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2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD002975, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been shown to have some benefits in the treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress. CPAP has the potential to reduce lung damage, particularly if applied early before atelectasis has occurred. Early application may better conserve an infant's own surfactant stores and consequently may be more effective than later application. OBJECTIVES: • To determine if early compared with delayed initiation of CPAP results in lower mortality and reduced need for intermittent positive-pressure ventilation in preterm infants in respiratory distress ○ Subgroup analyses were planned a priori on the basis of weight (with subdivisions at 1000 grams and 1500 grams), gestation (with subdivisions at 28 and 32 weeks), and according to whether surfactant was used ▫ Sensitivity analyses based on trial quality were also planned ○ For this update, we have excluded trials using continuous negative pressure SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2020, Issue 6), in the Cochrane Library; Ovid MEDLINE(R) and Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations Daily and Versions(R); and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literatue (CINAHL), on 30 June 2020. We also searched clinical trials databases and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included trials that used random or quasi-random allocation to either early or delayed CPAP for spontaneously breathing preterm infants in respiratory distress. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used the standard methods of Cochrane and Cochrane Neonatal, including independent assessment of trial quality and extraction of data by two review authors. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We found four studies that recruited a total of 119 infants. Two were quasi-randomised, and the other two did not provide details on the method of randomisation or allocation used. None of these studies used blinding of the intervention or the outcome assessor. Evidence showed uncertainty about whether early CPAP has an effect on subsequent use of intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (IPPV) (typical risk ratio (RR) 0.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43 to 1.38; typical risk difference (RD) -0.08, 95% CI -0.23 to 0.08; I² = 0%, 4 studies, 119 infants; very low-certainty evidence) or mortality (typical RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.43 to 2.03; typical RD -0.02, 95% CI -0.15 to 0.12; I² = 33%, 4 studies, 119 infants; very low-certainty evidence). The outcome 'failed treatment' was not reported in any of these studies. There was an uncertain effect on air leak (pneumothorax) (typical RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.39 to 3.04, I² = 0%, 3 studies, 98 infants; very low-certainty evidence). No trials reported intraventricular haemorrhage or necrotising enterocolitis. No cases of retinopathy of prematurity were reported in one study (21 infants). One case of bronchopulmonary dysplasia was reported in each group in one study involving 29 infants. Long-term outcomes were not reported. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: All four small trials included in this review were performed in the 1970s or the early 1980s, and we are very uncertain whether early application of CPAP confers clinical benefit in the treatment of respiratory distress, or whether it is associated with any adverse effects. Further trials should be directed towards establishing the appropriate level of CPAP and the timing and method of administration of surfactant when used along with CPAP.


Assuntos
Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/métodos , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Viés , Displasia Broncopulmonar/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumotórax/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/mortalidade
3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD002271, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory distress, particularly respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), is the single most important cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. In infants with progressive respiratory insufficiency, intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) with surfactant has been the usual treatment, but it is invasive, potentially resulting in airway and lung injury. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been used for the prevention and treatment of respiratory distress, as well as for the prevention of apnoea, and in weaning from IPPV. Its use in the treatment of RDS might reduce the need for IPPV and its sequelae. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of continuous distending pressure in the form of CPAP on the need for IPPV and associated morbidity in spontaneously breathing preterm infants with respiratory distress. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search CENTRAL (2020, Issue 6); Ovid MEDLINE and Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Daily and Versions; and CINAHL on 30 June 2020. We also searched clinical trials databases and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised or quasi-randomised trials of preterm infants with respiratory distress were eligible. Interventions were CPAP by mask, nasal prong, nasopharyngeal tube or endotracheal tube, compared with spontaneous breathing with supplemental oxygen as necessary. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methods of Cochrane and its Neonatal Review Group, including independent assessment of risk of bias and extraction of data by two review authors. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. Subgroup analyses were planned on the basis of birth weight (greater than or less than 1000 g or 1500 g), gestational age (groups divided at about 28 weeks and 32 weeks), timing of application (early versus late in the course of respiratory distress), pressure applied (high versus low) and trial setting (tertiary compared with non-tertiary hospitals; high income compared with low income) MAIN RESULTS: We included five studies involving 322 infants; two studies used face mask CPAP, two studies used nasal CPAP and one study used endotracheal CPAP and continuing negative pressure for a small number of less ill babies. For this update, we included one new trial. CPAP was associated with lower risk of treatment failure (death or use of assisted ventilation) (typical risk ratio (RR) 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50 to 0.82; typical risk difference (RD) -0.19, 95% CI -0.28 to -0.09; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 6, 95% CI 4 to 11; I2 = 50%; 5 studies, 322 infants; very low-certainty evidence), lower use of ventilatory assistance (typical RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.96; typical RD -0.13, 95% CI -0.25 to -0.02; NNTB 8, 95% CI 4 to 50; I2 = 55%; very low-certainty evidence) and lower overall mortality (typical RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.83; typical RD -0.11, 95% CI -0.18 to -0.04; NNTB 9, 95% CI 2 to 13; I2 = 0%; 5 studies, 322 infants; moderate-certainty evidence). CPAP was associated with increased risk of pneumothorax (typical RR 2.48, 95% CI 1.16 to 5.30; typical RD 0.09, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.16; number needed to treat for an additional harmful outcome (NNTH) 11, 95% CI 7 to 50; I2 = 0%; 4 studies, 274 infants; low-certainty evidence). There was no evidence of a difference in bronchopulmonary dysplasia, defined as oxygen dependency at 28 days (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.35 to 3.13; I2 = 0%; 2 studies, 209 infants; very low-certainty evidence). The trials did not report use of surfactant, intraventricular haemorrhage, retinopathy of prematurity, necrotising enterocolitis and neurodevelopment outcomes in childhood. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: In preterm infants with respiratory distress, the application of CPAP is associated with reduced respiratory failure, use of mechanical ventilation and mortality and an increased rate of pneumothorax compared to spontaneous breathing with supplemental oxygen as necessary. Three out of five of these trials were conducted in the 1970s. Therefore, the applicability of these results to current practice is unclear. Further studies in resource-poor settings should be considered and research to determine the most appropriate pressure level needs to be considered.


Assuntos
Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/métodos , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Displasia Broncopulmonar/etiologia , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/efeitos adversos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Surfactantes Pulmonares/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/mortalidade , Insuficiência Respiratória/prevenção & controle , Viés de Seleção , Falha de Tratamento
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(42): e22796, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a common neonatal condition in premature infants. Its treatment often requires the use of surfactants. The administration of surfactants has evolved to less invasive surfactant administration (LISA) methods in recent years. Nasal high frequency oscillatory ventilation (nHFOV) is also a good new technology for respiratory support. The use of LISA combined with nHFOV for RDS has not been reported. CASE SUMMARY: A 970 g male infant who was born at 29 weeks of gestational age suffered progressive dyspnea immediately after birth. DIAGNOSIS: According to his clinical symptoms, X-ray, and blood gas analysis results, the extremely low birth weight infant was diagnosed with RDS and deep hypercapnic acidosis. INTERVENTIONS: Less invasive surfactant administration combined with nasal high frequency oscillatory ventilation was utilized in the infant. The mean airway pressure (Paw) was set at 7 cm H2O, amplitude (ΔP) was set at grade 5.5 (level set according to the perception of vibration of the chest wall), frequency was set at 8 Hz, inspiratory time (Ti) was set at 33%, and FiO2 was set at 0.30. OUTCOMES: The patient's pCO2 dropped to 90.9 mm Hg in 2 hours and to 57.8 mm Hg in the following 4.5 hours; the patient was weaned from nHFOV after 12 hours. On day 61, the patient was discharged and free of respiratory symptoms. CONCLUSION: We speculate that less invasive surfactant administration combined with nasal high frequency oscillatory ventilation may be useful in the treatment of RDS with deep hypercapnia to avoid intubation.


Assuntos
Ventilação de Alta Frequência , Hipercapnia/terapia , Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer , Surfactantes Pulmonares/administração & dosagem , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino
5.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1444-1447, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018262

RESUMO

We applied our Simultaneous Multi-Source Electrical Impedance Tomography (SMS-EIT) system to detect pulmonary ventilation and pulsatile perfusion on 5 preterm newborns with respiratory distress syndrome under the nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment. The results show that derived impedance changes have a potential for clinical application to evaluate effects in spontaneously breathing preterm infants with and without CPAP.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Ventilação Pulmonar , Fluxo Pulsátil , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia
8.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 22(9): 942-947, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933623

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features and outcome of neonatal acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in southwest Hubei, China. METHODS: According to the Montreux definition of neonatal ARDS, a retrospective clinical epidemiological investigation was performed on the medical data of neonates with ARDS who were admitted to Department of Neonatology/Pediatrics in 17 level 2 or level 3 hospitals in southwest Hubei from January to December, 2017. RESULTS: A total of 7 150 neonates were admitted to the 17 hospitals in southwest Hubei during 2017 and 66 (0.92%) were diagnosed with ARDS. Among the 66 neonates with ARDS, 23 (35%) had mild ARDS, 28 (42%) had moderate ARDS, and 15 (23%) had severe ARDS. The main primary diseases for neonatal ARDS were perinatal asphyxia in 23 neonates (35%), pneumonia in 18 neonates (27%), sepsis in 12 neonates (18%), and meconium aspiration syndrome in 10 neonates (15%). Among the 66 neonates with ARDS, 10 neonates (15%) were born to the mothers with an age of ≥35 years, 30 neonates (45%) suffered from intrauterine distress, 32 neonates (49%) had a 1-minute Apgar score of 0 to 7 points, 24 neonates (36%) had abnormal fetal heart monitoring results, and 21 neonates (32%) experienced meconium staining of amniotic fluid. Intraventricular hemorrhage was the most common comorbidity (12 neonates), followed by neonatal shock (9 neonates) and patent ductus arteriosus (8 neonates). All 66 neonates with ARDS were treated with mechanical ventilation in addition to the treatment for primary diseases. Among the 66 neonates with ARDS, 10 died, with a mortality rate of 15% (10/66), and 56 neonates were improved or cured, with a survival rate of 85% (56/66). CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal ARDS in southwest Hubei is mostly mild or moderate. Perinatal asphyxia and infection may be the main causes of neonatal ARDS in this area. Intraventricular hemorrhage is the most common comorbidity. Neonates with ARDS tend to have a high survival rate after multimodality treatment.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido , China , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Síndrome de Aspiração de Mecônio , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(14): 7804-7815, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744708

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical manifestations and outcomes of neonates born to women who had Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) during pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted on PubMed and Embase till April 15, 2020, by combining the terms (COVID-19, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2, Novel Coronavirus, 2019-nCov, Wuhan pneumonia) and (pregnancy, pregnant women, mother, fetus, neonate, newborn, infant). RESULTS: We included 16 case series and 12 case reports describing a total of 223 pregnant women and 201 infants. Four newborns born to mothers affected by COVID-19 were reported to have laboratory-confirmed Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection within 48 hours after birth. However, Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction tests of the breast milk, placenta, amniotic fluids, and cord blood and maternal vaginal secretions were all negative for SARS-CoV-2 in the reported cases. Fetal death was reported in two cases, and 48 of 185 newborns (25.9%) were born prematurely. Infants born small for gestational age and low birth weight (< 2,500 g) accounted for 8.3% and 15.6% of reported cases, respectively. Birth asphyxia and respiratory distress syndrome were observed in 1.8% and 6.4% of neonates, respectively. There was one neonatal death due to intractable gastric bleeding among the SARS-CoV-2-negative infants. CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence suggests that COVID-19 during pregnancy rarely affects fetal and neonatal mortality, but can be associated with adverse neonatal morbidities. Vertical transmission has not been observed in the majority of the reported cases. The infants born to mothers with COVID-19 are carefully monitored for accompanying complication, and quarantine of infected mothers is warranted.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Asfixia Neonatal/diagnóstico , Asfixia Neonatal/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Mães , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Natimorto
10.
J Pregnancy ; 2020: 5658327, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32802509

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to clarify the effects of cesarean delivery on neonatal respiratory morbidity when women had preterm premature rupture of membranes. Methods: This retrospective study included women with preterm premature rupture of membranes who delivered from 23 weeks to 33 weeks of gestation between January 2009 and December 2014. Neonatal outcomes were compared between infants delivered by cesarean section and those delivered vaginally. The primary outcome was respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Neonatal intubation and mechanical ventilation periods were secondary outcomes. Propensity score matching was used to compare outcomes between cesarean and vaginal delivery cases. Results: There were 101 cesarean deliveries and 89 vaginal deliveries. A comparison of the presence or absence of neonatal complications based on the delivery type indicated a higher occurrence of RDS with cesarean deliveries (P = 0.025). The intubation and mechanical ventilation periods were not significantly longer in neonates delivered via cesarean section. Conclusions: Cesarean delivery is a risk factor for neonatal RDS in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes. Trials identifying long-term neonatal prognoses are needed to further develop optimal management strategies in such cases.


Assuntos
Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Prognóstico , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236695, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785282

RESUMO

The goal of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of the neonatal diagnosis-related group scheme in patients affected by respiratory distress syndrome. The variable costs of individual patients in the same group are examined. This study uses the data of infants (N = 243) hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the Gaslini Children's Hospital in Italy in 2016. The care unit's operating and management costs are employed to estimate the average cost per patient. Operating costs include those related to personnel, drugs, medical supplies, treatment tools, examinations, radiology, and laboratory services. Management costs relate to administration, maintenance, and depreciation cost of medical equipment. Cluster analysis and Tobit regression are employed, allowing for the assessment of the total cost per patient per day taking into account the main cost determinants: birth weight, gestational age, and discharge status. The findings highlight great variability in the costs for patients in the same diagnosis-related group, ranging from a minimum of €267 to a maximum of €265,669. This suggests the inefficiency of the diagnosis-related group system. Patients with very low birth weight incurred costs approximately twice the reimbursement set by the policy; a loss of €36,420 is estimated for every surviving baby with a birth weight lower than 1,170 grams. On the contrary, at term, newborns cost about €20,000 less than the diagnosis-related group reimbursement. The actual system benefits hospitals that mainly treat term infants with respiratory distress syndrome and penalizes hospitals taking care of very low birth weight patients. As a result, strategic behavior and "up-coding" might occur. We conduct a cluster analysis that suggests a birth weight adjustment to determine new fees that would be fairer than the current costs.


Assuntos
Grupos Diagnósticos Relacionados/economia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/economia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/economia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Custos Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso/fisiologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Tempo de Internação/economia , Masculino , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco
12.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Infection with a novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a global pandemic. There are limited data describing the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on pregnant mothers and their newborns. The objective of this study is to describe characteristics and outcomes of maternal-newborn dyads with confirmed maternal SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: This was a multicenter, observational, descriptive cohort study with data collection from charts of maternal-newborn dyads who delivered at 4 major New York City metropolitan area hospitals between March 1 and May 10, 2020, with maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: There were a total of 149 mothers with SARS-CoV-2 infection and 149 newborns analyzed (3 sets of twins; 3 stillbirths). Forty percent of these mothers were asymptomatic. Approximately 15% of symptomatic mothers required some form of respiratory support, and 8% required intubation. Eighteen newborns (12%) were admitted to the ICU. Fifteen (10%) were born preterm, and 5 (3%) required mechanical ventilation. Symptomatic mothers had more premature deliveries (16% vs 3%, P = .02), and their newborns were more likely to require intensive care (19% vs 2%, P = .001) than asymptomatic mothers. One newborn tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, which was considered a case of horizontal postnatal transmission. CONCLUSIONS: Although there was no distinct evidence of vertical transmission from mothers with SARS-CoV-2 to their newborns, we did observe perinatal morbidities among both mothers and newborns. Symptomatic mothers were more likely to experience premature delivery and their newborns to require intensive care.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Resultado da Gravidez , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia
14.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 302(4): 861-871, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621250

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Preterm birth (PTB) can be categorised according to aetiology into: spontaneous preterm labour (SPL), preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (PPROM), and iatrogenic (iatro) PTB. Outcomes could differ between these groups, which could be of interest in counselling. We aimed to explore differences between aetiologic groups of PTB in maternal demographics, obstetrical characteristics and management, and neonatal outcomes. METHODS: This is a cohort study (2012-2018) in Ghent University Hospital, Belgium, of deliveries from 24 + 0 to 33 + 6 weeks. We compared perinatal demographics, management, and outcomes between the aetiologic types of PTB. Point and interval estimates for differences between aetiologic types were estimated using a Generalised Estimating Equations approach to handle clustering due to multiple gestations. RESULTS: 813 mothers and 987 neonates were included. Prevalences of different aetiologic types of PTB were similar. Maternal BMI was higher in the iatrogenic group (iatro-SPL: + 1.92 kg/m2, 95% CI 1.02, 2.83; iatro-PPROM: + 2.06 kg/m2, 95% CI 1.15, 2.96). There was an inversed sex ratio (0.82, 95% CI 0.65, 1.03), more growth restriction (iatro-SPL: + 22.60%, 95% CI 17.08, 28.13; iatro-PPROM: + 24.64%, 95% CI 19.44, 29.83), and a higher caesarean section rate in the iatrogenic group (iatro-SPL: + 57.23%, 95% CI 50.32, 64.13, iatro-PPROM: + 56.79%, 95% CI 50.20, 63.38) and more patients received at least one complete course of antenatal corticosteroids (iatro-SPL: + 17.60%, 95% CI 10.60, 24.60, iatro-PPROM: + 10.73%, 95% CI 4.52, 16.94). In all types of PTB, adverse neonatal outcomes had a low prevalence, except for respiratory distress syndrome. A composite of adverse neonatal outcome was more prevalent in the SPL- compared to the PPROM group, and there was less intraventricular haemorrhage in the iatrogenic group. CONCLUSION: Additional to gestational age at birth, the aetiology of PTB is associated with neonatal outcome. More data are needed to enable individualised management and counselling in case of threatened PTB. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03405116.


Assuntos
Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/epidemiologia , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Cesárea , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mães , Gravidez , Gravidez Múltipla , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Prevalência
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235031, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is the most common respiratory disease in premature babies and the major cause of morbidity and mortality among preterm babies. Effective treatment of these babies requires exogenous surfactant and/or mechanical ventilation but these are of limited availability in low and middle income countries. A cheaper, simpler and more accessible treatment for preterms with RDS called bubble-continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) has been reported to be effective in treating RDS in preterm babies with varying levels of effectiveness ranging from 42% to 85%. We aimed to implement and determine the efficacy of bCPAP and its immediate outcomes as compared to oxygen therapy in preterm babies presenting with respiratory distress at a tertiary hospital in Tanzania. METHOD: A randomized control trial, conducted from December 2016 to May 2017, included all preterm babies admitted at the neonatal care unit presenting with signs of respiratory distress and meeting the inclusion criteria. The primary outcome was survival while the secondary outcomes were treatment duration, duration of hospital stay and treatment complications. RESULTS: A total of 824 babies were admitted in the neonatal care unit during the study period. Of these, 187 babies were preterm and 48 babies were recruited and randomized (25 bCPAP vs 23 oxygen). The overall survival to discharge for all eligible participants (n = 48) was 58.2% compared to those who adhered to treatment protocol (n = 45, 62.2%). Babies in the bCPAP group had higher survival (17/22; 77.3%) as compared to their counterparts in the oxygen therapy group (11/23; 47.8%). Babies treated with bCPAP had 52% lower risk of death (crude HR 0.48, 95% CI = 0.16-1.43) compared to babies receiving oxygen therapy. The median duration of treatment for babies in the oxygen therapy group was 2 (Range 0-16) days compared to 2 (Range 0-5) days in the bCPAP group. The median duration of hospital stay for babies receiving bCPAP was 14 (range 7-43) days. Nasal bleeding was commonly observed among babies in the bCPAP group as compared to those in the oxygen therapy group. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that treatment with bCPAP had a 30% clinical improvement in survival to discharge. Our findings highlight the role of bCPAP in reducing neonatal mortality in resource limited settings but further adequately powered studies in this or similar settings are required.


Assuntos
Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/métodos , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Tanzânia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Resultado do Tratamento , Ventiladores Mecânicos
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235363, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628732

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There are differences in the adoption rates of less invasive surfactant administration (LISA) worldwide. We aimed to describe and analyze the process of LISA introduction at the country level. METHODS: A standardized training program (33 courses covering >500 neonatologists) was followed by a cohort study. Data regarding consecutive LISA procedures were acquired over 12 months in 31 tertiary neonatal centers, using a dedicated on-line platform. RESULTS: Of 500 LISA procedures, 75% were performed by specialists and 25% by residents. The mean percentage share of LISA in all surfactant therapies was 24%, which represents a 6-fold increase compared to previous years. After 12 months, 76% of the procedures were rated "easy/very easy" vs 59% at baseline (p<0.05). Surfactant re-treatment rate was 15%. Twenty-three percent of infants required mechanical ventilation within 72 hours of life. Oxygen desaturation and surfactant reflux were the most frequent complications. Unlike previous reports describing exclusive use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) during LISA, majority of procedures (63%) were carried out using nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) or Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure (BiPAP). Efficacy of LISA with NIPPV or BiPAP was not significantly different from that with nCPAP (22.4% vs 24.5% of cases requiring intubation). Ventilation was provided with nasal cannulas or nasal masks (90%) and rarely with "RAM" cannulas or nasopharyngeal tubes. Rigid catheters were preferred (88.4%); tracheal insertion was successful at first attempt in 87% of cases. Majority of infants (79%) received no premedication prior to the procedure and almost all were given caffeine citrate. Median time of instillation was 1.5 minutes. CONCLUSIONS: The LISA procedure does not appear to be technically difficult to master. Training combining theory with practical exercises is an efficient implementation strategy. Variations in adoption rates indicate the need for additional, more personalized teachings in some centers.


Assuntos
Implementação de Plano de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Surfactantes Pulmonares/administração & dosagem , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Neonatologistas/educação , Neonatologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Polônia , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/efeitos adversos , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Padrões de Prática Médica/organização & administração , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 22(7): 721-727, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669168

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of less invasive surfactant administration (LISA) in the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS). METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, China Biology Medicine disc, China Scientific Journal Database, CNKI Database, and Wanfang Database were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the use of LISA strategy in the treatment of NRDS. Literature screening and quality assessment were performed according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Review Manager 5.3 software was used to perform the Meta analysis. RESULTS: A total of 9 RCTs were included, with a total of 1 212 children with NRDS. There were 611 children in the experimental group (treated with LISA strategy) and 601 children in the control group [treated with intubation-surfactant-extubation (INSURE) strategy]. The Meta analysis showed that the use of LISA strategy reduced the rate of mechanical ventilation within 72 hours after birth (OR=0.39, 95%CI: 0.29-0.51, P<0.001) and the incidence rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (OR=0.53, 95%CI: 0.38-0.72, P<0.001) and pneumothorax (OR=0.56, 95%CI: 0.33-0.93, P=0.02). There were no significant differences in the mortality rate and incidence rates of other neonatal diseases between the two groups (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in the rate of repeated use of pulmonary surfactant (PS) between the two groups (P>0.05), but there was a higher incidence rate of PS reflux observed by LISA strategy (OR=2.60, 95%CI: 1.64-4.12, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with INSURE strategy, LISA strategy has advantages in reducing the need for mechanical ventilation and the incidence rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and pneumothorax in children with NRDS.


Assuntos
Surfactantes Pulmonares/uso terapêutico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido , China , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/tratamento farmacológico , Tensoativos
20.
Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol ; 224(4): 187-193, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32575128

RESUMO

Fetal intrapericardial teratomas are rare and benign cardiac tumors. By comprehensive literature retrieval of the pertinent articles published since 2000, 49 articles with 61 cases of intrapericadial teratomas were recruited into this study. The intrapericardial teratomas were found during pregnancy in 55 cases (fetal group), while the tumors were detected until neonatal period in 6 cases (neonatal group). In the fetal group, 15 cases were critical with fetal/neonatal respiratory distress or cardiac tamponade. Antenatal treatments including centesis, shunt placement, open fetal surgery and the ex utero intrapartum treatment were required in 24 (43.6%) fetal cases. Postnatal intubation was required in 19 cases with 18 of them having immediate intubation after birth. Postnatal tumor resection was performed in 41 (95.3%) cases. In neonatal group, 4 neonates had respiratory distress and/or cardiac tamponade. Neonatal intubation was required in 1 (16.7%) patient. Surgical tumor resection was performed in all 6 patients. A comparison between the fetal and neonatal groups revealed that the fetal group was associated with higher refractory effusions while the neonatal group had a higher incidence of respiratory distress. Although the all cause death rate was higher in the fetal group than in the neonatal (25.5 vs. 0%), but lack of a statistical significance. Antenatal treatments for fetal intrapericardial teratomas are feasible but carry higher risks in comparison to neonatal cases.


Assuntos
Tamponamento Cardíaco/etiologia , Neoplasias Cardíacas/cirurgia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/etiologia , Teratoma/cirurgia , Feminino , Feto , Neoplasias Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Cardíacas/patologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido , Triagem Neonatal , Pericárdio , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Teratoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Teratoma/patologia , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal
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