard to lung parenchymal opacifications has not been investigated yet. METHODS: All patients with COVID-19 treated at a medical intensive care unit between March 8th and April 15th, 2020 undergoing computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) were included. All CTPA were assessed by two radiologists independently in respect to parenchymal changes and pulmonary embolism on a lung segment basis. RESULTS: Out of 22 patients with severe COVID-19 treated within the observed time period, 16 (age 60.4 ± 10.2 years, 6 female SAPS2 score 49.2 ± 13.9) underwent CT. A total of 288 lung segment were analyzed. Thrombi were detectable in 9/16 (56.3%) patients, with 4.4 ± 2.9 segments occluded per patient and 40/288 (13.9%) segments affected in the whole cohort. Patients with thrombi had significantly worse segmental opacifications in CT (p < 0.05) and all thrombi were located in opacitated segments. There was no correlation between d-dimer level and number of occluded segmental arteries. CONCLUSIONS: Thrombi in segmental pulmonary arteries are common in COVID-19 and are located in opacitated lung segments. This might suggest local clot formation.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto , Trombose , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Coagulação Sanguínea , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Radiografia Torácica/métodos , Radiografia Torácica/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Trombose/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose/etiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238827, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903258

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The role of systemic corticosteroid as a therapeutic agent for patients with COVID-19 pneumonia is controversial. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of corticosteroids in non-intensive care unit (ICU) patients with COVID-19 pneumonia complicated by acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF). METHODS: This was a single-center retrospective cohort study, from 16th March, 2020 to 30th April, 2020; final follow-up on 10th May, 2020. 265 patients consecutively admitted to the non-ICU wards with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia were screened for inclusion. 205 patients who developed AHRF (SpO2/FiO2 ≤ 440 or PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 300) were only included in the final study. Direct admission to the Intensive care unit (ICU), patients developing composite primary outcome within 24 hours of admission, and patients who never became hypoxic during their stay in the hospital were excluded. Patients were divided into two cohorts based on corticosteroid. The primary outcome was a composite of ICU transfer, intubation, or in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were ICU transfer, intubation, in-hospital mortality, discharge, length of stay, and daily trend of SpO2/FiO2 (SF) ratio from the index date. Cox-proportional hazard regression was implemented to analyze the time to event outcomes. RESULT: Among 205 patients, 60 (29.27%) were treated with corticosteroid. The mean age was ~57 years, and ~75% were men. Thirteen patients (22.41%) developed a primary composite outcome in the corticosteroid cohort vs. 54 (37.5%) patients in the non-corticosteroid cohort (P = 0.039). The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for the development of the composite primary outcome was 0.15 (95% CI, 0.07-0.33; P <0.001). The adjusted hazard ratio for ICU transfer was 0.16 (95% CI, 0.07 to 0.34; P < 0.001), intubation was 0.31 (95% CI, 0.14 to 0.70; P- 0.005), death was 0.53 (95% CI, 0.22 to 1.31; P- 0.172), composite of death or intubation was 0.31 (95% CI, 0.15 to 0.66; P- 0.002) and discharge was 3.65 (95% CI, 2.20 to 6.06; P<0.001). The corticosteroid cohort had increasing SpO2/FiO2 over time compared to the non-corticosteroid cohort who experience decreasing SpO2/FiO2 over time. CONCLUSION: Among non-ICU patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia complicated by AHRF, treatment with corticosteroid was associated with a significantly lower risk of the primary composite outcome of ICU transfer, intubation, or in-hospital death, composite of intubation or death and individual components of the primary outcome.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New York , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 8: 2324709620957778, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911986

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by a novel human coronavirus has led to a tsunami of viral illness across the globe, originating from Wuhan, China. Although the value and effectiveness of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in severe respiratory illness from COVID-19 remains unclear at this time, there is emerging evidence suggesting that it could be utilized as an ultimate treatment in appropriately selected patients not responding to conventional care. We present a case of a 32-year-old COVID-19 positive male with a history of diabetes mellitus who was intubated for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The patient's hypoxemia failed to improve despite positive pressure ventilation, prone positioning, and use of neuromuscular blockade for ventilator asynchrony. He was evaluated by a multidisciplinary team for considering ECMO for refractory ARDS. He was initiated on venovenous ECMO via dual-site cannulation performed at the bedside. Although his ECMO course was complicated by bleeding, he showed a remarkable improvement in his lung function. ECMO was successfully decannulated after 17 days of initiation. The patient was discharged home after 47 days of hospitalization without any supplemental oxygen and was able to undergo active physical rehabilitation. A multidisciplinary approach is imperative in the initiation and management of ECMO in COVID-19 patients with severe ARDS. While ECMO is labor-intensive, using it in the right phenotype and in specialized centers may lead to positive results. Patients who are young, with fewer comorbidities and single organ dysfunction portray a better prognosis for patients in which ECMO is utilized.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Terapia de Salvação/métodos , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Radiografia Torácica , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
10.
Trials ; 21(1): 781, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917259

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to demonstrate the positive effects on oxygenation of flow-controlled ventilation compared to conventionally ventilated patients in patients suffering from Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) associated with COVID-19.We define ARDS according to the "Berlin" definition integrating the oxygenation index (P/F ratio), the level of Positive End Expiratory Pressure (PEEP), radiological and clinical findings. TRIAL DESIGN: This is a prospective, randomized (1:1 ratio), parallel group feasibility study in adult patients with proven COVID-19 associated ARDS. PARTICIPANTS: All adult patients admitted to the ICU of Hamad Medical Corporation facilities in Qatar because of COVID-19 infection who develop moderate to severe ARDS are eligible. The inclusion criteria are above 18 years of age, proven COVID-19 infection, respiratory failure necessitating intubation and mechanical ventilation, ARDS with a P/F ratio of at least 200mmHg or less and a minimum PEEP 5cmH2O, BMI less 30 kg/ m2. The following exclusion criteria: no written consent, chronic respiratory disease, acute or chronic cardiovascular disease, pregnancy or need for special therapy (prone position and/or Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation). INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: After randomisation, the group A patients will be ventilated with the test-device for 48 hours. The settings will be started with the pre-existing-PEEP. The upper pressure will be determined to achieve a tidal volume of 6 ml/kg lean body mass, while the respiratory rate will be set to maintain an arterial pH above 7.2. In group B, the ventilator settings will be adjusted by the attending ICU team in accordance with lung-protective ventilation strategy. All other treatment will be unchanged and according to our local policies/guidelines. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary end point is PaO2. As this is a dynamic parameter, we will record it every 6-8 hours and analyse it sequentially. RANDOMISATION: The study team screens the ventilated patients who fulfil the inclusion criteria and randomise using a 1:1 allocation ratio after consenting using a closed envelope method. The latter were prepared and sealed in advance by an independent person. BLINDING (MASKING): Due to the technical nature of the study (use of a specific ventilator) blinding is only possible for the data-analysts and the patients. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): The sample size calculation based on the assumption of an effect size (change in PaO2) of 1.5 SDS in the primary endpoint (PaO2), an intended power of 80%, an alpha error of 5% and an equal sample ratio results in n=7 patients needed to treat. However, to compensate for dropouts we will include 10 patients in each group, which means in total 20 patients. TRIAL STATUS: The local registration number is MRC-05-018 with the protocol version number 3. The date of approval is 14th April 2020. Recruitment began 28th May 2020 and is expected to end in September 2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The protocol was registered before starting subject recruitment under the title: "Flow controlled ventilation in ARDS associated with COVID-19" in ClinicalTrials.org with the registration number: NCT04399317 . Registered on 22 May 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pulmão/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Respiração Artificial , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Catar , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/virologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e926835, 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 can rapidly progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Because clinical diagnosis of ARDS includes several diseases, understanding the characteristics of COVID-19-related ARDS is necessary for precise treatment. We report 2 patients with ARDS due to COVID-19-associated pneumonia. CASE REPORT Case 1 involved a 72-year-old Japanese man who presented with respiratory distress and fever. Computed tomography (CT) revealed subpleural ground-glass opacities (GGOs) and consolidation. Six days after symptom onset, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing confirmed the diagnosis of COVID-19-associated pneumonia. He was intubated and received veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) 8 days after symptom onset. Follow-up CT revealed large diffuse areas with a crazy-paving pattern and consolidation, which indicated progression of COVID-19-associated pneumonia. Following treatment with antiviral medications and supportive measures, the patient was weaned off ECMO after 20 days. Case 2 involved a 70-year-old Asian man residing in Canada who presented with cough, malaise, nausea, vomiting, and fever. COVID-19-associated pneumonia was diagnosed based on a positive result from RT-PCR testing. The patient was then transferred to the intensive care unit and intubated 8 days after symptom onset. Follow-up CT showed that while the initial subpleural GGOs had improved, diffuse GGOs appeared, similar to those observed upon diffuse alveolar damage. He was administered systemic steroid therapy for ARDS and extubated after 6 days. CONCLUSIONS Because the pattern of symptom exacerbation in COVID-19-associated pneumonia cases seems inconsistent, individual treatment management, especially the CT-based treatment strategy, is crucial.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Navios , Viagem , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
17.
J Autoimmun ; 114: 102511, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713677

RESUMO

In cases of COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome, an excessive host inflammatory response has been reported, with elevated serum interleukin-6 levels. In this multicenter retrospective cohort study we included adult patients with COVID-19, need of respiratory support, and elevated C-reactive protein who received intravenous tocilizumab in addition to standard of care. Control patients not receiving tocilizumab were matched for sex, age and respiratory support. We selected survival as the primary endpoint, along with need for invasive ventilation, thrombosis, hemorrhage, and infections as secondary endpoints at 30 days. We included 64 patients with COVID-19 in the tocilizumab group and 64 matched controls. At baseline the tocilizumab group had longer symptom duration (13 ± 5 vs. 9 ± 5 days) and received hydroxychloroquine more often than controls (100% vs. 81%). The mortality rate was similar between groups (27% with tocilizumab vs. 38%) and at multivariable analysis risk of death was not significantly influenced by tocilizumab (hazard ratio 0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.33-1.15), while being associated with the use at baseline of non invasive mechanical or invasive ventilation, and the presence of comorbidities. Among secondary outcomes, tocilizumab was associated with a lower probability of requiring invasive ventilation (hazard ratio 0.36, 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.83; P = 0.017) but not with the risk of thrombosis, bleeding, or infections. The use of intravenous tocilizumab was not associated with changes in 30-day mortality in patients with COVID-19 severe respiratory impairment. Among the secondary outcomes there was less use of invasive ventilation in the tocilizumab group.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Receptores de Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/imunologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 182, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2-induced coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic disease that affects > 2.8 million people worldwide, with numbers increasing dramatically daily. However, there is no specific treatment for COVID-19 and much remains unknown about this disease. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)2 is a cellular receptor of SARS-CoV-2. It is cleaved by type II transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS)2 and disintegrin and metallopeptidase domain (ADAM)17 to assist viral entry into host cells. Clinically, SARS-CoV-2 infection may result in acute lung injury and lung fibrosis, but the underlying mechanisms of COVID-19 induced lung fibrosis are not fully understood. METHODS: The networks of ACE2 and its interacting molecules were identified using bioinformatic methods. Their gene and protein expressions were measured in human epithelial cells after 24 h SARS-CoV-2 infection, or in existing datasets of lung fibrosis patients. RESULTS: We confirmed the binding of SARS-CoV-2 and ACE2 by bioinformatic analysis. TMPRSS2, ADAM17, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)3, angiotensinogen (AGT), transformation growth factor beta (TGFB1), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A and fibronectin (FN) were interacted with ACE2, and the mRNA and protein of these molecules were expressed in lung epithelial cells. SARS-CoV-2 infection increased ACE2, TGFB1, CTGF and FN1 mRNA that were drivers of lung fibrosis. These changes were also found in lung tissues from lung fibrosis patients. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, SARS-CoV-2 binds with ACE2 and activates fibrosis-related genes and processes to induce lung fibrosis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/genética , Vírus da SARS/genética , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Fibrose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/etiologia , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Transcrição Genética , Ativação Transcricional/genética
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