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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(9): 575, 2020 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772253

RESUMO

The control of surface water quality plays an important role in the management of water resources. In this context, the estimation and assessment of sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) are required which is one of the significant water quality parameters in the agricultural production sector. Chemical analysis might not, however, be feasible for a longer period of time in all the country-scale rivers. Therefore in this study, a support vector regression (SVR) model with different kernel functions; K nearest neighbour algorithm; and four decision-tree models, namely, Hoeffding tree, random forest, random tree, and REPTree, were used to estimate the SAR value with minimal parameters in the Aladag River in Turkey. In alternative scenarios, a correlation matrix and sensitivity analysis were used to ascertain the model inputs from among the 15 distinct parameters. All 15 parameters were utilized as model inputs in the first scenario, and only the sodium (Na) parameter was utilized as the model input in the final scenario. The accuracy of the aforesaid models was then assessed making use of correlation coefficient, Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient, root mean square error, mean absolute error, and Willmott index of agreement. The results indicate that the SVR model with the poly kernel function provides the best estimates of SAR among the considered models. According to the findings, there is no considerable difference between the results acquired in the first and last scenarios, and one can determine the SAR value while making use of machine learning approaches taking into account only Na parameter.


Assuntos
Rios , Sódio , Adsorção , Monitoramento Ambiental , Turquia
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4222, 2020 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839436

RESUMO

Our understanding of Na+ homeostasis has recently been reshaped by the notion of skin as a depot for Na+ accumulation in multiple cardiovascular diseases and risk factors. The proposed water-independent nature of tissue Na+ could induce local pathogenic changes, but lacks firm demonstration. Here, we show that tissue Na+ excess upon high Na+ intake is a systemic, rather than skin-specific, phenomenon reflecting architectural changes, i.e. a shift in the extracellular-to-intracellular compartments, due to a reduction of the intracellular or accumulation of water-paralleled Na+ in the extracellular space. We also demonstrate that this accumulation is unlikely to justify the observed development of experimental hypertension if it were water-independent. Finally, we show that this isotonic skin Na+ excess, reflecting subclinical oedema, occurs in hypertensive patients and in association with aging. The implications of our findings, questioning previous assumptions but also reinforcing the importance of tissue Na+ excess, are both mechanistic and clinical.


Assuntos
Edema/metabolismo , Homeostase/fisiologia , Sódio/metabolismo , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Edema/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Concentração Osmolar , Potássio/metabolismo , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY , Pele/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
3.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 21(8): 628-636, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, there are no drugs that have been proven to be effective against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Because of its broad antiviral activity, interferon (IFN) should be evaluated as a potential therapeutic agent for treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), especially while COVID-19-specific therapies are still under development. METHODS: Confirmed COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University in Hangzhou, China, from January 19 to February 19, 2020 were enrolled in a retrospective study. The patients were separated into an IFN group and a control group according to whether they received initial IFN-α2b inhalation treatment after admission. Propensity-score matching was used to balance the confounding factors. RESULTS: A total of 104 confirmed COVID-19 patients, 68 in the IFN group and 36 in the control group, were enrolled. Less hypertension (27.9% vs. 55.6%, P=0.006), dyspnea (8.8% vs. 25.0%, P=0.025), or diarrhea (4.4% vs. 19.4%, P=0.030) was observed in the IFN group. Lower levels of albumin and C-reactive protein and higher level of sodium were observed in the IFN group. Glucocorticoid dosage was lower in the IFN group (median, 40 vs. 80 mg/d, P=0.025). Compared to the control group, fewer patients in the IFN group were ventilated (13.2% vs. 33.3%, P=0.015) and admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) (16.2% vs. 44.4%, P=0.002). There were also fewer critical patients in the IFN group (7.4% vs. 25.0%, P=0.017) upon admission. Although complications during admission process were comparable between groups, the discharge rate (85.3% vs. 66.7%, P=0.027) was higher and the hospitalization time (16 vs. 21 d, P=0.015) was shorter in the IFN group. When other confounding factors were not considered, virus shedding time (10 vs. 13 d, P=0.014) was also shorter in the IFN group. However, when the influence of other factors was eliminated using propensity score matching, virus shedding time was not significantly shorter than that of the control group (12 vs. 15 d, P=0.206). CONCLUSIONS: IFN-α2b spray inhalation did not shorten virus shedding time of SARS-CoV-2 in hospitalized patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Interferon alfa-2/administração & dosagem , Sprays Nasais , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Eliminação de Partículas Virais/efeitos dos fármacos , Albuminas/análise , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pandemias , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sódio/sangue
4.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 169: 104639, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828363

RESUMO

Sodium pheophorbide a (SPA) is a new alternative fungicide with low toxicity and high efficiency, which has high fungicidal activity against Pestalotiopsis neglecta, a pathogen that causes black spot needle blight of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica. To utilize SPA for plant disease control, understanding its antifungal mechanism is essential. Six cDNA libraries were constructed from 3 d-old P. neglecta mycelia (three SPA-infected and three untreated groups) and 29,850 expressed genes were obtained by Illumina HiSeq4000 sequencing. Compared with controls, 3268 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in SPA-treated groups, including 1879 upregulated and 1389 downregulated genes. Most DEGs were involved in the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids, as well as cell structure and genetic information processing. These findings were further confirmed by decreased conductivity, RNA and protein content, and activities of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent malate dehydrogenase, citrate synthase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and succinate dehydrogenase. Moreover, qRT-PCR verified the reliability of the transcriptome results. After treatment with SPA at different concentrations for 60 min, the expressions of three cell wall degrading enzyme-related genes (PnEG, PnBG, and PnPG) were all suppressed. Overall, this study provided insights into the molecular mechanisms through which SPA inhibits P. neglecta, increasing the possibility of developing SPA into an effective fungicide in the future.


Assuntos
Sódio , Transcriptoma , Parede Celular , Clorofila/análogos & derivados , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
5.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(701): 1450-1455, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833367

RESUMO

The Covid 19 pandemic remains a serious public health problem until effective drugs and/or vaccines are available. Can we explain why so many people remain asymptomatic but nevertheless highly contagious explaining the speed with which the pandemic has spread around the world? Can we explain why the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) appears late but can so quickly have a fatal outcome? In the lung, mucociliary clearance (CMC) and alveolar clearance (CA) depend on the transport of sodium through the plasma membrane of epithelial cells. This transport is mediated by a highly selective sodium channel (Epithelial Sodium Channel = ENaC) which could be a key element in the pulmonary pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Transporte de Íons , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e20826, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702825

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The typical clinical presentations of patients with primary aldosteronism (PA) include generalized weakness, fatigue, high blood pressure, and potassium deficiency. However, normotensive PA is rare. Therefore, an atypical presentation of normal blood pressure is a challenge for the diagnosis and treatment of PA. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 43-year-old, thin, and tall woman (body mass index, 18.6 kg/m) with generalized weakness for 1 day presented to our emergency department, where hypokalemia was a significant finding. The initial diagnosis was anorexia nervosa with the evidence of renal potassium wasting with low urinary sodium and chloride levels, metabolic alkalosis, normal blood pressure, and low body mass index. However, neither vomiting features nor other specific induced vomiting features were noted. DIAGNOSES: The laboratory examination revealed high plasma aldosterone level, low plasma renin activity, and extremely high aldosterone-to-renin ratio indicating the diagnosis of PA, confirmed via adrenal computed tomography. INTERVENTIONS: Surgical adrenalectomy was performed. Pathological diagnosis was a benign cortical adenoma. OUTCOMES: Patient's serum potassium level and hormonal status became normalized after surgical removal of adrenal adenoma. She fully recovered without any further sequelae. LESSONS: It is too early to rule out PA based on the presence of normal blood pressure in a patient with metabolic alkalosis and renal wasting hypokalemia. Moreover, PA should be considered in a normotensive patient with an unknown hypokalemic etiology to avoid delayed diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/diagnóstico , Hiperaldosteronismo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipopotassemia/diagnóstico , Adenoma/cirurgia , Adrenalectomia/métodos , Adulto , Aldosterona/sangue , Alcalose/etiologia , Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperaldosteronismo/sangue , Hiperaldosteronismo/patologia , Hiperaldosteronismo/cirurgia , Hipopotassemia/etiologia , Debilidade Muscular/etiologia , Renina/sangue , Sódio/urina , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Nature ; 583(7816): 421-424, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641825

RESUMO

The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) serves as the body's master circadian clock that adaptively coordinates changes in physiology and behaviour in anticipation of changing requirements throughout the 24-h day-night cycle1-4. For example, the SCN opposes overnight adipsia by driving water intake before sleep5,6, and by driving the secretion of anti-diuretic hormone7,8 and lowering body temperature9,10 to reduce water loss during sleep11. These responses can also be driven by central osmo-sodium sensors to oppose an unscheduled rise in osmolality during the active phase12-16. However, it is unknown whether osmo-sodium sensors require clock-output networks to drive homeostatic responses. Here we show that a systemic salt injection (hypertonic saline) given at Zeitgeber time 19-a time at which SCNVP (vasopressin) neurons are inactive-excited SCNVP neurons and decreased non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) and body temperature. The effects of hypertonic saline on NST and body temperature were prevented by chemogenetic inhibition of SCNVP neurons and mimicked by optogenetic stimulation of SCNVP neurons in vivo. Combined anatomical and electrophysiological experiments revealed that osmo-sodium-sensing organum vasculosum lamina terminalis (OVLT) neurons expressing glutamic acid decarboxylase (OVLTGAD) relay this information to SCNVP neurons via an excitatory effect of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Optogenetic activation of OVLTGAD neuron axon terminals excited SCNVP neurons in vitro and mimicked the effects of hypertonic saline on NST and body temperature in vivo. Furthermore, chemogenetic inhibition of OVLTGAD neurons blunted the effects of systemic hypertonic saline on NST and body temperature. Finally, we show that hypertonic saline significantly phase-advanced the circadian locomotor activity onset of mice. This effect was mimicked by optogenetic activation of the OVLTGAD→ SCNVP pathway and was prevented by chemogenetic inhibition of OVLTGAD neurons. Collectively, our findings provide demonstration that clock time can be regulated by non-photic physiologically relevant cues, and that such cues can drive unscheduled homeostatic responses via clock-output networks.


Assuntos
Relógios Circadianos/fisiologia , Vias Neurais , Neurônios/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Núcleo Supraquiasmático/fisiologia , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo , Animais , Temperatura Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Relógios Circadianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ritmo Circadiano/efeitos dos fármacos , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Ingestão de Líquidos/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutamato Descarboxilase/metabolismo , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Locomoção/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Vias Neurais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Optogenética , Organum Vasculosum/citologia , Organum Vasculosum/efeitos dos fármacos , Organum Vasculosum/enzimologia , Organum Vasculosum/fisiologia , Concentração Osmolar , Solução Salina Hipertônica/administração & dosagem , Solução Salina Hipertônica/metabolismo , Solução Salina Hipertônica/farmacologia , Sódio/administração & dosagem , Sódio/farmacologia , Núcleo Supraquiasmático/citologia , Núcleo Supraquiasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasopressinas/metabolismo
8.
Nature ; 583(7814): 66-71, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612224

RESUMO

Dental enamel is a principal component of teeth1, and has evolved to bear large chewing forces, resist mechanical fatigue and withstand wear over decades2. Functional impairment and loss of dental enamel, caused by developmental defects or tooth decay (caries), affect health and quality of life, with associated costs to society3. Although the past decade has seen progress in our understanding of enamel formation (amelogenesis) and the functional properties of mature enamel, attempts to repair lesions in this material or to synthesize it in vitro have had limited success4-6. This is partly due to the highly hierarchical structure of enamel and additional complexities arising from chemical gradients7-9. Here we show, using atomic-scale quantitative imaging and correlative spectroscopies, that the nanoscale crystallites of hydroxylapatite (Ca5(PO4)3(OH)), which are the fundamental building blocks of enamel, comprise two nanometric layers enriched in magnesium flanking a core rich in sodium, fluoride and carbonate ions; this sandwich core is surrounded by a shell with lower concentration of substitutional defects. A mechanical model based on density functional theory calculations and X-ray diffraction data predicts that residual stresses arise because of the chemical gradients, in agreement with preferential dissolution of the crystallite core in acidic media. Furthermore, stresses may affect the mechanical resilience of enamel. The two additional layers of hierarchy suggest a possible new model for biological control over crystal growth during amelogenesis, and hint at implications for the preservation of biomarkers during tooth development.


Assuntos
Amelogênese , Esmalte Dentário/química , Ácidos/química , Cálcio/química , Carbonatos/química , Cristalização , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Esmalte Dentário/ultraestrutura , Durapatita/química , Fluoretos/química , Humanos , Magnésio/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão e Varredura , Sódio/química , Tomografia , Difração de Raios X
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 313: 123783, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653246

RESUMO

The remarkable buffer capacity of buffer solution can significantly improve the biohydrogen production yield and energy conversion efficiency. In the present study, the effect of buffer solution Na2HPO4/NaH2PO4 on buffer capacity of fermentation broth and photo-fermentation biohydrogen production (PFHP) was studied. Gas characteristics, fermentation broth properties, and kinetic parameters in PFHP were investigated. With the increase in pH values (5-7) of buffer solution Na2HPO4/NaH2PO4, firstly hydrogen yield increased and then decreased. Maximum energy conversion efficiency 9.84%, hydrogen yield 132.69 mL/g corn stalk, and hydrogen content 53.88% were achieved at pH value of 6. The results of one-way ANOVA showed that pH values of fermentation broth and cumulative hydrogen production were strongly affected by pH values of buffer solution. Buffer solution Na2HPO4/NaH2PO4 retarded the decrease of pH value of photo-fermentation broth, and significantly improved the PFHP.


Assuntos
Hidrogênio , Zea mays , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Sódio
10.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 95: 65-72, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653194

RESUMO

Mineral dust, soil, and sea salt aerosols are among the most abundant primary inorganic aerosols in the atmosphere, and their hygroscopicity affects the hydrological cycle and global climate. We investigated the hygroscopic behaviors of six Na- and K-containing salts commonly found in those primary organic aerosols. Their hygroscopic growths as a function of relative humidity (RH) agree well with thermodynamic model prediction. Temperature dependence of deliquescence RH (DRH) values for five of those salts was also investigated, which are comparable to those in literature within 1%-2% RH, most showing negative dependence on temperature. Hygroscopic growth curves of real-world soil and sea salt samples were also measured. The hygroscopic growths of two more-hydroscopic saline soil samples and of sea salt can be predicted by the thermodynamic model based on the measured water-soluble ionic composition. The substantial amounts of water-soluble ions, including Na+ and K+, in saline soil samples imply that even nascent saline soil samples are quite hygroscopic at high-RH (>80%) conditions. For three less-hygroscopic dust samples, however, measurements showed higher water uptake ability than that predicted by the thermodynamic model. The small amount of water taken up by less-hygroscopic dust samples suggests that dust particles might contain thin layers of water even to very low RH. The results of this study provide a comprehensive characterization of the hygroscopicity of Na- and K-containing salts as related to their roles in the hygroscopic behaviors of saline mineral dusts and sea salt aerosols.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poeira , Aerossóis/análise , Minerais , Potássio , Sais , Sódio , Molhabilidade
11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235360, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603346

RESUMO

The sodium (Na+)-chloride cotransporter (NCC) expressed in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) is a key molecule regulating urinary Na+ and potassium (K+) excretion. We previously reported that high-K+ load rapidly dephosphorylated NCC and promoted urinary K+ excretion in mouse kidneys. This effect was inhibited by calcineurin (CaN) and calmodulin inhibitors. However, the detailed mechanism through which high-K+ signal results in CaN activation remains unknown. We used Flp-In NCC HEK293 cells and mice to evaluate NCC phosphorylation. We analyzed intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]in) using live cell Ca2+ imaging in HEK293 cells. We confirmed that high-K+-induced NCC dephosphorylation was not observed without CaN using Flp-In NCC HEK29 cells. Extracellular Ca2+ reduction with a Ca2+ chelator inhibited high-K+-induced increase in [Ca2+]in and NCC dephosphorylation. We focused on Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) 1, a bidirectional regulator of cytosolic Ca2+ expressed in DCT. We identified that NCX1 suppression with a specific inhibitor (SEA0400) or siRNA knockdown inhibited K+-induced increase in [Ca2+]in and NCC dephosphorylation. In a mouse study, SEA0400 treatment inhibited K+-induced NCC dephosphorylation. SEA0400 reduced urinary K+ excretion and induced hyperkalemia. Here, we identified NCX1 as a key molecule in urinary K+ excretion promoted by CaN activation and NCC dephosphorylation in response to K+ load.


Assuntos
Hiperpotassemia/metabolismo , Potássio , Trocador de Sódio e Cálcio , Compostos de Anilina/farmacologia , Animais , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Túbulos Renais Distais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Éteres Fenílicos/farmacologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Potássio/metabolismo , Potássio/urina , Sódio/metabolismo , Trocador de Sódio e Cálcio/antagonistas & inibidores , Trocador de Sódio e Cálcio/metabolismo
12.
Aquat Toxicol ; 226: 105561, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688145

RESUMO

In the aquatic environment, metals are present as mixtures, therefore studies on mixture toxicity are crucial to thoroughly understand their toxic effects on aquatic organisms. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were used to assess the effects of short-term Cu(II) and Cd(II) mixtures, using a fixed concentration of one of the metals, representing 25 % of its individual 96h-LC50 (concentration lethal for 50 % of the population) combined with a variable concentration of the other metal corresponding to 10, 25 or 50 % of its 96h-LC50, and vice versa. Our results showed a fast Cu and Cd bioaccumulation, with the percentage of increase in the order gill > liver > carcass. An inhibitory effect of Cu on Cd uptake was observed; higher Cu concentrations at fixed Cd levels resulted in a decreased accumulation of Cd. The presence of the two metal ions resulted in losses of total Na, K and Ca. Fish tried to compensate for the Na loss through the induction of the genes coding for Na+/K+-ATPase and H+-ATPase. Additionally, a counterintuitive induction of the gene encoding the high affinity copper transporter (CTR1) occurred, while a downregulation was expected to prevent further metal ion uptake. An induction of defensive mechanisms, both metal ion binding protein and anti-oxidant defences, was observed. Despite the metal accumulation and electrolyte loss, the low mortality suggest that common carp is able to cope with these metal levels, at least during a one-week exposure.


Assuntos
Bioacumulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Carpas/metabolismo , Cobre/toxicidade , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Cádmio/metabolismo , Carpas/genética , Cobre/metabolismo , Transportador de Cobre 1/genética , Transportador de Cobre 1/metabolismo , Eletrólitos/metabolismo , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/metabolismo , Transporte de Íons , Dose Letal Mediana , Potássio/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718076

RESUMO

Hyponatremia is one of the most common water-electrolyte imbalances in the human organism. A serum sodium concentration threshold of less than 135 mmol/L is diagnostic for hyponatremia. The disorder is usually secondary to various diseases, including infections. Our review aims to summarize the diagnostic value and impact of hyponatremia on the prognosis, length of the hospitalization, and mortality among patients with active infection. The scientific literature regarding hyponatremia was reviewed using PubMed, ClinicalKey, and Web of Science databases. Studies published between 2011 and 2020 were screened and eligible studies were selected according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement and specific inclusion criteria. The most common infections that were associated with hyponatremia were viral and bacterial infections, including COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). The etiology varied according to the infection site, setting and patient cohort it concerned. In several studies, hyponatremia was associated with prolonged hospitalization, worse outcomes, and higher mortality rates. Hyponatremia can also play a diagnostic role in differentiating pathogens that cause a certain infection type, as it was observed in community-acquired pneumonia. Although many mechanisms leading to hyponatremia have already been described, it is impossible with any certainty to ascribe the etiology of hyponatremia to any of them.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Hiponatremia/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sódio/sangue
14.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 167: 104584, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527419

RESUMO

Recently, photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photoactivated pesticides have attracted considerable research attention. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the photodynamic activity of a chlorophyllous derivative, sodium pheophorbide a (SPA), and to evaluate its potential as a photoactivated fungicide. The singlet oxygen quantum yield, the photoreaction process, the anti-photobleaching ability in sterile water (H2O), the effect of light conditions on its antifungal activity, and its stability were all investigated. SPA showed significant fungicidal activity and photostability, during which Type I and Type II photodynamic reactions occurred simultaneously on Pestalotiopsis neglecta, and the influence of Type I was slightly larger than that of Type II. In addition, light promoted the antifungal activity of SPA. In particular, the antifungal activity was enhanced with increasing light intensity, and was strongest under 8000 lx conditions. Under monochromatic light sources, antifungal activity was strongest under green light s; however, the effect of monochromatic light was not as good as that of white light. From 0 to 24 h, the antifungal effect of the SPA solution was enhanced; however, the activity of the solution began to weaken after 24 h. Furthermore, our study confirmed that the antifungal activity of SPA was stable under different temperatures, pH values, and UV irradiation durations.


Assuntos
Fotoquimioterapia , Sódio , Antifúngicos , Clorofila/análogos & derivados , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234515, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525918

RESUMO

Environmentally available sodium tends to decrease with increasing elevation, and sodium resources in these sodium-poor environments are critical for the survival of herbivores. Eucalypt leaves in the subalpine Monaro region of NSW, Australia contain much less sodium than eucalypt leaves at lower elevations, and subalpine koalas obtain this much needed resource by eating the bark from some Eucalyptus mannifera trees. To better understand the availability of salty-barked trees, we searched for evidence of koala bark chewing at 100 randomly generated locations in the region. We found 318 E. mannifera trees with koala chew marks. We also analysed sodium concentrations in the bark of three unchewed E. mannifera trees from each site to determine whether there were trees with high bark sodium content that had not yet been utilized by koalas. Although 90% of unchewed trees had sodium concentrations less than 225.4 mg.kg-1 DM, some unchewed trees contained high sodium concentrations (up to 1213.1 mg.kg-1 DM). From the random survey, we can extrapolate that 11% of trees in this area have bark sodium above 300 mg.kg-1 DM, which is based on the concentration of bark sodium observed in at least moderately chewed trees. We would expect to find 0.24 of these trees per 200 m2, or 720,000 salty-barked trees in the 30 km by 20 km study area. Bark chewing by koalas is widespread in the area, and trees with salty bark are more common than initially thought. We discuss correlations with the occurrence of salty-barked trees and other landscape attributes; however, questions remain about why some E. mannifera trees have much more bark sodium than others. Studies such as this one should be expanded to identify sodium resources and their availability for other herbivorous species, since many are predicted to move to higher elevations in response to climate change.


Assuntos
Eucalyptus/química , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Micronutrientes/análise , Phascolarctidae/fisiologia , Sódio/análise , Altitude , Animais , Austrália , Mudança Climática , Casca de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Densidade Demográfica
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(26): e20663, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study will assess the efficacy and safety of Shenmai injection (SMI) for the treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF). METHODS: The following electronic bibliographic databases will be searched from inception to the March 25, 2020 without language and publication time limitations: MEDLINE, PUBMED, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus, WANGFANG, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. All randomized controlled trials related to the SMI for patients with CHF will be included. All study selection, data extraction, and study quality will be carried out by 2 reviewers. Any disagreements will be solved by a third reviewer through discussion. RevMan 5.3 software will be used for data synthesis and data analysis. RESULTS: This study will summarize the present evidence of SMI for the treatment of patients with CHF. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study will determine whether SMI is effective and safety for the treatment of CHF or not. STUDY REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202050029.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Crônica/mortalidade , Combinação de Medicamentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Injeções , Projetos de Pesquisa , Sódio/sangue , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Urina
17.
PLoS Biol ; 18(6): e3000722, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569301

RESUMO

Inflammation and infection can trigger local tissue Na+ accumulation. This Na+-rich environment boosts proinflammatory activation of monocyte/macrophage-like cells (MΦs) and their antimicrobial activity. Enhanced Na+-driven MΦ function requires the osmoprotective transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5), which augments nitric oxide (NO) production and contributes to increased autophagy. However, the mechanism of Na+ sensing in MΦs remained unclear. High extracellular Na+ levels (high salt [HS]) trigger a substantial Na+ influx and Ca2+ loss. Here, we show that the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger 1 (NCX1, also known as solute carrier family 8 member A1 [SLC8A1]) plays a critical role in HS-triggered Na+ influx, concomitant Ca2+ efflux, and subsequent augmented NFAT5 accumulation. Moreover, interfering with NCX1 activity impairs HS-boosted inflammatory signaling, infection-triggered autolysosome formation, and subsequent antibacterial activity. Taken together, this demonstrates that NCX1 is able to sense Na+ and is required for amplifying inflammatory and antimicrobial MΦ responses upon HS exposure. Manipulating NCX1 offers a new strategy to regulate MΦ function.


Assuntos
Macrófagos/metabolismo , Trocador de Sódio e Cálcio/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Espaço Extracelular/metabolismo , Inativação Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação do Canal Iônico/efeitos dos fármacos , Íons , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Células RAW 264.7 , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
18.
J Environ Manage ; 269: 110799, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561008

RESUMO

The high content of sodium in coal ash can induce severe ash deposit problems on heated surface. Vermiculite has been investigated to solve this problem in drop-tube furnace recently. In this work, the effects of vermiculite and perlite on appearances, inorganic mineral transformation, elemental composition change and Na capture efficiency of ash deposit were investigated. The results show that the molten deposit obtained by drop-tube furnace at 1373 K was transformed into weakly-condensed deposit and strongly-sticky deposit respectively when vermiculite and perlite were added separately. Vermiculite has a better effect on improving the ash deposition than perlite. The mechanism of alleviating the ash deposition by vermiculite and perlite is proposed as follows: (1) The interaction between ash particles is inhibited due to the combination reactions of thermal expansion additive particles with coal ash particles. (2) The coal ash particles attach to the surface and the gap of thermal expansion additive particles, forming a porous structure. (3) With vermiculite added, Mg2SiO4 (forsterite) increases the fusion point of ash deposit. NaCa2Mg4Al(Si6Al2)O22(OH)2 (pargasite) and Mg1.8Fe0.2SiO4 (forsterite ferroan) result in the weak viscosity of ash deposit. (4) With perlite added, silicate and sodium aluminosilicate in perlite react with coal ash to produce a large amount of amorphous substance, which can flow downwards to make the bottom deposit molten and lead to the strong viscosity of total deposit. (5) Vermiculite has a strong capacity for Na capture at 1023 K, and perlite has a strong capacity for Na capture at 1373 K.


Assuntos
Cinza de Carvão , Carvão Mineral , Sódio
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(22): e20274, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481394

RESUMO

Sepsis is a life-threatening disease in the intensive care unit (ICU). The current diagnostic criteria for sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores do not reflect the current understanding of sepsis. We developed a novel and convenient score to aid early prognosis.Retrospective multivariable regression analysis of 185 infected emergency ICU (EICU) patients was conducted to identify independent variables associated with death, to develop the new "STAPLAg" score; STAPLAg was then validated in an internal cohort (n = 106) and an external cohort (n = 78) and its predictive efficacy was compared with that of the initial SOFA score.Age, and initial serum albumin, sodium, PLR, troponin, and lactate tests in the emergency department were independent predictors of death in infected EICU patients, and were used to establish the STAPLAg score (area under the curve [AUC] 0.865). The initial SOFA score on admission was predictive of death (AUC 0.782). Applying the above categories to the derivation cohort yielded mortality risks of 7.7% for grade I, 56.3% for grade II, and 75.0% for grade III. Internal (AUC 0.884) and external (AUC 0.918) cohort validation indicated that the score had good predictive power.The STAPLAg score can be determined early in infected EICU patients, and exhibited better prognostic capacity than the initial SOFA score on admission in both internal and external cohorts. STAPLAg constitutes a new resource for use in the clinical diagnosis of sepsis and can also predict mortality in infected EICU patients. REGISTRATION NUMBER:: ChinCTR-PNC-16010288.


Assuntos
Escore de Alerta Precoce , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Sepse/diagnóstico , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contagem de Plaquetas , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/sangue , Sepse/mortalidade , Albumina Sérica/análise , Sódio/sangue , Troponina/sangue
20.
Plant Mol Biol ; 103(4-5): 545-560, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504260

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: OsGTγ-2, a trihelix transcription factor, is a positive regulator of rice responses to salt stress by regulating the expression of ion transporters. Salinity stress seriously restricts rice growth and yield. Trihelix transcription factors (GT factors) specifically bind to GT elements and play a diverse role in plant morphological development and responses to abiotic stresses. In our previous study, we found that the GT-1 element (GAAAAA) is a key element in the salinity-induced OsRAV2 promoter. Here, we identified a rice OsGTγ family member, OsGTγ-2, which directly interacted with the GT-1 element in the OsRAV2 promoter. OsGTγ-2 specifically targeted the nucleus, was mainly expressed in roots, sheathes, stems and seeds, and was induced by salinity, osmotic and oxidative stresses and abscisic acid (ABA). The seed germination rate, seedling growth and survival rate under salinity stress was improved in OsGTγ-2 overexpressing lines (PZmUbi::OsGTγ-2). In contrast, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated OsGTγ-2 knockout lines (osgtγ-2) showed salt-hypersensitive phenotypes. In response to salt stress, different Na+ and K+ acclamation patterns were observed in PZmUbi::OsGTγ-2 lines and osgtγ-2 plants were observed. The molecular mechanism of OsGTγ-2 in rice salt adaptation was also investigated. Several major genes responsible for ion transporting, such as the OsHKT2; 1, OsHKT1; 3 and OsNHX1 were transcriptionally regulated by OsGTγ-2. A subsequent yeast one-hybrid assay and EMSA indicated that OsGTγ-2 directly interacted with the promoters of OsHKT2; 1, OsNHX1 and OsHKT1; 3. Taken together, these results suggest that OsGTγ-2 is an important positive regulator involved in rice responses to salt stress and suggest a potential role for OsGTγ-2 in regulating salinity adaptation in rice.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Oryza/fisiologia , Estresse Salino/fisiologia , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Aclimatação/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Salinidade , Plântula/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Trocadores de Sódio-Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Simportadores/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
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