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2.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 27(3): 239-249, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32266707

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study examined the prevalence of pre-hypertension (PHT) and hypertension (HT) in urban youth, and assessed the effects of sodium intake and obesity on blood pressure (BP) by ethnicity. METHODS: A convenience sample of 557 multiethnic youth, aged 11-23 years, was recruited from 12 schools and institutions in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Participants were divided by self-identified ethnicity into four groups (Indigenous, African and Middle Eastern (AME), Asian, and European). RESULTS: Between October 2013 and March 2014, one-on-one interviews were conducted to collect data on demographics, physical activity, diet, and Body Mass Index (BMI). BP was obtained at two different times during the interview and measured a third time in cases of high variability. The standard deviation scores (SDS) of systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were used to estimate associations with sodium intake (per 1000 mg/day). Overall, 18.2% and 5.4% of the participants had PHT and HT, respectively. Indigenous and AME participants showed the highest rates of PHT (23.1%). Indigenous and European participants showed higher rates of HT (8.3% and 5.3%, respectively) than other ethnic groups (AME = 4.4%, Asian = 3.9%). There was a positive association between 1000 mg/day increase in sodium intake and SDS of SBP by 0.041 (95% CI 0.007-0.083; p = 0.04) among pre-hypertensive participants. Over 85% of participants exceeded the recommended dietary sodium intake. Mean BMI and dietary sodium intake were higher among pre-hypertensive participants (4219 mg/day) than normotensive (3475 mg/day). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HT varied by ethnicity. High dietary sodium intake was of concern. There is a need for culturally-tailored, population-based interventions to reduce sodium intake.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Hipertensão/etnologia , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Pré-Hipertensão/etnologia , Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Saúde da População Urbana/etnologia , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Fatores Etários , Alberta/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Hipossódica/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Índios Norte-Americanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Obesidade Pediátrica/etnologia , Pré-Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Pré-Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Pré-Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Fatores Raciais , Recomendações Nutricionais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto Jovem
5.
N Z Med J ; 133(1511): 71-85, 2020 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161423

RESUMO

The hazardous and obesogenic food environment are major contributors to health loss in Aotearoa New Zealand. Here we consider the potential use of food taxes and subsidies to protect health in this country. We find that each one of the 14 recent systematic reviews on the tax and/or subsidy topic since 2015 in the scientific literature report that such interventions have favourable impacts from a health perspective. The New Zealand evidence we considered (n=12 studies since January 2010) is less definitive, but the pattern of results is consistent with the international evidence. Given this overall picture, the New Zealand Government should seriously consider such tax/subsidy interventions, potentially starting with a UK-style sugary drinks industry levy.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Saúde Pública , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar , Impostos/legislação & jurisprudência , Bebidas , Gorduras na Dieta , Açúcares da Dieta , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Sódio na Dieta
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(8): e19263, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080135

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To understand the possible effect of a novel salt substitute with very low sodium in reducing blood pressure, salt intake and use of anti-hypertensive medications among patients on regular medications, to inform the future randomized trials. DESIGN: Single-arm pilot trial. SETTING: A community health service center in Chongqing, China. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 43 patients with hypertension taking anti-hypertensive medications regularly. INTERVENTION: Patients received the salt substitute with 18% sodium chloride for 8 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patients were followed up weekly for the use of antihypertensive medications and measurements of blood pressure. We collected 24-h urine before and after the trial to measure sodium and potassium intake. RESULTS: Among 39 patients who completed the 8 weeks' intervention, 30.8% patients stopped or reduced anti-hypertensive medications during the trial. For patients that stopped or reduced medication, the mean SBP and DBP before intervention were 122.1 ±â€Š9.6 and 68.9 ±â€Š9.4 mm Hg and both did not increase after intervention (SBP change: 2.8 mm Hg (-5.1, 10.8), P = .48; DBP change: 1.8 mm Hg (-2.2, 5.7), P = .38). For the rest patients, the mean SBP and DBP before intervention were 141.6 ±â€Š16.9 and 74.6 ±â€Š6.6 mm Hg but reduced significantly after the intervention (SBP change: -16.0 mm Hg (-21.3, -10.6), P < .001; DBP change: -5.5 mm Hg (-8.1, -2.9), P < .001). The 24-h urine sodium decreased (P < .001) and potassium increased (P < .001) among all patients. No severe adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The novel salt substitute showed potential in reducing blood pressure and use of antihypertensive medications. Further randomized double-blind controlled trial is warranted to validate these findings.Clinical Trial Registration-URL:http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03226327.


Assuntos
Dieta Hipossódica , Hipertensão/terapia , Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Potássio/urina , Sódio/urina , Cloreto de Sódio/administração & dosagem
8.
Nat Neurosci ; 23(3): 423-432, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959933

RESUMO

Sodium appetite is a powerful form of motivation that can drive ingestion of high, yet aversive concentrations of sodium in animals that are depleted of sodium. However, in normal conditions, sodium appetite is suppressed to prevent homeostatic deviations. Although molecular and neural mechanisms underlying the stimulation of sodium appetite have received much attention recently, mechanisms that inhibit sodium appetite remain largely obscure. Here we report that serotonin 2c receptor (Htr2c)-expressing neurons in the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBNHtr2c neurons) inhibit sodium appetite. Activity of these neurons is regulated by bodily sodium content, and their activation can rapidly suppress sodium intake. Conversely, inhibition of these neurons specifically drives sodium appetite, even during euvolemic conditions. Notably, the physiological role of Htr2c expressed by LPBN neurons is to disinhibit sodium appetite. Our results suggest that LPBNHtr2c neurons act as a brake against sodium appetite and that their alleviation is required for the full manifestation of sodium appetite.


Assuntos
Apetite/fisiologia , Receptor 5-HT2C de Serotonina/fisiologia , Sódio na Dieta , Tonsila do Cerebelo/citologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Animais , Plexo Braquial/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Glutamatos/fisiologia , Homeostase , Hipovolemia/psicologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Receptor 5-HT2C de Serotonina/genética , Neurônios Serotoninérgicos/fisiologia , Sódio/metabolismo
9.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(1): 189-205, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Aortic dissection (AD) is a fatal disease that occurs suddenly without preceding clinical signs or symptoms. Although high salt intake is a proposed risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, the relationship between AD and high salt intake has not been clarified. We examined the effect of high-salt challenge on a mouse AD model. Approach and Results: AD was induced in male mice by continuous infusion of ß-aminopropionitrile and Ang II (angiotensin II). High-salt challenge exacerbated aortic wall destruction in AD. Deletion of Il17a (IL-17KO [IL (interleukin)-17A knockout]) did not affect the AD phenotype at baseline, but it abolished the high salt-induced worsening of the aortic destruction. Unexpectedly, aortas of IL-17KO mice exhibited global changes in ECM (extracellular matrix)-related genes without alteration of proinflammatory genes, altered architecture of collagen fibers, and reduced stiffness before AD induction. The aortas of IL-17KO mice were less sensitive to AD-inducing stimuli, as shown by the induction of phenotypic modulation markers SMemb and vimentin, suggesting a reduced stress response. The aortas of IL-17KO mice had a higher population of smooth muscle cells with nuclear-localized phosphorylated Smad2, indicative of TGFß (transforming growth factor-beta) signal activation. Consistently, pretreatment of smooth muscle cells in culture with IL-17A blunted the activation of Smad2 by TGFß1. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that high salt intake has a worsening effect on AD in the context of high aortic wall stiffness, which is under the control of IL-17A through ECM metabolism. Therefore, salt restriction may represent a low-cost and practical way to reduce AD risk.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante/genética , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/genética , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interleucina-17/genética , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Aneurisma Dissecante/metabolismo , Aneurisma Dissecante/patologia , Animais , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/metabolismo , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Interleucina-17/biossíntese , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , RNA/genética , Transdução de Sinais
10.
Magn Reson Chem ; 58(2): 186-190, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663181

RESUMO

High sodium dietary intake has a positive association with an increase in blood pressure and can be correlated with risk factors of disease. Considering that the World Health Organization recommends a sodium intake lower than 2 g day-1 for adults, the hidden sodium content in processed foods is an important factor that compromises the assessment of a healthy diet. Accordingly, the present paper aimed to quantitate the sodium content of conventional soft drinks and their diet versions using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a quantitative analytical technique (23 Na qNMR). The results show one free sodium signal (Na+ ) displayed as a singlet at 0 ppm in the 23 Na NMR spectrum, making its quantitation highly specific. This signal alone was used to directly determine the concentration of sodium in soft drinks. Flame photometry analysis was used to validate the method, and an excellent linearity was found in qNMR analysis (r = 0.9994) in comparison with flame photometry (r = 0.9958). In addition, a good correlation was found between sodium concentrations obtained by 23 Na NMR and flame photometry in the evaluated commercial soft drinks. Since the intensity of the resonance line is directly proportional to the number of nuclei (spins), the concentration of sodium in soft drinks can be determined via this straightforward method without the need for external calibration. The experimental acquisitions are fast (approximately 15 min), allowing the analysis of several samples in a short period of time. This is a novel alternative for sodium quantitation using an efficient NMR methodology.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas/análise , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Sódio na Dieta/análise , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(4): 1136-1146, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820954

RESUMO

This work investigated the influence of enzymatic tenderization on digestibility changes of beef semimembranosus proteins using peptidomics methods. Hydrolysis by proteinase K and bromelain elevated the average bitterness index of identified peptides by generating high-Q values peptides (1714-1790 Cal/mol), including KDLFDPIIQ, LIDDHFLFDKPVSPL, and QLIDDHFLFDKPVSPLLL. Proteolysis during enzymatic tenderization acted as a "pre-digestion" step and significantly elevated the degree of hydrolysis of beef protein (by 4.5-17.3%) in subsequent simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Peptidomics analysis of digests revealed large variations in the peptide composition, which was positively correlated with the degree of proteolysis during enzymatic tenderization. Enzymatic tenderization with proteinase K- (for 0.5 h) or bromelain-treated samples largely increased the survival rate (by 65.5 or 82.8%) of peptides during simulated digestion, possibly because of the "secondary enzyme-substrate interaction" effect. This work could provide a new sight into the possible influence of enzymatic tenderization on meat nutrition.


Assuntos
Bromelaínas/química , Endopeptidase K/química , Papaína/química , Peptídeos/química , Proteínas/química , Carne Vermelha/análise , Animais , Biocatálise , Bovinos , Digestão , Combinação de Medicamentos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Músculos/química , Músculos/metabolismo , Sódio na Dieta
12.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 28(4): 845-856, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Excessive salt intake is a major public health problem in several countries, especially in China. However, few people are aware of their salt intake. The purpose of this study is to carry out salt intake test in routine physical examination, and to explore the salt intake of different populations and their correlation with diet. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Spot urine sample was collected to test urinary sodium and creatinine excretions for each participant recruited from physical examinations at the Third Xiangya Hospital. The Tanaka formula was used to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion, which reflects salt intake. In addition to physical and laboratory examination, information including personal details, health-related habits, and selfreported disease histories was obtained from the National Physical Examination Questionnaire. RESULTS: In total, 26,406 people completed the salt intake evaluation. After data cleansing, the average salt intake was 8.39±1.80 g/d. Male, middle-aged, overweight and obese, hypertensive, and dyslipidaemic populations, as well as those with non-cardiovascular diseases were more likely to have excessive salt intake. Dietary sources had an effect on salt intake. Salt intake was lower in those who consumed more milk and fruit (both p and p trend<0.01) but was higher in those who consumed more lean meat (both p and p trend<0.05), fatty meat (both p and p trend<0.01) and animal organs (both p and p trend<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The salt intake in this population far surpasses the recommended amount. We strongly recommend salt intake assessment as routine test into physical examination center.


Assuntos
Exame Físico , Sódio/urina , Adulto , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sódio na Dieta
13.
Aten. prim. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 51(10): 645-653, dic. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185947

RESUMO

La hipertensión arterial (HTA) es el principal factor de riesgo cardiovascular modificable. La HTA se puede relacionar con el consumo elevado de sal. Para medir la ingesta no todas las encuestas de alimentación son comparables y válidas. El procedimiento de referencia para valorar la ingesta de sal consiste en medir la excreción urinaria de sodio en orina recolectada durante 24 h, aunque se han propuesto métodos alternativos, como las recolecciones de muestras de orina puntuales y cronometradas. En esta revisión analizamos qué instrumentos permiten valorar la ingesta de sal y cuáles de ellos han aportado una mayor validez y fiabilidad a través de los estudios de concordancia con la eliminación de sodio en orina. Las encuestas actuales de consumo de alimentos son inadecuados debido a su amplia variabilidad y relativamente baja correlación con la eliminación de sodio en orina de 24 h. Su principal limitación es la necesidad de validación en diferentes grupos poblacionales. En Atención Primaria se debería valorar la ingesta de sal mediante la utilización de cuestionarios de frecuencia de consumo que recojan alimentos con elevado contenido en sal, el consumo de platos preelaborados y preguntas que cuantifiquen la adición de sal en la preparación de alimentos o en la mesa. Para la validación de estos cuestionarios debe emplearse como gold standard la eliminación de sodio en orina de 24 h ajustada según el aclaramiento de creatinina


High blood pressure (HBP) is the main modifiable cardiovascular risk factor. HBP can be related to high salt intake. To measure intake, not all feeding surveys are comparable and valid. The reference procedure for assessing salt intake consists of measuring the urinary excretion of sodium in urine collected during 24 hours, although alternative methods have been proposed, such as the collection of punctual and timed urine samples. In this review, we analyze which instruments allow the assessment of salt intake and which of them have provided greater validity and reliability through studies of concordance with the elimination of sodium in urine. Current food consumption surveys are inadequate because of their wide variability and relatively low correlation with the elimination of sodium in 24-hour urine. Its main limitation is the need for validation in different population groups. In primary care, salt intake should be assessed by using frequency-of-consumption questionnaires that collect foods with a high salt content, the consumption of preprepared dishes and questions that quantify the addition of salt in the preparation of food or at the table. For the validation of these questionnaires, the standard gold elimination of 24-hour urine sodium adjusted according to creatinine clearance should be used


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Hipertensão , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Sódio/administração & dosagem , Sódio na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Natriurese , Doenças Cardiovasculares/dietoterapia , Sódio/urina , Promoção da Saúde
14.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(4): 427-432, Out.-Dez. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1024399

RESUMO

Introduction: The bone-implant interface has been studied extensively, but only few papers focused on the nutritional aspects that may affect bone quality, especially salt intake. Objective: To study the osseointegration of implants in salt-loaded rats with low mineral bone content. Methods: A total of 60 4-month-old male rats were divided in 2 groups ( n = 30), being these groups divided in 2 periods, (2 and 4 months). The control group received a normal diet, while the test group received a diet supplemented with 1% sodium chloride (NaCl). Implants were placed in the tibia of both groups. A total of 15 animals of each group were sacrificed at the 2 nd month of the experiment, while the remaining animals were sacrificed at the 4 th month. Results: No statistically significant difference was found in food intake between the groups on any experimental period, but a statistically significant difference was found in the liquid intake in the saline group in both periods. For all groups, osseointegration was observed in both groups. The mean percentage of osseointegration in the cortical bone, in the trabecular bone, and in the total osseointegrated surface between the control (46.38 ± 16.17%) and saline (49.13 ± 11.52%) groups at 2 months was not statistically different ( p = 0.61). The total osseointegration areas of the control (53.98 ± 12.06%) and saline (51.40 ± 13.01%) groups at the 4 th month of the study were not statistically ( p = 0.61). Conclusion: Ingestion of salt did not affect directly the osseointegration process during the period of the experiment. The results suggest that mineral losses may not affect the achievement of good osseointegration in aging rats. (AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Osseointegração/fisiologia , Envelhecimento , Densidade Óssea , Ratos Wistar
15.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 43, December 2019
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51723

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Excess sodium intake is associated with adverse health effects, and reducing its intake is a strategy that improves population health. However, estimating sodium intake is challenging and new options for assessment are needed. This review describes the design and development of a web-based, publicly-accessible, dietary sodium intake screening tool (Calculadora de Sodio) for individuals in Mexico. Sodium data from 2017 – 2018 for 3 429 packaged foods, 655 restaurant and cafeteria foods, and 320 home-style meals and street foods (determined by chemical analysis) comprised the 71-question tool. It was piloted with 10 nutrition experts for feedback on content and face validity; and with 30 potential users to test its usability and interface. Improvements were made to content, language, and formatting following the pilot. Its predictive validity will be established in the future. The Calculadora de Sodio provides instant feedback on an individual’s average daily sodium intake, computed by frequency of intake, average number of servings, and sodium content per serving of each sodium-focused food category. This is the first web-based dietary sodium screening tool developed for the general population of Mexico. It is an efficient and practical way to assess sodium intake and can serve as a model for similar tools for other countries and regions.


[RESUMEN]. La ingesta excesiva de sodio se asocia a efectos nocivos para la salud y su reducción constituye una estrategia para mejorar la salud de la población. Sin embargo, es complicado estimar la ingesta de sodio y se necesitan nuevas alternativas para evaluarla. En este examen se describe el diseño y la creación de una herramienta en línea y de acceso público con el fin de establecer la ingesta de sodio en la alimentación (denominada la “calculadora de sodio”) para la población de México. La herramienta, consistente en 71 preguntas, incluye los datos de sodio correspondientes al 2017-2018 de 3 429 alimentos envasados, 655 alimentos de restaurantes y cafeterías y 320 comidas caseras y alimentos de puestos de venta de la calle (determinados mediante análisis químicos). Se hizo una prueba piloto con diez nutricionistas que aportaron su opinión experta en materia de validez del contenido y diseño, además de 30 usuarios potenciales que probaron la facilidad de uso y su interfaz. Tras la prueba piloto, se incluyeron mejoras de contenido, idioma y formato. En el futuro se podrá determinar su valor predictivo. La calculadora de sodio ofrece una evaluación instantánea sobre la ingesta de sodio promedio diaria de una persona, calculada según la frecuencia de la ingesta, la cantidad promedio de raciones y el contenido de sodio por ración de cada categoría de alimentos con sodio. Esta es la primera herramienta en línea de detección de sodio en los alimentos creada para la población general de México. Es una manera eficaz y práctica de evaluar la ingesta de sodio, y puede servir de modelo para herramientas similares en otros países y regiones.


[RESUMO]. A ingestão de sódio em excesso está associada a efeitos adversos à saúde, e a redução do consumo alimentar de sódio é uma estratégia que contribui para a melhoria da saúde das pessoas. Porém, como é difícil estimar a ingestão de sódio, são necessários novos métodos de avaliação. Neste estudo são apresentados o projeto e o desenvolvimento de um instrumento on-line e aberto ao público (denominado ‘’calculadora de sódio’’) para a triagem da ingestão alimentar de sódio por indivíduos no México. O instrumento contém 71 perguntas preparadas com base em dados do teor de sódio, coletados no período de 2017 a 2018, de 3.429 alimentos embalados, 655 alimentos comercializados em restaurantes e lanchonetes e 320 refeições do tipo caseiro e comidas de rua (medidos com análises químicas). Um testepiloto foi realizado com 10 especialistas em nutrição, que fizeram observações sobre a validade de conteúdo e a validade aparente do instrumento, e 30 possíveis usuários que avaliaram sua usabilidade e interface. O conteúdo, os enunciados e o formato foram aperfeiçoados após o teste-piloto. A validade preditiva do instrumento será determinada futuramente. A ‘’calculadora de sódio’’ proporciona uma avaliação imediata da ingestão alimentar média de sódio de uma pessoa, calculada pela frequência de consumo, número médio de porções e teor de sódio por porção de cada categoria de alimento que contém sódio. Este é o primeiro instrumento on-line para a triagem de sódio alimentar desenvolvido para a população do México. É um recurso eficiente e prático para avaliar a ingestão de sódio e pode servir de modelo para o desenvolvimento de instrumentos semelhantes em outros países e regiões.


Assuntos
Sódio na Dieta , Dieta , Cloreto de Sódio , Tecnologia Biomédica , México , Sódio na Dieta , Cloreto de Sódio , Tecnologia Biomédica , México , Sódio na Dieta , Cloreto de Sódio , Tecnologia Biomédica
16.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 29(12): 1323-1329, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Few population-based studies conducted in the Eastern Mediterranean region assessed salt intake by the measurement of 24-h sodium urine excretion (24-hUNa). The current study aimed to assess the trend of mean salt intake in Iranian adults between 1998 and 2013. METHODS AND RESULTS: These cross-sectional studies were performed on 564, 157, 509 and 837 randomly selected healthy adults aged >18 years from Isfahan city, Iran, in 1998, 2001, 2007 and 2013, respectively. BP was measured using a mercury sphygmomanometer according to a standard protocol. Single 24-h urine was collected to assess 24-hUNa as a surrogate of salt intake, and 24-h urinary K (24-hUK). The estimated trend of salt intake was 9.5, 9.7, 9.6 and 10.2 g/day in total population (P < 0.001). The increase in salt intake between 1998 and 2013 was significant only in men, (P < 0.001). The risk of pre-hypertension was 21% and 18% significantly greater in the highest quartiles of UNa/UK after adjustment for potential confounders in 2001 and 2013, respectively, [OR (95% CI): 1.21 (1.03-1.64) and 1.18 (1.02-1.38), respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: This population-based study indicated that mean salt intake was about two times of recommendation in Isfahan city, Iran, and suggest that it would be essential to implement a salt reduction strategy program in Iranian population. Longitudinal national studies with larger samples examining the trend of salt intake are warranted.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Recomendações Nutricionais , Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sódio na Dieta/urina , Adulto , Biomarcadores/urina , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Potássio/urina , Pré-Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Pré-Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Pré-Hipertensão/urina , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Urinálise , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684148

RESUMO

Diets rich in (poly)phenols are associated with a reduced reduction in the incidence of cardiovascular disorders. While the absorption and metabolism of (poly)phenols has been described, it is not clear how their metabolic fate is affected under pathological conditions. This study evaluated the metabolic fate of berry (poly)phenols in an in vivo model of hypertension as well as the associated microbiota response. Dahl salt-sensitive rats were fed either a low-salt diet (0.26% NaCl) or a high-salt diet (8% NaCl), with or without a berry mixture (blueberries, blackberries, raspberries, Portuguese crowberry and strawberry tree fruit) for 9 weeks. The salt-enriched diet promoted an increase in the urinary excretion of berry (poly)phenol metabolites, while the abundance of these metabolites decreased in faeces, as revealed by UPLC-MS/MS. Moreover, salt and berries modulated gut microbiota composition as demonstrated by 16S rRNA analysis. Some changes in the microbiota composition were associated with the high-salt diet and revealed an expansion of the families Proteobacteria and Erysipelotrichaceae. However, this effect was mitigated by the dietary supplementation with berries. Alterations in the metabolic fate of (poly)phenols occur in parallel with the modulation of gut microbiota in hypertensive rats. Thus, beneficial effects of (poly)phenols could be related with these interlinked modifications, between metabolites and microbiota environments.


Assuntos
Frutas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Fenóis/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta , Disbiose/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Glicosídeos/metabolismo , Masculino , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos Dahl , Sódio na Dieta
18.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(11): 1141-1146, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683402

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the status and food sources of daily dietary intake of sodium and potassium among adult inhabitants in Tianjin city, and to compare the consistence of sodium and potassium intake determined by combination of 3 consecutive 24-hour recalls and weighing family condiments (3 d dietary survey method) with 24 h urine sodium and potassium determination. Methods: Multistage cluster sampling method was applied to select 1 955 adult inhabitants from 840 households of 7 districts in Tianjin in 2015. Questionnaire survey was used to obtain basic information, 3 d dietary method was used to obtain dietary information, and 450 subjects was selected by systematic random sampling method for 24 h urine collection and determination of sodium and potassium, and 153 complete 24 h urine samples were selected by the coefficient of urinary creatinine excretion, then the consistence of the determination was compared with 3 d dietary survey method. Results: 1 828 subjects were enrolled in this study with age of (54.6±14.7) years, among which 858 were male (46.9%). The average standard intake of sodium and potassium per people per day were (5 631.2±3 372.1) mg and (1 662.1±750.5) mg, while the average actual daily intake were (5 315.8±3 196.5) mg and (1 560.7±696.8) mg. 98.7% (1 804/1 828) of the subjects had dietary sodium intake exceeding the recommended adequate intake of China residents(1 300-1 500 mg/d), while 78.5% (1 435/1 828) consumed dietary potassium below the recommended adequate intake(2 000 mg/d). The main resource of sodium was condiments, among which cooking salt accounted for 61.5%, soy sauce accounted for 11.2%. Potassium mainly came from cereals (32.4%) and vegetables (18.1%). Compared with the 24 h urine sodium method, 3 d dietary method overestimated the sodium intake with a gap [median (P(25), P(75))] as 401.7 (-1 130.6, 1 939.5) mg/d with statistical difference (P<0.05). The gap [median (P(25)-P(75))] for potassium between the two methods was 79.1 (-577.5, 565.2) mg/d, without statistical difference (P>0.05). Conclusion: The dietary intake of sodium is high while potassium is low among adults inhabitants in Tianjin city. Compared with the 24 h urine sodium and potassium determination, the 3 d dietary method has a good consistency in evaluating the dietary potassium intake level of the population, but overestimates the dietary sodium intake.


Assuntos
Potássio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Potássio/urina , Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sódio/urina , Adulto , Idoso , China , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703311

RESUMO

Most Americans have dietary sodium intakes that far exceed recommendations. Given the association of high sodium with hypertension, strategies to reduce sodium intakes are an important public health target. Glutamates, such as monosodium glutamate, represent a potential strategy to reduce overall intakes while preserving product palatability; therefore, this project aimed to model sodium replacement with glutamates. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate current sodium intakes, and intakes resulting from glutamate substitution (25%-45%) in a limited set of food groups for which substitution is possible. Data sets for individuals aged ≥1 year enrolled in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013-2016 (n = 16,183) were used in the analyses. Glutamate substitution in accordance with the U.S. Department of Agriculture's food codes was modeled by conservatively altering estimates of sodium intake reductions derived from the published, peer-reviewed literature. The addition of glutamates to certain food categories has the potential to reduce the population's sodium intake by approximately 3% overall and by 7%-8% among consumers of ≥1 product category in which glutamates were substituted for sodium chloride. Although using glutamates to substitute the amount of sodium among certain food groups may show modest effects on intakes across the population, it is likely to have a more substantial effect on individuals who consume specific products.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Glutamato de Sódio/análise , Sódio na Dieta/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Queijo/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Produtos da Carne/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Estados Unidos , Verduras , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766133

RESUMO

Bone is a major storage site as well as an endogenous source of lead in the human body. Dietary sodium and potassium intake may play a role in the mobilization of lead from bone to the circulation. We examined whether association between bone lead and urinary lead, a marker of mobilized lead in plasma, was modified by dietary intake of sodium and potassium among 318 men, aged 48-93 years, in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Normative Aging Study. Dietary sodium and potassium were assessed by flame photometry using 24-h urine samples, and a sodium-to-potassium ratio was calculated from the resulting measures. Patella and tibia bone lead concentrations were measured by K-shell-x-ray fluorescence. Urinary lead was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy in 24-h urine samples. Linear regression models were used to regress creatinine clearance-corrected urinary lead on bone lead, testing multiplicative interactions with tertiles of sodium, potassium, and sodium-to-potassium ratio, separately. After adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, vitamin C intake, calcium, and total energy intake, participants in the highest tertile of sodium-to-potassium ratio showed 28.1% (95% CI: 12.5%, 45.9%) greater urinary lead per doubling increase in patella lead, whereas those in the second and lowest tertiles had 13.8% (95% CI: -1.7%, 31.7%) and 5.5% (95% CI: -8.0%, 21.0%) greater urinary lead, respectively (p-for-interaction = 0.04). No statistically significant effect modification by either sodium or potassium intake alone was observed. These findings suggest that relatively high intake of sodium relative to potassium may play an important role in the mobilization of lead from bone into the circulation.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Potássio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Osso e Ossos/química , Humanos , Chumbo/química , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Potássio/administração & dosagem , Potássio/metabolismo , Potássio/urina , Potássio na Dieta/urina , Sódio/administração & dosagem , Sódio/metabolismo , Sódio/urina , Sódio na Dieta/urina , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs
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