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1.
Chem Biol Interact ; 315: 108908, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778666

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by neuronal atrophy in various brain regions. The expression of miR-107 is down-regulated in AD patients and target genes of miR-107 have been shown to directly involved in AD. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential neuroprotective effects of miR-107. We first assessed brain activity in health controls and patients with AD. Then we examined miR-107 expression in SH-SY5Y and PC12 cells treated with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), and investigated its function in cytotoxicity induced by 6-OHDA. We predicted a potential miR-107 target and assessed its role in miR-107 mediated effects and explored the intracellular signaling pathways downstream of miR-107. Finally, we assessed the function of miR-107 in the mouse model insulted by 6-OHDA. We found that 6-OHDA suppressed miR-107 expression and miR-107 played neuroprotective effects against 6-OHDA mediated cytotoxicity. We showed that miR-107 targeted programmed cell death 10 (PDCD10). MiR-107 suppressed PDCD10 expression and exogenous expression of PDCD10 inhibited miR-107 mediated neuroprotection. Additionally, we found that Notch signal pathway was downstream of miR-107/PDCD10. Finally, we found that 6-OHDA treatment suppressed miR-107 in mice and restoration of miR-107 alleviated motor disorder in the mouse model. Our study shows that miR-107 plays important neuroprotective roles against neurotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting PDCD10. Our findings confirm that miR-107 may be involved in AD pathogenesis and may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of AD-related impairments.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , Oxidopamina/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Camundongos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuroproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Células PC12 , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Toxicol Lett ; 320: 95-102, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760062

RESUMO

Exposure to organic solvent in industry, including n-hexane is correlated with central-peripheral axonopathy, which is mediated by its active metabolite, 2,5-hexanedione (HD). However, the underlying mechanism is still largely unknown. Recently identified microRNAs (miRNAs) may play important roles in toxicant exposure and in the process of toxicant-induced neuropathys. To examine the role of miRNAs in HD-induced toxicity, neuropathic animal model was successfully built. miRNA microarray analysis revealed 105 differentially expressed miRNAs after HD exposure. Bioinformatics analysis showed that "Axon" and "Neurotrophin Signaling Pathway" was the top significant GO term and pathway, respectively. 7 miRNAs both related to "Axon" and "Neurotrophin Signaling Pathway" were screened out and further confirmed by Real-Time PCR. Correspondingly, the deregulation expression levels of proteins of four target genes (GSK3ß, Map3k1, BDNF and MAP1B) were further confirmed via western blot, verifying the results of gene target analysis. Taken together, our results showed that the axon-related miRNAs to be associated with MAP1B or neurotrophin signal pathways changed in nerve tissues following HD exposure. These miRNAs may play important roles in HD-induced neurotoxicity.


Assuntos
Axônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Hexanonas/toxicidade , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Nervo Isquiático/efeitos dos fármacos , Solventes/toxicidade , Medula Espinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Axônios/metabolismo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/genética , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinase 1/genética , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinase 1/metabolismo , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/genética , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Nervo Isquiático/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
3.
Toxicol Lett ; 319: 213-224, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783120

RESUMO

The upregulated α-synuclein (α-syn) and Tau co-occur in methamphetamine (METH) abusers' brains. Here, we designed experiments mainly to investigate whether α-syn and Tau interact in METH exposure. We detected the expression of α-syn, total Tau, and phosphorylation of Tau at Serine 396 (pSer396 Tau) under in vitro and in vivo conditions after METH exposure to determine the co-occurrence of α-syn and Tau. We also explored the effect of α-syn or Tau on one another by silencing and knocking-out one of them in METH treatment. We found that METH increased the α-syn, total Tau, and pSer396 Tau protein level in SH-SY5Y cells, primary cultured neurons, and in mice brains. In additional, reducing α-syn level can relieve and even normalize the pSer396 Tau and total Tau overexpression after treatment of METH. Furthermore, knocking out Tau can effectively inhibit METH induced overexpression of α-syn in mice brains. Finally, knocking out α-syn or Tau can effectively reduce METH-induced neurotoxicity in mice brains. This research could provide potential therapeutic approaches targeting the vicious circle between α-syn and Tau in METH abusers and patients with neurodegenerative disorders.


Assuntos
Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/toxicidade , Metanfetamina/toxicidade , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/genética , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , alfa-Sinucleína/biossíntese , Proteínas tau/biossíntese , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Inativação Gênica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/psicologia , Cultura Primária de Células , RNA Interferente Pequeno , alfa-Sinucleína/genética , Proteínas tau/genética , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 190: 110077, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864122

RESUMO

Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) is a potentially noxious compound that is causing widespread concern due to its use in various food products. In this study, we investigated CML neurotoxicity via an in vivo experiment with mice, and an in vitro experiment using a 3D microvascular network model (with human brain vascular endothelial cell and human astrocyte) that simulated the blood-brain barrier. We found that CML could induce cell survival status variations, and histopathological changes to the brain. In addition, CML increased levels of oxidative stress, prompted the protein expression of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE). CML up-regulated both the gene expression of RAGE, the activating protein-1 (AP-1), the inflammatory cytokines Interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular cell adhesion molecule1 (VCAM-1), monocyte chemotactic protein1 (MCP-1). We, therefore, postulated that CML has the potential to deleteriously affect the nervous system through oxidative stress and that activation of the p38 MAPK-AP-1 signaling pathway might be implicated in this pathological process.


Assuntos
Lisina/análogos & derivados , Síndromes Neurotóxicas , Animais , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/patologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/genética , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/citologia , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Lisina/toxicidade , Camundongos , Microvasos/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/genética , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/genética , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/metabolismo
5.
Life Sci ; 239: 116878, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669736

RESUMO

AIMS: We previously demonstrated that iron-overload in non-thalassemic rats induced neurotoxicity and cognitive decline. However, the effect of iron-overload on the brain of thalassemic condition has never been investigated. An iron chelator (deferiprone) provides neuroprotective effects against metal toxicity. Furthermore, a T-type calcium channels blocker (efonidipine) effectively attenuates cardiac dysfunction in thalassemic mice with iron-overload. However, the effects of both drugs on brain of iron-overload thalassemia has not been determined. We hypothesize that iron-overload induces neurotoxicity in Thalassemic and wild-type mice, and not only deferiprone, but also efonidipine, provides neuroprotection against iron-overload condition. MAIN METHODS: Mice from both wild-type (WT) and ß-thalassemic type (HT) groups were assigned to be fed with a standard-diet or high-iron diet containing 0.2% ferrocene/kg of diet (HFe) for 4 months consecutively. After three months of HFe, 75-mg/kg/d deferiprone or 4-mg/kg/d efonidipine were administered to the HFe-fed WT and HT mice for 1 month. KEY FINDINGS: HFe consumption caused an equal impact on circulating iron-overload, oxidative stress, and inflammation in WT and HT mice. Brain iron-overload and iron-mediated neurotoxicity, such as oxidative stress, inflammation, glial activation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and Alzheimer's like pathologies, were observed to an equal degree in HFe fed WT and HT mice. These pathological conditions were mitigated by both deferiprone and efonidipine. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings indicate that iron-overload itself caused neurotoxicity, and T-type calcium channels may play a role in this condition.


Assuntos
Deferiprona/farmacologia , Di-Hidropiridinas/farmacologia , Ferro/toxicidade , Nitrofenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Canais de Cálcio Tipo T/efeitos dos fármacos , Deferiprona/metabolismo , Di-Hidropiridinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ferro/metabolismo , Quelantes de Ferro/farmacologia , Sobrecarga de Ferro/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , Nitrofenóis/metabolismo , Compostos Organofosforados/metabolismo , Compostos Organofosforados/farmacologia , Talassemia/patologia
6.
Life Sci ; 239: 117043, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The accumulation of Amyloid ß (Aß) plays key roles in Alzheimer's disease (AD) by inducing intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and neuronal cell death. In this study, we aimed to identify the neuroprotective mechanisms of amentoflavone (AF) in Aß-induce neuronal cell injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The animal model was established by injecting Aß1-42 into the bilateral hippocampus. The effect of AF on Aß1-42-induced neurological dysfunction was examined using the Y-maze and radical maze tests. The hippocampal neuron viability was examined using Nissl staining and TUNEL assay. On the other hand, in vitro studies were conducted using SH-SY5Y cells. The expression level of marker proteins was measured using western blot. The activity of caspase-1 and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were determined using ELISA assay. AMPKα knock down was carried out by transfecting SH-SY5Y cells with siRNA against AMPK transcript. RESULTS: Neurological tests showed that AF significantly attenuated Aß1-42-induced neurological dysfunction. AF suppressed Aß1-42-induced pyroptosis in the hippocampal region of the rat model, which was associated with the modulation of AMPK/GSK3ß signaling. Similar results were obtained in vitro in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to Aß1-42, showing that the neuroprotective activity of AF is mediated by suppressing pyroptosis through AMPK/GSK3ß signaling. CONCLUSION: AF inhibits Aß1-42-induced neurotoxicity in animal and cellular models through AMPK/GSK3ß-mediated pyroptosis suppression. Our results highlight AF as a clinical compound for the prevention and treatment of AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/efeitos dos fármacos , Biflavonoides/uso terapêutico , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Biflavonoides/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Piroptose/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(18)2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505887

RESUMO

The extensive usage of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as medical products such as antimicrobial and anticancer agents has raised concerns about their harmful effects on human beings. AgNPs can potentially induce oxidative stress and apoptosis in cells. However, humanin (HN) is a small secreted peptide that has cytoprotective and neuroprotective cellular effects. The aim of this study was to assess the harmful effects of AgNPs on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and also to investigate the protective effect of HN from AgNPs-induced cell death, mitochondrial dysfunctions, DNA damage, and apoptosis. AgNPs were prepared with an average size of 18 nm diameter to study their interaction with SH-SY5Y cells. AgNPs caused a dose-dependent decrease of cell viability and proliferation, induced loss of plasma-membrane integrity, oxidative stress, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and loss of ATP content, amongst other effects. Pretreatment or co-treatment of HN with AgNPs protected cells from several of these AgNPs induced adverse effects. Thus, this study demonstrated for the first time that HN protected neuroblastoma cells against AgNPs-induced neurotoxicity. The mechanisms of the HN-mediated protective effect on neuroblastoma cells may provide further insights for the development of novel therapeutic agents against neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/farmacologia , Prata/toxicidade , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/patologia , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Prata/química
8.
Life Sci ; 236: 116867, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520598

RESUMO

AIM: Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a potent anticancer and immunosuppressant drug. Studies have shown significant oxidative stress and cognitive impairment but neuroinflammatory and histological aberrations with its administration is underexplored. Nerolidol (NER) is a lipophilic bioactive molecule with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties but it has not been explored for neuroprotective potential in CP-induced neurotoxic manifestations. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective potential of NER in CP-induced neuroinflammation and associated comorbid conditions like depression and cognitive dysfunctions. MATERIALS AND METHOD: In-silico study using Schrödinger software was used to assess the binding affinity of NER with Nrf2. In the In vivo study, NER 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. were given from 1st day to 14th day. CP 200 mg/kg, i.p., was administered on the 7th day. After 24 h of the last dosing, neurobehavioral tests like spontaneous body alternation, passive avoidance and forced swim test were performed. On completion of study, mice were sacrificed, hippocampus and cortex were removed for biochemical estimations, histopathology and immunohistochemistry of p65 NF- κB and Nrf2. KEY FINDINGS: In-silico study showed significant binding of NER into the pocket domain of Nrf2. In-vivo study showed protective effect of NER against CP-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, cognitive impairment and structural abnormalities in the hippocampus and cortex regions. SIGNIFICANCE: Findings of the study suggested that NER is a potential therapeutic molecule which can mitigate CP-induced neurotoxic manifestations via Nrf2 and NF-κB pathway. However, more detailed studies are needed to explicate the mechanism underlying its neuroprotective effect.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Ciclofosfamida/toxicidade , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/prevenção & controle , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Disfunção Cognitiva/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Imunossupressores/toxicidade , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , NF-kappa B/genética , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/patologia , Transdução de Sinais
9.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 117: 109184, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387167

RESUMO

With the elderly population rapidly growing, the prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD) is quickly increasing because neurodegenerative disorders are usually late-onset. Herbal medicines and formula are adjuvant therapies of conventional PD agents, which result in serious side effects with long-term use. This study evaluated the neuroprotective effects of DA-9805, a standardized herbal formula that consists of an ethanolic extract of Moutan Cortex Radix, Angelica Dahuricae Radix, and Bupleuri Radix against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. In PC12 cells, DA-9805 at concentrations of 1 and 10 µg/mL ameliorated cell viability, which was reduced by 6-OHDA. In addition, DA-9805 activated the extracellular-regulated kinase-nuclear transcription factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 pathway, subsequently stimulating antioxidative enzymes such as NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 and catalase and suppressing apoptosis. Furthermore, DA-9805 prevented 6-OHDA-induced movement impairment, as well as a decrease of dopaminergic neurons and dopamine transmission in rodents. Taken together, these results suggest that the mixed herbal formula DA-9805 may be a pharmaceutical agent for preventing or improving PD.


Assuntos
Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/tratamento farmacológico , Oxidopamina/farmacologia , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dopamina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , NADP/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , Células PC12 , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos
11.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 133: 110761, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422080

RESUMO

We previously demonstrated that activation of protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) is critical for methamphetamine (MA)-induced dopaminergic toxicity. It was recognized that microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) also induces dopaminergic neurotoxicity. It was demonstrated that inhibition of PKC modulates the expression of mEH. We investigated whether MA-induced PKCδ activation requires mEH induction in mice. MA treatment (8 mg/kg, i.p., × 4; 2 h interval) significantly enhanced the level of phosphorylated PKCδ in the striatum of wild type (WT) mice. Subsequently, treatment with MA resulted in significant increases in the expression of cleaved PKCδ and mEH. Treatment with MA resulted in enhanced interaction between PKCδ and mEH. PKCδ knockout mice exhibited significant attenuation of the enhanced mEH expression induced by MA. MA-induced hyperthermia, oxidative stress, proapoptotic potentials, and dopaminergic impairments were attenuated by PKCδ knockout or mEH knockout in mice. However, treating mEH knockout in mice with PKCδ inhibitor, rottlerin did not show any additive beneficial effects, indicating that mEH is a critical mediator of neurotoxic potential of PKCδ. Our results suggest that MA-induced PKCδ activation requires mEH induction as a downstream signaling pathway and that the modulation of the PKCδ and mEH interaction is important for the pharmacological intervention against MA-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity.


Assuntos
Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Epóxido Hidrolases/metabolismo , Metanfetamina/efeitos adversos , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase C-delta/metabolismo , Acetofenonas/farmacologia , Animais , Benzopiranos/farmacologia , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Epóxido Hidrolases/genética , Febre/genética , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Locomoção/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Proteína Quinase C-delta/genética
12.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; 38(10): 1178-1182, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256685

RESUMO

2,4-D is a selective pre- and postemergence herbicide used for several crops. It is hazardous for the environment and risk for humans; therefore, several studies attempt to evaluate its effects and consequences of its use. The nervous system is supposedly a target for this herbicide, and this comprehensive review gathers the information about animal models that have been used for the study of the neurotoxicity of 2,4-D. The studies used several methods to evaluate the neurotoxicity of this herbicide, most of which used rodents, mainly rats, two used fish, and one used chicken eggs. The main behavioral effect observed concerned alterations in locomotor patterns and reduced motor activity. Biochemical analysis showed decreased levels of serotonin (5-HT) and increased levels of its metabolites and increased or decreased levels of DA and its metabolites depending on the brain area analyzed. Hypomyelination is also a possible effect of 2,4-D when the exposure occurs during the proliferation and development of the oligodendrocytes. The worst neuropathologic effects were observed in fish. Since most studies focused on the neurotoxicity of 2,4-D in rodents, the effect it may have on other species and groups of animals, especially with different physiology, is unclear and it should be researched.


Assuntos
Ácido 2,4-Diclorofenoxiacético/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Ácido 2,4-Diclorofenoxiacético/farmacocinética , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Poluentes Ambientais/farmacocinética , Camundongos , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/psicologia , Coelhos , Ratos
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(13)2019 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261959

RESUMO

Although transplantation procedures have been developed for patients with end-stage hepatic insufficiency or other diseases, allograft rejection still threatens patient health and lifespan. Over the last few decades, the emergence of immunosuppressive agents such as calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors have strikingly increased graft survival. Unfortunately, immunosuppressive agent-related neurotoxicity commonly occurs in clinical practice, with the majority of neurotoxicity cases caused by CNIs. The possible mechanisms through which CNIs cause neurotoxicity include increasing the permeability or injury of the blood-brain barrier, alterations of mitochondrial function, and alterations in the electrophysiological state. Other immunosuppressants can also induce neuropsychiatric complications. For example, mTOR inhibitors induce seizures, mycophenolate mofetil induces depression and headaches, methotrexate affects the central nervous system, the mouse monoclonal immunoglobulin G2 antibody (used against the cluster of differentiation 3) also induces headaches, and patients using corticosteroids usually experience cognitive alteration. Therapeutic drug monitoring, individual therapy based on pharmacogenetics, and early recognition of symptoms help reduce neurotoxic events considerably. Once neurotoxicity occurs, a reduction in the drug dosage, switching to other immunosuppressants, combination therapy with drugs used to treat the neuropsychiatric manifestation, or blood purification therapy have proven to be effective against neurotoxicity. In this review, we summarize recent topics on the mechanisms of immunosuppressive drug-related neurotoxicity. In addition, information about the neuroprotective effects of several immunosuppressants is also discussed.


Assuntos
Imunossupressores/toxicidade , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Corticosteroides/toxicidade , Animais , Antimetabólitos/toxicidade , Inibidores de Calcineurina/toxicidade , Humanos , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/toxicidade
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 182: 109427, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302334

RESUMO

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) as potential neurotoxicants in environment may possess hazards to human health. Previous studies have reported that PBDEs exposure could induce oxidative stress and disturb mitochondrial functions in mammalian cells. However, the toxicological mechanism remains to be clarified. In this work, the neurotoxic effect and underlying mechanism of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) was investigated by using human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells as an effective model. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based metabolomics approach combined with cell viability assay was applied to elucidate the metabolic perturbations and relevant toxicological pathways upon BDE-47 exposure. Our results shown that the SK-N-SH cell viability decreased in a dose-dependent manner after exposure to BDE-47 at 24 h within the concentration range of 5-250 µM, and an IC50 value of 88.8 µM was obtained. Based on the dose-response curve and cell morphological observation, the 5 and 10 µM BDE-47 doses (equal to IC5 and IC10, respectively) were used for metabolomics study to capture the sensitive metabolic response following BDE-47 exposure. After BDE-47 treatment, nine metabolites were identified as potential biomarkers, and the most disturbed metabolic pathways were mainly involved in alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, glutathione metabolism, tyrosine and phenylalanine metabolism, and pyrimidine metabolism, which imply that metabolic changes related to neurotransmitters, oxidative stress, and nucleotide-mediated signal transduction systems were the sensitive pathways mostly influenced. Our findings reported here may provide potential neurotoxic effect biomarkers and prompt deep understanding of the molecular and metabolic mechanisms triggered by BDE-47 exposure.


Assuntos
Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Pirimidinas/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular , Humanos , Metabolômica/métodos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Neuroblastoma , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(14)2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336801

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) contamination affects hundreds of millions of people globally. Although the number of patients with chronic As exposure is large, the symptoms and long-term clinical courses of the patients remain unclear. In addition to reviewing the literature on As contamination and toxicity, we provide useful clinical information on medical care for As-exposed patients. Further, As metabolite pathways, toxicity, speculated toxicity mechanisms, and clinical neurological symptoms are documented. Several mechanisms that seem to play key roles in As-induced neurotoxicity, including oxidative stress, apoptosis, thiamine deficiency, and decreased acetyl cholinesterase activity, are described. The observed neurotoxicity predominantly affects peripheral nerves in sensory fibers, with a lesser effect on motor fibers. A sural nerve biopsy showed the axonal degeneration of peripheral nerves mainly in small myelinated and unmyelinated fibers. Exposure to high concentrations of As causes severe central nervous system impairment in infants, but no or minimal impairment in adults. The exposure dose-response relationship was observed in various organs including neurological systems. The symptoms caused by heavy metal pollution (including As) are often nonspecific. Therefore, in order to recognize patients experiencing health problems caused by As, a multifaceted approach is needed, including not only clinicians, but also specialists from multiple fields.


Assuntos
Arsênico/toxicidade , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Arsênico/metabolismo , Intoxicação por Arsênico/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Poluição Ambiental , Humanos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/diagnóstico , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Estresse Oxidativo
16.
Biomarkers ; 24(7): 645-651, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305161

RESUMO

Context: Overconsumption of paracetamol (PAR) and diclofenac (DF) have been reported to induce neurotoxicity and endocrine disruption. Objective: The current study was designed to explore the protective potential of betanin against PAR and DF inducing neurotoxicity and endocrine disruption in a rat model. Material and Methods: Forty rats were equally divided into five groups: group I served as control, group II received PAR (400 mg/kg), group III received PAR plus betanin (25 mg/kg), group IV received DF (10 mg/kg) and group V received DF plus betanin orally for 28 consecutive days. Thyroid axis hormones, sex hormone, neurotransmitters, paraoxonase-1, hemeoxygenase-1 and nuclear factor-2 were measured by ELISA. While, the oxidative stress markers were colorimetrically estimated. Moreover, DNA damage and histopathological picture of the brains were investigated. Results: A marked reduction in thyroid axis hormones, brain neurotransmitters and serum testosterone as well as enhanced oxidative stress and brain DNA damage accompanied by drastic changes in the brain histopathological picture were recorded in the challenged PAR and DF groups. Betanin supplementation ameliorated most of the biochemical and histopathological changes induced by PAR or DF. Conclusion: The study suggests betanin of potential protective effects against neurotoxicity and endocrine disruption induced by PAR and DF overconsumption.


Assuntos
Betacianinas/farmacologia , Disruptores Endócrinos/farmacologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/tratamento farmacológico , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Acetaminofen/efeitos adversos , Acetaminofen/toxicidade , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides , Betacianinas/uso terapêutico , Química Encefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Diclofenaco/efeitos adversos , Diclofenaco/toxicidade , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos
17.
Life Sci ; 232: 116606, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254586

RESUMO

AIMS: Bupivacaine, a common local anesthetic, can cause neurotoxicity and abnormal neuro-disorders. However, the precise underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the function of lncRNA MALAT1 in the bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity process. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SH-SY5Y cells and neonatal mouse DRG neurons were cultured in vitro and treated with bupivacaine to establish a neurotoxicity model. Caspase3 activity and cell survival rates were detected to evaluate the function of lncRNA MALAT1. Western blotting was used to detect the expression levels of PDCD4 and cleaved-caspase-3. A dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to explore the potential binding target of lncRNA MALAT1. RESULTS: We found that the expression of lncRNA MALAT1 was upregulated upon exposure to bupivacaine. Knockdown of lncRNA MALAT1 significantly increased the cell death rates, and Caspase3 activity assays revealed that the apoptosis rates were manifestly increased in the MALAT1 downregulation group. In addition, we screened the possible target and found that miR-101-3p is the direct target of MALAT1 using a dual-luciferase reporter assay; these results suggest that lncRNA MALAT1 may function as a decoy to sponge miR-101-3p. Furthermore, we demonstrated that activation of the MALAT1/miR-101-3p/PDCD4 axis protected cells against bupivacaine treatment. CONCLUSION: We elucidated the function and mechanism of MALAT1 in bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity. Targeting MALAT1 might provide new methods to prevent neurotoxicity.


Assuntos
Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Bupivacaína/toxicidade , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Anestésicos Locais/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Gânglios Espinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/genética , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Environ Toxicol ; 34(9): 1052-1062, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161640

RESUMO

Manganese (Mn) plays a critical role in individual growth and development, yet excessive exposure can result in neurotoxicity, especially cognitive impairment. Neuronal apoptosis is considered as one of the mechanisms of Mn-induced neurotoxicity. Recent evidence suggests that cAMP-PKA-CREB signaling regulates apoptosis and is associated with cognitive function. However, whether this pathway participates in Mn-induced neurotoxicity is not completely understood. To fill this gap, in vitro cultures of PC12 cells were exposed to 0, 400, 500, and 600 µmol/L Mn for 24 hours, respectively. Another group of cells were pretreated with 10.0 µmol/L rolipram (a phosphodiesterase-4 [PDE4] inhibitor) for 1 hour followed by 500 µmol/L Mn exposure for 24 hours. Flow cytometry, immunofluorescence staining, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western blot analysis were used to detect the apoptosis rate, protein levels of PDE4, cAMP signaling, and apoptosis-associated proteins, respectively. We found that Mn exposure significantly inhibited cAMP signaling and protein expression of Bcl-2, while increasing apoptosis rate, protein levels of PDE4, Bax, activated caspase-3, and activated caspase-8 in PC12 cells. Pretreatment of rolipram ameliorated Mn-induced deficits in cAMP signaling and apoptosis. These findings demonstrate that cAMP-PKA-CREB signaling pathway-induced apoptosis is involved in Mn-induced neurotoxicity.


Assuntos
Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Manganês/toxicidade , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/patologia , Células PC12 , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Toxicol Lett ; 313: 42-49, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154016

RESUMO

Astrocytes are the major glial cell type in the central nervous system (CNS), and the distal part of the astrocyte forms the blood-brain barrier with nearby blood vessels. They maintain the overall metabolism, growth, homeostasis of neurons, and signaling in the CNS. Ochratoxin A is considered a carcinogen and immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, and neurotoxic mycotoxin. Specifically, it exhibits neurotoxicity with high affinity for the brain. Despite some previous studies about the effects of ochratoxin A in glial cells, the intracellular working mechanism in astrocytes is not fully understood. In this study, we studied the specific working mechanism of ochratoxin A in the human astrocyte cell line, NHA-SV40LT. Ochratoxin A reduced cell proliferation with sub G0/G1 cell cycle arrest by inhibiting CCND1, CCNE1, CDK4, and MYC expression. It induced apoptosis of NHA-SV40LT cells through mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) loss and up-regulation of BAX and TP53. In addition, ochratoxin A increased cytosolic and mitochondrial calcium levels, resulting in an increase in MMP2 and PLAUR mRNA expression in NHA-SV40LT cells. Furthermore, ochratoxin A regulated the phosphorylation of AKT, ERK1/2, and JNK signal molecules of human astrocytes. Collectively, ochratoxin A exerts neurotoxicity through anti-proliferation and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in human astrocytes.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Ocratoxinas/toxicidade , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Astrócitos/patologia , Sinalização do Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/genética , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo
20.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 70: 103192, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103492

RESUMO

The stress-induced hormone corticosterone initiates oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, culminating in cell apoptosis and neurological changes. We assessed the effects of d-Limonene on a PC12 cellular model of corticosterone-induced neurotoxicity, and whether these effects involved the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPKα) pathway. PC12 cells were treated with corticosterone with or without d-limonene for 24 h. Western blots were performed to measure activation of AMPK pathway members [Silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog-1 (SIRT1), AMPKα, and nuclear factor (NFκB)], reactive oxygen species, inflammatory cytokines, and markers of apoptosis. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) was used to measure cell death after treatment. d-Limonene reversed the effects of corticosterone on PC12 cells: it decreased the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO), activities of NADPH oxidase (p67-phox and p47-phox), expression of pro-inflammatory markers [inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)], and expression of pro-apoptotic proteins [Bcl2 associated with X protein (Bax) and cleaved caspase-3)]. d-Limonene also increased levels of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 while decreasing the number of TUNEL-positive cells. d-limonene significantly activated AMPKα and suppressed NF-κB nuclear translocation through up-regulation of SIRT1. Addition of compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, severely weakened these neuroprotective effects of d-limonene. d-Limonene has a neuroprotective effect on corticosterone-induced PC12 cell injury induced by activating the AMPKα signaling pathway, and thereby inhibiting reactive oxygen species and inflammatory factors. These data suggest that d-limonene might protect against neuronal death to improve depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Corticosterona/toxicidade , Limoneno/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células PC12 , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
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