Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.479
Filtrar
1.
Chem Biol Interact ; 331: 109284, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035518

RESUMO

Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a key enzyme superfamily involved in the detoxification and cytoprotection of a wide variety of xenobiotics, such as carcinogens, anticancer drugs, environmental toxicants, and endogenously produced free radicals. In the liver, the hGSTA1 isoenzyme is the most abundant and catalyzes the glutathione conjugation of a wide range of electrophiles and has been the principal GST responsible for xenobiotic detoxification. Given the critical role of this enzyme in several cellular processes, particularly cell detoxification, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of hGSTA1 expression is critical. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether AHR is involved in the modulation of hGSTA1 gene expression and to characterize the molecular mechanism through which AHR exerts this regulation. Two xenobiotic response elements (XREs) were located at -602 bp and -1030 bp from the transcription start site at the hGSTA1 gene promoter. After treatment of HepG2 cells with beta-naphthoflavone (ß-NF), an AHR agonist, induction of hGSTA1 mRNA was observed. This effect was mediated by the recruitment of AHR to the hGSTA1 gene promoter and its transactivation, as indicated by the ChIP, EMSA and luciferase activity assays. The increase in hGSTA1 transcription regulated by AHR also resulted in enhanced levels of hGSTA1 protein and activity. Taken together, our data suggest that AHR ligands have the potential to modify xenobiotic and endobiotic metabolism mediated by hGSTA1, thereby altering the detoxification of xenobiotics, steroidogenesis and the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents.


Assuntos
Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Ensaio de Desvio de Mobilidade Eletroforética , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/agonistas , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição , Ativação Transcricional/efeitos dos fármacos , beta-Naftoflavona/farmacologia
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5148, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051455

RESUMO

The differences in transcription start sites (TSS) and transcription end sites (TES) among gene isoforms can affect the stability, localization, and translation efficiency of mRNA. Gene isoforms allow a single gene diverse functions across different cell types, and isoform dynamics allow different functions over time. However, methods to efficiently identify and quantify RNA isoforms genome-wide in single cells are still lacking. Here, we introduce single cell RNA Cap And Tail sequencing (scRCAT-seq), a method to demarcate the boundaries of isoforms based on short-read sequencing, with higher efficiency and lower cost than existing long-read sequencing methods. In conjunction with machine learning algorithms, scRCAT-seq demarcates RNA transcripts with unprecedented accuracy. We identified hundreds of previously uncharacterized transcripts and thousands of alternative transcripts for known genes, revealed cell-type specific isoforms for various cell types across different species, and generated a cell atlas of isoform dynamics during the development of retinal cones.


Assuntos
Capuzes de RNA/genética , Isoformas de RNA/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Transcrição Genética , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de RNA/economia , Análise de Célula Única , Especificidade da Espécie , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4905, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999288

RESUMO

Transcription factor (TF) IIIC is a conserved eukaryotic six-subunit protein complex with dual function. It serves as a general TF for most RNA polymerase (Pol) III genes by recruiting TFIIIB, but it is also involved in chromatin organization and regulation of Pol II genes through interaction with CTCF and condensin II. Here, we report the structure of the S. cerevisiae TFIIIC subcomplex τA, which contains the most conserved subunits of TFIIIC and is responsible for recruitment of TFIIIB and transcription start site (TSS) selection at Pol III genes. We show that τA binding to its promoter is auto-inhibited by a disordered acidic tail of subunit τ95. We further provide a negative-stain reconstruction of τA bound to the TFIIIB subunits Brf1 and TBP. This shows that a ruler element in τA achieves positioning of TFIIIB upstream of the TSS, and suggests remodeling of the complex during assembly of TFIIIB by TFIIIC.


Assuntos
Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , RNA Polimerase III/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/ultraestrutura , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Fatores de Transcrição TFIII/ultraestrutura , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Fúngico/metabolismo , Genes Fúngicos/genética , Insetos , Domínios Proteicos , Multimerização Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/ultraestrutura , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição TFIIIB/genética , Fator de Transcrição TFIIIB/isolamento & purificação , Fator de Transcrição TFIIIB/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição TFIII/genética , Fatores de Transcrição TFIII/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Transcrição TFIII/metabolismo , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição , Iniciação da Transcrição Genética
4.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240647, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112891

RESUMO

The World Health Organization declared the COVID-19 epidemic a public health emergency of international concern on March 11th, 2020, and the pandemic is rapidly spreading worldwide. COVID-19 is caused by a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which enters human target cells via angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). We used a number of bioinformatics tools to computationally characterize ACE2 by determining its cell-specific expression in trachea, lung, and small intestine, derive its putative functions, and predict transcriptional regulation. The small intestine expressed higher levels of ACE2 mRNA than any other organ. By immunohistochemistry, duodenum, kidney and testis showed strong signals, whereas the signal was weak in the respiratory tract. Single cell RNA-Seq data from trachea indicated positive signals along the respiratory tract in key protective cell types including club, goblet, proliferating, and ciliary epithelial cells; while in lung the ratio of ACE2-expressing cells was low in all cell types (<2.6%), but was highest in vascular endothelial and goblet cells. Gene ontology analysis suggested that, besides its classical role in the renin-angiotensin system, ACE2 may be functionally associated with angiogenesis/blood vessel morphogenesis. Using a novel tool for the prediction of transcription factor binding sites we identified several putative binding sites within two tissue-specific promoters of the ACE2 gene as well as a new putative short form of ACE2. These include several interferon-stimulated response elements sites for STAT1, IRF8, and IRF9. Our results also confirmed that age and gender play no significant role in the regulation of ACE2 mRNA expression in the lung.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Biologia Computacional , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Receptores Virais/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Proteínas de Transporte/biossíntese , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Feminino , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Humanos , Interferons/fisiologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Metaloproteases/biossíntese , Metaloproteases/genética , Neovascularização Fisiológica/fisiologia , Especificidade de Órgãos , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/biossíntese , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , Receptores Virais/biossíntese , Receptores Virais/genética , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Análise de Célula Única , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição , Ligação Viral
5.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(19): 11162-11171, 2020 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976598

RESUMO

The triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), a subtype of breast cancer which lacks of targeted therapies, exhibits a poor prognosis. It was shown recently that the PIM1 oncogene is highly related to the proliferation of TNBC cells. A quadruplex-duplex hybrid (QDH) forming sequence was recently found to exist near the transcription start site of PIM1. This structure could be an attractive target for regulation of the PIM1 gene expression and thus the treatment of TNBC. Here, we present the solution structures of two QDHs that could coexist in the human PIM1 gene. Form 1 is a three-G-tetrad-layered (3+1) G-quadruplex containing a propeller loop, a lateral loop and a stem-loop made up of three G•C Watson-Crick base pairs. On the other hand, Form 2 is an anti-parallel G-quadruplex comprising two G-tetrads and a G•C•G•C tetrad; the structure has three lateral loops with the middle stem-loop made up of two Watson-Crick G•C base pairs. These structures provide valuable information for the design of G-quadruplex-specific ligands for PIM1 transcription regulation.


Assuntos
DNA/química , Quadruplex G , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-pim-1/genética , Humanos , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética
6.
Mol Cell ; 79(4): 660-676.e8, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755593

RESUMO

Specific combinations of two transcription factors (Hnf4α plus Foxa1, Foxa2, or Foxa3) can induce direct conversion of mouse fibroblasts into hepatocyte-like cells. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying hepatic reprogramming are largely unknown. Here, we show that the Foxa protein family members and Hnf4α sequentially and cooperatively bind to chromatin to activate liver-specific gene expression. Although all Foxa proteins bind to and open regions of closed chromatin as pioneer factors, Foxa3 has the unique potential of transferring from the distal to proximal regions of the transcription start site of target genes, binding RNA polymerase II, and co-traversing target genes. These distinctive characteristics of Foxa3 are essential for inducing the hepatic fate in fibroblasts. Similar functional coupling of transcription factors to RNA polymerase II may occur in other contexts whereby transcriptional activation can induce cell differentiation.


Assuntos
Fator 3-gama Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/fisiologia , Ativação Transcricional , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Células Cultivadas , Reprogramação Celular/fisiologia , Cromatina/metabolismo , DNA Polimerase II/genética , DNA Polimerase II/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Fator 3-gama Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Fator 4 Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Domínios Proteicos , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição
7.
Nature ; 585(7824): 261-267, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32848246

RESUMO

Sustained, drug-free control of HIV-1 replication is naturally achieved in less than 0.5% of infected individuals (here termed 'elite controllers'), despite the presence of a replication-competent viral reservoir1. Inducing such an ability to spontaneously maintain undetectable plasma viraemia is a major objective of HIV-1 cure research, but the characteristics of proviral reservoirs in elite controllers remain to be determined. Here, using next-generation sequencing of near-full-length single HIV-1 genomes and corresponding chromosomal integration sites, we show that the proviral reservoirs of elite controllers frequently consist of oligoclonal to near-monoclonal clusters of intact proviral sequences. In contrast to individuals treated with long-term antiretroviral therapy, intact proviral sequences from elite controllers were integrated at highly distinct sites in the human genome and were preferentially located in centromeric satellite DNA or in Krüppel-associated box domain-containing zinc finger genes on chromosome 19, both of which are associated with heterochromatin features. Moreover, the integration sites of intact proviral sequences from elite controllers showed an increased distance to transcriptional start sites and accessible chromatin of the host genome and were enriched in repressive chromatin marks. These data suggest that a distinct configuration of the proviral reservoir represents a structural correlate of natural viral control, and that the quality, rather than the quantity, of viral reservoirs can be an important distinguishing feature for a functional cure of HIV-1 infection. Moreover, in one elite controller, we were unable to detect intact proviral sequences despite analysing more than 1.5 billion peripheral blood mononuclear cells, which raises the possibility that a sterilizing cure of HIV-1 infection, which has previously been observed only following allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation2,3, may be feasible in rare instances.


Assuntos
Inativação Gênica , Infecções por HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , Heterocromatina/genética , Provírus/genética , Integração Viral/genética , Latência Viral/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Centrômero/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 19/genética , DNA Satélite/genética , Feminino , Genoma Viral/genética , Infecções por HIV/sangue , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Heterocromatina/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Provírus/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição
8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(3): 487-498, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800095

RESUMO

The aggregation and joint analysis of large numbers of exome sequences has recently made it possible to derive estimates of intolerance to loss-of-function (LoF) variation for human genes. Here, we demonstrate strong and widespread coupling between genic LoF intolerance and promoter CpG density across the human genome. Genes downstream of the most CpG-rich promoters (top 10% CpG density) have a 67.2% probability of being highly LoF intolerant, using the LOEUF metric from gnomAD. This is in contrast to 7.4% of genes downstream of the most CpG-poor (bottom 10% CpG density) promoters. Combining promoter CpG density with exonic and promoter conservation explains 33.4% of the variation in LOEUF, and the contribution of CpG density exceeds the individual contributions of exonic and promoter conservation. We leverage this to train a simple and easily interpretable predictive model that outperforms other existing predictors and allows us to classify 1,760 genes-which are currently unascertained in gnomAD-as highly LoF intolerant or not. These predictions have the potential to aid in the interpretation of novel variants in the clinical setting. Moreover, our results reveal that high CpG density is not merely a generic feature of human promoters but is preferentially encountered at the promoters of the most selectively constrained genes, calling into question the prevailing view that CpG islands are not subject to selection.


Assuntos
Ilhas de CpG/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Éxons/genética , Humanos , RNA Polimerase II/genética , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3392, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636376

RESUMO

G-quadruplex (G4) is a noncanonical secondary structure of DNA or RNA which can enhance or repress gene expression, yet the underlying molecular mechanism remains uncertain. Here we show that when positioned downstream of transcription start site, the orientation of potential G4 forming sequence (PQS), but not the sequence alters transcriptional output. Ensemble in vitro transcription assays indicate that PQS in the non-template increases mRNA production rate and yield. Using sequential single molecule detection stages, we demonstrate that while binding and initiation of T7 RNA polymerase is unchanged, the efficiency of elongation and the final mRNA output is higher when PQS is in the non-template. Strikingly, the enhanced elongation arises from the transcription-induced R-loop formation, which in turn generates G4 structure in the non-template. The G4 stabilized R-loop leads to increased transcription by a mechanism involving successive rounds of R-loop formation.


Assuntos
RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/genética , Quadruplex G , Estruturas R-Loop , Transcrição Genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , DNA/análise , DNA/química , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/química , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Ligação Proteica , RNA/química , RNA Mensageiro/química , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição , Proteínas Virais/química
10.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(15): 8509-8528, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710631

RESUMO

The ribonucleolytic exosome complex is central for nuclear RNA degradation, primarily targeting non-coding RNAs. Still, the nuclear exosome could have protein-coding (pc) gene-specific regulatory activities. By depleting an exosome core component, or components of exosome adaptor complexes, we identify ∼2900 transcription start sites (TSSs) from within pc genes that produce exosome-sensitive transcripts. At least 1000 of these overlap with annotated mRNA TSSs and a considerable portion of their transcripts share the annotated mRNA 3' end. We identify two types of pc-genes, both employing a single, annotated TSS across cells, but the first type primarily produces full-length, exosome-sensitive transcripts, whereas the second primarily produces prematurely terminated transcripts. Genes within the former type often belong to immediate early response transcription factors, while genes within the latter are likely transcribed as a consequence of their proximity to upstream TSSs on the opposite strand. Conversely, when genes have multiple active TSSs, alternative TSSs that produce exosome-sensitive transcripts typically do not contribute substantially to overall gene expression, and most such transcripts are prematurely terminated. Our results display a complex landscape of sense transcription within pc-genes and imply a direct role for nuclear RNA turnover in the regulation of a subset of pc-genes.


Assuntos
Exossomos/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , RNA/genética , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Células HeLa , Humanos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA não Traduzido/genética
11.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(15): 8374-8392, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619237

RESUMO

The core-promoter, a stretch of DNA surrounding the transcription start site (TSS), is a major integration-point for regulatory-signals controlling gene-transcription. Cellular differentiation is marked by divergence in transcriptional repertoire and cell-cycling behaviour between cells of different fates. The role promoter-associated gene-regulatory-networks play in development-associated transitions in cell-cycle-dynamics is poorly understood. This study demonstrates in a vertebrate embryo, how core-promoter variations define transcriptional output in cells transitioning from a proliferative to cell-lineage specifying phenotype. Assessment of cell proliferation across zebrafish embryo segmentation, using the FUCCI transgenic cell-cycle-phase marker, revealed a spatial and lineage-specific separation in cell-cycling behaviour. To investigate the role differential promoter usage plays in this process, cap-analysis-of-gene-expression (CAGE) was performed on cells segregated by cycling dynamics. This analysis revealed a dramatic increase in tissue-specific gene expression, concurrent with slowed cycling behaviour. We revealed a distinct sharpening in TSS utilization in genes upregulated in slowly cycling, differentiating tissues, associated with enhanced utilization of the TATA-box, in addition to Sp1 binding-sites. In contrast, genes upregulated in rapidly cycling cells carry broad distribution of TSS utilization, coupled with enrichment for the CCAAT-box. These promoter features appear to correspond to cell-cycle-dynamic rather than tissue/cell-lineage origin. Moreover, we observed genes with cell-cycle-dynamic-associated transitioning in TSS distribution and differential utilization of alternative promoters. These results demonstrate the regulatory role of core-promoters in cell-cycle-dependent transcription regulation, during embryo-development.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição , Transcrição Genética , Animais , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Ciclo Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Humanos , Morfogênese/genética , Fator de Transcrição Sp1/genética , TATA Box/genética , Peixe-Zebra/genética
12.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(14): 7767-7785, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597978

RESUMO

To better understand human RNA polymerase II (Pol II) promoters in the context of promoter-proximal pausing and local chromatin organization, 5' and 3' ends of nascent capped transcripts and the locations of nearby nucleosomes were accurately identified through sequencing at exceptional depth. High-quality visualization tools revealed a preferred sequence that defines over 177 000 core promoters with strengths varying by >10 000-fold. This sequence signature encompasses and better defines the binding site for TFIID and is surprisingly invariant over a wide range of promoter strength. We identified a sequence motif associated with promoter-proximal pausing and demonstrated that cap methylation only begins once transcripts are about 30 nt long. Mapping also revealed a ∼150 bp periodic downstream sequence element (PDE) following the typical pause location, strongly suggestive of a +1 nucleosome positioning element. A nuclear run-off assay utilizing the unique properties of the DNA fragmentation factor (DFF) coupled with sequencing of DFF protected fragments demonstrated that a +1 nucleosome is present downstream of paused Pol II. Our data more clearly define the human Pol II promoter: a TFIID binding site with built-in downstream information directing ubiquitous promoter-proximal pausing and downstream nucleosome location.


Assuntos
Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , RNA Polimerase II/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , DNA/química , Células HeLa , Humanos , Metilação , Nucleossomos , Capuzes de RNA/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição TFIID/metabolismo , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição , Transcrição Genética
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3199, 2020 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581223

RESUMO

De novo establishment of DNA methylation is accomplished by DNMT3A and DNMT3B. Here, we analyze de novo DNA methylation in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (2i-MEFs) derived from DNA-hypomethylated 2i/L ES cells with genetic ablation of Dnmt3a or Dnmt3b. We identify 355 and 333 uniquely unmethylated genes in Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b knockout (KO) 2i-MEFs, respectively. We find that Dnmt3a is exclusively required for de novo methylation at both TSS regions and gene bodies of Polycomb group (PcG) target developmental genes, while Dnmt3b has a dominant role on the X chromosome. Consistent with this, tissue-specific DNA methylation at PcG target genes is substantially reduced in Dnmt3a KO embryos. Finally, we find that human patients with DNMT3 mutations exhibit reduced DNA methylation at regions that are hypomethylated in Dnmt3 KO 2i-MEFs. In conclusion, here we report a set of unique de novo DNA methylation target sites for both DNMT3 enzymes during mammalian development that overlap with hypomethylated sites in human patients.


Assuntos
DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/genética , Repressão Epigenética/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/citologia , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/metabolismo , Mutação , Especificidade de Órgãos , Proteínas do Grupo Polycomb , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3140, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561780

RESUMO

MeCP2 plays a multifaceted role in gene expression regulation and chromatin organization. Interaction between MeCP2 and methylated DNA in the regulation of gene expression is well established. However, the widespread distribution of MeCP2 suggests it has additional interactions with chromatin. Here we demonstrate, by both biochemical and genomic analyses, that MeCP2 directly interacts with nucleosomes and its genomic distribution correlates with that of H3K27me3. In particular, the methyl-CpG-binding domain of MeCP2 shows preferential interactions with H3K27me3. We further observe that the impact of MeCP2 on transcriptional changes correlates with histone post-translational modification patterns. Our findings indicate that MeCP2 interacts with genomic loci via binding to DNA as well as histones, and that interaction between MeCP2 and histone proteins plays a key role in gene expression regulation.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Histonas/metabolismo , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/fisiologia , Animais , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação , DNA/genética , DNA/metabolismo , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferase 1/genética , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/genética , Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Loci Gênicos , Células HCT116 , Células HEK293 , Histonas/genética , Humanos , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Nucleossomos/genética , Nucleossomos/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/fisiologia , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição/fisiologia
15.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(12): 6654-6671, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501506

RESUMO

DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) trigger human genome instability, therefore identifying what factors contribute to DSB induction is critical for our understanding of human disease etiology. Using an unbiased, genome-wide approach, we found that genomic regions with the ability to form highly stable DNA secondary structures are enriched for endogenous DSBs in human cells. Human genomic regions predicted to form non-B-form DNA induced gross chromosomal rearrangements in yeast and displayed high indel frequency in human genomes. The extent of instability in both analyses is in concordance with the structure forming ability of these regions. We also observed an enrichment of DNA secondary structure-prone sites overlapping transcription start sites (TSSs) and CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) binding sites, and uncovered an increase in DSBs at highly stable DNA secondary structure regions, in response to etoposide, an inhibitor of topoisomerase II (TOP2) re-ligation activity. Importantly, we found that TOP2 deficiency in both yeast and human leads to a significant reduction in DSBs at structure-prone loci, and that sites of TOP2 cleavage have a greater ability to form highly stable DNA secondary structures. This study reveals a direct role for TOP2 in generating secondary structure-mediated DNA fragility, advancing our understanding of mechanisms underlying human genome instability.


Assuntos
Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo II/ultraestrutura , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico/efeitos dos fármacos , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Fator de Ligação a CCCTC/genética , DNA/genética , DNA/ultraestrutura , Reparo do DNA/genética , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo II/genética , Etoposídeo/farmacologia , Genoma Humano/genética , Instabilidade Genômica/genética , Humanos , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Infect Genet Evol ; 84: 104386, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473977

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 is a new virus responsible for an outbreak of respiratory illness known as COVID-19, which has spread to several countries around the world and a global effort is being undertaken to characterize the molecular features and evolutionary origins of this virus. In silico analysis of the transcription start sites, promoter regions, transcription factors and their binding sites, gene ontology, CpG islands for SARS-CoV-2 viral genome are a first step to understand the regulation mechanisms of gene expression and its association with genetic variations in the genomes. For this purpose, we first computationally surveyed all SARS-CoV-2 virus genes with the open reading frames from NCBI database and found eleven sequences to accomplish the mentioned features by using bioinformatics tools. Our analysis revealed that all (100%) of the SARS-CoV-2 virus genes have more than one TSS. By taking all TSSs with the highest predictive score we determined promoter regions and identified five common candidate motifs (MVI, MVII, MVIII, MVIV and MVV) of which MVI was found to be shared by all promoter regions of SARS-CoV-2 virus genes with the least E-value (3.8e-056, statistically highly significant). In our further analysis of MVI we showed MVI serve as binding sites for a single transcription factor (TF) family, EXPREG, involved in the regulatory mode of these genes. From EXPREG family four TFs that belongs to Cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) and Catabolite control protein A (CcpA) group mostly serve as transcriptional activator whereas two TFs that belong to LexA group always serve as transcriptional repressor in different kinds of cellular processes and molecular functions. Therefore, we unfolded SARS-CoV-2 viral genome to shed light on its gene expression regulation that could help to design and evaluate diagnostic tests, to track and trace the ongoing outbreak and to identify potential intervention options.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Viral , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição , Proteínas Virais/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Ilhas de CpG , Humanos , Motivos de Nucleotídeos , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3224, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591528

RESUMO

In plants, epigenetic regulation is critical for silencing transposons and maintaining proper gene expression. However, its impact on the genome-wide transcription initiation landscape remains elusive. By conducting a genome-wide analysis of transcription start sites (TSSs) using cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE) sequencing, we show that thousands of TSSs are exclusively activated in various epigenetic mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana and referred to as cryptic TSSs. Many have not been identified in previous studies, of which up to 65% are contributed by transposons. They possess similar genetic features to regular TSSs and their activation is strongly associated with the ectopic recruitment of RNAPII machinery. The activation of cryptic TSSs significantly alters transcription of nearby TSSs, including those of genes important for development and stress responses. Our study, therefore, sheds light on the role of epigenetic regulation in maintaining proper gene functions in plants by suppressing transcription from cryptic TSSs.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Epigênese Genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Transcrição Genética , Sequência de Bases , Sequência Consenso/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , DNA Polimerase beta/metabolismo , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Genes de Plantas , Mutação/genética , RNA Polimerase II/metabolismo , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição , Transcriptoma/genética
18.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(5): 1295-1304, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32566991

RESUMO

Pichia pastoris is able to metabolize methanol via a specific MUT (methanol utilization) pathway. Based on the powerful AOX1 (Alcohol Oxidase 1) promoter, the P. pastoris expression system has become one of the most widely used eukaryotic expression systems. The molecular mechanisms of methanol metabolic regulation remain unclearly understood, so it is important to identify and develop new transcriptional regulators. Our previous studies suggested that the expression of SUT2 could be induced by methanol but is repressed by glycerol, which indicates that SUT2 may be involved in methanol metabolism through an unknown mechanism. SUT2 encodes a putative transcription factor-like protein harboring a Gal4-like Zn2Cys6 DNA-binding domain in Pichia pastoris, and its homolog in Saccharomyces cerevisiae regulates sterol uptake and synthesis. This study shows that the overexpression of SUT2 promoted the expression of AOX1 and increases ergosterol content in cells. Furthermore, via truncation of the putative SUT2 promoter at diverse loci, the - 973 base pair (bp) to - 547 bp region to the ATG was shown to be the core element of the inducible promoter PSUT2, which strongly responds to the methanol signal. The transcriptional start site of SUT2, "A" at the 22nd bp upstream of ATG, was determined with 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends. A forward-loop cassette was constructed with MXR1 (Methanol Expression Regulator 1, a positive transcription factor of PAOX1) promoted by PSUT2, enabling moderate elevation in the expression level of Mxr1 and high activity of PAOX1 without damaging cellular robustness further boosting the production of heterologous proteins. The PAOX1-driven expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein in this novel system was improved by 18%, representing a promising method for extrinsic protein production. SUT2 may play roles in methanol metabolism by participating in sterol biosynthesis. PSUT2 was characterized as a novel inducible promoter in P. pastoris and a PSUT2-driven MXR1 forward-loop cassette was constructed to enhance the PAOX1 activity, laying a foundation for further development and application of P. pastoris expression system.


Assuntos
Metanol/metabolismo , Pichia/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Aldeído Oxidase/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Deleção de Sequência , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição
19.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232332, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353042

RESUMO

The assay for transposase-accessible chromatin followed by sequencing (ATAC-seq) is an inexpensive protocol for measuring open chromatin regions. ATAC-seq is also relatively simple and requires fewer cells than many other high-throughput sequencing protocols. Therefore, it is tractable in numerous settings where other high throughput assays are challenging to impossible. Hence it is important to understand the limits of what can be inferred from ATAC-seq data. In this work, we leverage ATAC-seq to predict the presence of nascent transcription. Nascent transcription assays are the current gold standard for identifying regions of active transcription, including markers for functional transcription factor (TF) binding. We combine mapped short reads from ATAC-seq with the underlying peak sequence, to determine regions of active transcription genome-wide. We show that a hybrid signal/sequence representation classified using recurrent neural networks (RNNs) can identify these regions across different cell types.


Assuntos
RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição , Células A549 , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Redes Neurais de Computação , Motivos de Nucleotídeos , Ligação Proteica , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
20.
Gene ; 750: 144723, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387119

RESUMO

The BCL2L12, one of the latest discovered members of the BCL2 family, has both pro- and anti-apoptotic roles that are cell-type-dependent. Its role in tumorigenesis is highly implicated. Sixty-three splice variants of this gene have been identified so far, with significant differences in expression patterns between various cancer cell lines. Presently, little is known regarding the regulation of expression of the BCL2L12 gene. For the vast majority of BCL2L12 gene splice variants, the 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions as well as their transcriptional regulation have not been determined yet. The aim of this study was to get insight into the regulation of the BCL2L12 gene transcription in human chronic myelogenous leukemia (K562) cell line. Our results point to the activity of novel transcription start site of the BCL2L12 gene and indicate that Sp1 and GATA-1 transcription factors could be involved in the regulation of BCL2L12 gene expression in K562 cells. The previously reported active promoter of BCL2L12 gene differs from the one we described in our study. If this novel BCL2L12 promoter is confirmed to be active in other malignancies, transcripts generated from this region could be considered as new cancer-specific biomarkers. The results of our study contribute to the better understanding of the transcriptional regulation of the BCL2L12 gene.


Assuntos
Proteínas Musculares/genética , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Apoptose/fisiologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Células K562 , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Sítio de Iniciação de Transcrição , Transcrição Genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA