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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15864, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38982108

RESUMO

In 2019, the novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus emerged in China, causing the pneumonia named COVID-19. At the beginning, all research efforts were focused on the spike (S) glycoprotein. However, it became evident that the nucleocapsid (N) protein is pivotal in viral replication, genome packaging and evasion of the immune system, is highly immunogenic, which makes it another compelling target for antibody development alongside the spike protein. This study focused on the construction of single chain fragments variable (scFvs) libraries from SARS-CoV-2-infected patients to establish a valuable, immortalized and extensive antibodies source. We used the Intracellular Antibody Capture Technology to select a panel of scFvs against the SARS-CoV-2 N protein. The whole panel of scFv was expressed and characterized both as intrabodies and recombinant proteins. ScFvs were then divided into 2 subgroups: those that exhibited high binding activity to N protein when expressed in yeast or in mammalian cells as intrabodies, and those purified as recombinant proteins, displaying affinity for recombinant N protein in the nanomolar range. This panel of scFvs against the N protein represents a novel platform for research and potential diagnostic applications.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19 , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/imunologia , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/genética , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/imunologia , Fosfoproteínas/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Biblioteca de Peptídeos
2.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 304, 2024 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38982461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The primary objective of this cross-sectional study, conducted in Québec and Bristish Columbia (Canada) between February 2021 and January 2022, was to measure the prevalence of viral RNA in oronasal and rectal swabs and serum antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) amongst cats living in households with at least one confirmed human case. Secondary objectives included a description of potential risk factors for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and an estimation of the association between the presence of viral RNA in swabs as well as SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and clinical signs. Oronasal and rectal swabs and sera were collected from 55 cats from 40 households at most 15 days after a human case confirmation, and at up to two follow-up visits. A RT-qPCR assay and an ELISA were used to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA in swabs and serum SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies, respectively. Prevalence and 95% Bayesian credibility intervals (BCI) were calculated, and associations were evaluated using prevalence ratio and 95% BCI obtained from Bayesian mixed log-binomial models. RESULTS: Nine (0.16; 95% BCI = 0.08-0.28) and 38 (0.69; 95% BCI = 0.56-0.80) cats had at least one positive RT-qPCR and at least one positive serological test result, respectively. No risk factor was associated with the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 serum antibodies. The prevalence of clinical signs suggestive of COVID-19 in cats, mainly sneezing, was 2.12 (95% BCI = 1.03-3.98) times higher amongst cats with detectable viral RNA compared to those without. CONCLUSIONS: We showed that cats develop antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 when exposed to recent human cases, but detection of viral RNA on swabs is rare, even when sampling occurs soon after confirmation of a human case. Moreover, cats with detectable levels of virus showed clinical signs more often than cats without signs, which can be useful for the management of such cases.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19 , Doenças do Gato , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Gatos , Animais , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/veterinária , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Prevalência
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1367566, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38983114

RESUMO

Humanized mouse models are valuable tools for investigating the human immune system in response to infection and injury. We have previously described the human immune system (HIS)-DRAGA mice (HLA-A2.HLA-DR4.Rag1KO.IL-2RgKO.NOD) generated by infusion of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-matched, human hematopoietic stem cells from umbilical cord blood. By reconstituting human cells, the HIS-DRAGA mouse model has been utilized as a "surrogate in vivo human model" for infectious diseases such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Influenza, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), scrub typhus, and malaria. This humanized mouse model bypasses ethical concerns about the use of fetal tissues for the humanization of laboratory animals. Here in, we demonstrate the presence of human microglia and T cells in the brain of HIS-DRAGA mice. Microglia are brain-resident macrophages that play pivotal roles against pathogens and cerebral damage, whereas the brain-resident T cells provide surveillance and defense against infections. Our findings suggest that the HIS-DRAGA mouse model offers unique advantages for studying the functions of human microglia and T cells in the brain during infections, degenerative disorders, tumors, and trauma, as well as for testing therapeutics in these pathological conditions.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Microglia , Linfócitos T , Animais , Microglia/imunologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Encéfalo/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia
4.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1427100, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38983847

RESUMO

Introduction: Interleukin-18 (IL-18), a pro-inflammatory cytokine belonging to the IL-1 Family, is a key mediator ofautoinflammatory diseases associated with the development of macrophage activation syndrome (MAS).High levels of IL-18 correlate with MAS and COVID-19 severity and mortality, particularly in COVID-19patients with MAS. As an inflammation inducer, IL-18 binds its receptor IL-1 Receptor 5 (IL-1R5), leadingto the recruitment of the co-receptor, IL-1 Receptor 7 (IL-1R7). This heterotrimeric complex subsequentlyinitiates downstream signaling, resulting in local and systemic inflammation. Methods: We reported earlier the development of a novel humanized monoclonal anti-human IL-1R7 antibody whichspecifically blocks the activity of human IL-18 and its inflammatory signaling in human cell and wholeblood cultures. In the current study, we further explored the strategy of blocking IL-1R7 inhyperinflammation in vivo using animal models. Results: We first identified an anti-mouse IL-1R7 antibody that significantly suppressed mouse IL-18 andlipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IFNg production in mouse splenocyte and peritoneal cell cultures. Whenapplied in vivo, the antibody reduced Propionibacterium acnes and LPS-induced liver injury and protectedmice from tissue and systemic hyperinflammation. Importantly, anti-IL-1R7 significantly inhibited plasma,liver cell and spleen cell IFNg production. Also, anti-IL-1R7 downregulated plasma TNFa, IL-6, IL-1b,MIP-2 production and the production of the liver enzyme ALT. In parallel, anti-IL-1R7 suppressed LPSinducedinflammatory cell infiltration in lungs and inhibited the subsequent IFNg production andinflammation in mice when assessed using an acute lung injury model. Discussion: Altogether, our data suggest that blocking IL-1R7 represents a potential therapeutic strategy to specificallymodulate IL-18-mediated hyperinflammation, warranting further investigation of its clinical application intreating IL-18-mediated diseases, including MAS and COVID-19.


Assuntos
Inflamação , Lipopolissacarídeos , Animais , Camundongos , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-18/metabolismo , Interleucina-18/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , COVID-19/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia
5.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1353415, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38966699

RESUMO

Background: The protective effectiveness provided by naturally acquired immunity against SARS-CoV-2 reinfection remain controversial. Objective: To systematically evaluate the protective effect of natural immunity against subsequent SARS-CoV-2 infection with different variants. Methods: We searched for related studies published in seven databases before March 5, 2023. Eligible studies included in the analysis reported the risk of subsequent infection for groups with or without a prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. The primary outcome was the overall pooled incidence rate ratio (IRR) of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection/infection between the two groups. We also focused on the protective effectiveness of natural immunity against reinfection/infection with different SARS-CoV-2 variants. We used a random-effects model to pool the data, and obtained the bias-adjusted results using the trim-and-fill method. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses were conducted to explore the sources of heterogeneity. Sensitivity analysis was performed by excluding included studies one by one to evaluate the stability of the results. Results: We identified 40 eligible articles including more than 20 million individuals without the history of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. The bias-adjusted efficacy of naturally acquired antibodies against reinfection was estimated at 65% (pooled IRR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.26-0.47), with higher efficacy against symptomatic COVID-19 cases (pooled IRR = 0.15, 95% CI = 0.08-0.26) than asymptomatic infection (pooled IRR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.29-0.54). Meta-regression revealed that SARS-CoV-2 variant was a statistically significant effect modifier, which explaining 46.40% of the variation in IRRs. For different SARS-CoV-2 variant, the pooled IRRs for the Alpha (pooled IRR = 0.11, 95% CI = 0.06-0.19), Delta (pooled IRR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.15-0.24) and Omicron (pooled IRR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.42-0.87) variant were higher and higher. In other subgroup analyses, the pooled IRRs of SARS-CoV-2 infection were statistically various in different countries, publication year and the inclusion end time of population, with a significant difference (p = 0.02, p < 0.010 and p < 0.010), respectively. The risk of subsequent infection in the seropositive population appeared to increase slowly over time. Despite the heterogeneity in included studies, sensitivity analyses showed stable results. Conclusion: Previous SARS-CoV-2 infection provides protection against pre-omicron reinfection, but less against omicron. Ongoing viral mutation requires attention and prevention strategies, such as vaccine catch-up, in conjunction with multiple factors.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Reinfecção , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Imunidade Inata
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15515, 2024 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38969667

RESUMO

Vaccine hesitancy is an inevitable risk for societies as it contributes to outbreaks of diseases. Prior research suggests that vaccination decisions of individuals tend to spread within social networks, resulting in a tendency to vaccination homophily. The clustering of individuals resistant to vaccination can substantially make the threshold necessary to achieve herd immunity harder to reach. In this study, we examined the extent of vaccination homophily among social contacts and its association with vaccine uptake during the COVID-19 pandemic in Hungary using a contact diary approach in two cross-sectional surveys. The results indicate strong clustering among both vaccinated and unvaccinated groups. The most powerful predictor of vaccine uptake was the perceived vaccination rate within the egos' social contact network. Vaccination homophily and the role of the interpersonal contact network in vaccine uptake were particularly pronounced in the networks of close relationships, including family, kinship, and strong social ties of the ego. Our findings have important implications for understanding COVID-19 spread dynamics by showing that the strong clustering of unvaccinated individuals posed a great risk in preventing the spread of the disease.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinação , Humanos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Hungria/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Rede Social , Hesitação Vacinal/psicologia , Hesitação Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Ego , Adulto Jovem , Idoso , Adolescente
7.
Eur J Med Res ; 29(1): 356, 2024 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38970130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, multiple cases of adverse reactions to COVID-19 vaccines have been reported worldwide. Alopecia areata (AA) is an uncommon type of adverse reaction reported in some articles and has a significant social and psychological impact on patients. Our study aimed to review the AA and COVID-19 vaccine literature. METHODS: This systematic review was conducted by searching for articles on AA following COVID-19 vaccines in international databases such as Embase, MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and Ovid from December 2019 to December 30, 2023. We included studies that provided data for AA patients following COVID-19 vaccination with at least one dose. Data on sex, age, country/region of origin, vaccine type, days between vaccination and symptom presentation, manifestations of AA, trichoscopy and histopathological findings, treatment, and outcomes were included. RESULTS: In total, 579 explored studies were identified and assessed, and 25 articles with a total of 51 patients were included in the review. Twenty-seven (52.9%) patients developed new-onset AA following receiving the COVID-19 vaccine, and AA recurrence or exacerbation occurred after receiving the COVID-19 vaccine in 24 (47.1%) patients with preexisting disease. Five vaccines were reported to cause AA in all cases. The Pfizer vaccine (45.1%) was the most frequently reported, followed by the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (27.5%), Moderna mRNA-1273 (19.6%), Sinopharm (3.9%) and SinoVac (3.9%). AA occurred most frequently within one month after the 1st dose, and then, the incidence decreased gradually with time. Topical or systemic corticosteroids were used in 38 patients. Eleven patients were treated with a Janus Kinase inhibitor (jakinib) inhibitor, eight with tofacitinib, and three with an unspecified jakinib. However, 3 of the 11 patients experienced exacerbations after treatment. CONCLUSION: AA after COVID-19 vaccination is rare, and physicians should be aware of this phenomenon to improve early diagnosis and appropriate treatment.


Assuntos
Alopecia em Áreas , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Humanos , Alopecia em Áreas/induzido quimicamente , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Masculino , Feminino
9.
JCI Insight ; 9(13)2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38973611

RESUMO

Optimization of protective immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 remains an urgent worldwide priority. In this regard, type III IFN (IFN-λ) restricts SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro, and treatment with IFN-λ limits infection, inflammation, and pathogenesis in murine models. Furthermore, IFN-λ has been developed for clinical use to limit COVID-19 severity. However, whether endogenous IFN-λ signaling has an effect on SARS-CoV-2 antiviral immunity and long-term immune protection in vivo is unknown. In this study, we identified a requirement for IFN-λ signaling in promoting viral clearance and protective immune programming in SARS-CoV-2 infection of mice. Expression of both IFN and IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) in the lungs were minimally affected by the absence of IFN-λ signaling and correlated with transient increases in viral titers. We found that IFN-λ supported the generation of protective CD8 T cell responses against SARS-CoV-2 by facilitating accumulation of CD103+ DC in lung draining lymph nodes (dLN). IFN-λ signaling specifically in DCs promoted the upregulation of costimulatory molecules and the proliferation of CD8 T cells. Intriguingly, antigen-specific CD8 T cell immunity to SARS-CoV-2 was independent of type I IFN signaling, revealing a nonredundant function of IFN-λ. Overall, these studies demonstrate a critical role for IFN-λ in protective innate and adaptive immunity upon infection with SARS-CoV-2 and suggest that IFN-λ serves as an immune adjuvant to support CD8 T cell immunity.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , COVID-19 , Interferon Tipo I , SARS-CoV-2 , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Camundongos , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/virologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Interferon lambda , Interferons/imunologia , Interferons/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Humanos
10.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1373450, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38975325

RESUMO

Introduction: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a severe respiratory illness caused by the RNA virus SARS-CoV-2. Globally, there have been over 759.4 million cases and 6.74 million deaths, while Ecuador has reported more than 1.06 million cases and 35.9 thousand deaths. To describe the COVID-19 pandemic impact and the vaccinations effectiveness in a low-income country like Ecuador, we aim to assess the seroprevalence of IgG and IgM antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in a sample from healthy blood donors at the Cruz Roja Ecuatoriana. Methods: The present seroprevalence study used a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) to detect anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM antibodies in months with the highest confirmed case rates (May 2020; January, April 2021; January, February, June, July 2022) and months with the highest vaccination rates (May, June, July, August, December 2021) in Quito, Ecuador. The IgG and IgM seroprevalence were also assessed based on sex, age range, blood type and RhD antigen type. The sample size was 8,159, and sampling was performed based on the availability of each blood type. Results: The results showed an overall IgG and IgM seroprevalence of 47.76% and 3.44%, respectively. There were no differences in IgG and IgM seroprevalences between blood groups and sex, whereas statistical differences were found based on months, age range groups, and RhD antigen type. For instance, the highest IgG seroprevalence was observed in February 2022 and within the 17-26 years age range group, while the highest IgM seroprevalence was in April 2021 and within the 47-56 years age range group. Lastly, only IgG seroprevalence was higher in RhD+ individuals while IgM seroprevalence was similar across RhD types. Discussion: This project contributes to limited data on IgG and IgM antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in Ecuador. It suggests that herd immunity may have been achieved in the last evaluated months, and highlights a potential link between the RhD antigen type and COVID-19 susceptibility. These findings have implications for public health strategies and vaccine distribution not only in Ecuador but also in regions with similar characteristics.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais , Doadores de Sangue , COVID-19 , Imunoglobulina G , Imunoglobulina M , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Equador/epidemiologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Idoso , Pandemias
11.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1406138, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38975334

RESUMO

Heterologous prime-boost has broken the protective immune response bottleneck of the COVID-19 vaccines. however, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated antibody responses and explored the response of germinal center (GC) to priming with inactivated vaccines and boosting with heterologous adenoviral-vectored vaccines or homologous inactivated vaccines in mice. Antibody responses were dramatically enhanced by both boosting regimens. Heterologous immunization induced more robust GC activation, characterized by increased Tfh cell populations and enhanced helper function. Additionally, increased B-cell activation and antibody production were observed in a heterologous regimen. Libra-seq was used to compare the differences of S1-, S2- and NTD-specific B cells between homologous and heterologous vaccination, respectively. S2-specific CD19+ B cells presented increased somatic hypermutations (SHMs), which were mainly enriched in plasma cells. Moreover, a heterologous booster dose promoted the clonal expansion of B cells specific to S2 and NTD regions. In conclusion, the functional role of Tfh and B cells following SARS-CoV-2 heterologous vaccination may be important for modulating antibody responses. These findings provide new insights for the development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines that induce more robust antibody response.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais , Formação de Anticorpos , Linfócitos B , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Centro Germinativo , Imunização Secundária , SARS-CoV-2 , Células T Auxiliares Foliculares , Animais , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Camundongos , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Células T Auxiliares Foliculares/imunologia , Centro Germinativo/imunologia , Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Feminino , Hipermutação Somática de Imunoglobulina , Vacinação , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Humanos , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
12.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0305200, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38976683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding and addressing the concerns of vaccine-hesitant individuals, including those with chronic diseases, is key to increasing vaccine acceptance and uptake. However, in Ethiopia, there is limited evidence on the COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and predictor variables among diabetic patients. Hence, the study aimed to assess Covid-19 Vaccine Hesitancy and Predictor variables among Diabetic Patients on Follow-Up at Public Hospitals in Nekemte Town, Western Ethiopia. METHOD: Facility based cross sectional study was conducted among 422 diabetic patients attending public hospitals at Nekemte Town, Western Ethiopia between January, to February, 2023. Study participants were recruited by systematic random sampling. The data were collected interviewee administered pre-tested structured survey questioner. The collected data were entered and cleaned using Epi-Data software 4.6 version. The cleaned data were analyzed using SPSS. 25.0 Statical software. Descriptive statistics like frequency, mean and percentage, and binary logistic regression was applied to identify independent predictors of Covid-19 vaccine hesitancy and association between variables were declared at p-value of 0.05. RESULT: The overall magnitude of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was 15.2% (95% CI: 11.6-18.7). The top three listed reasons for the COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy were: negative information about the vaccine (32.90%), lack of enough information (21.80%), and vaccine safety concern (19.40%). The hesitancy of the COVID-19 vaccination uptake among diabetes patients was independently influenced by age between 40-49 (Adjusted Odd Ratio [AOR] = 4.52(1.04-19.66)), having vaccine awareness (AOR = 0.029(0.001-0.86)), having a great deal of trust on vaccine development (AOR = 0.028(0.002-0.52)), and a fear amount trust (AOR = 0.05(0.003-0.79)) on the vaccine preparation, vaccinated for COVID-19 (AOR = 0.13(0.04-0.51)), perceived exposure to COVID-19 infection after having the vaccine as strongly agree/agree (AOR = 0.03(0.01-0.17))and neither agree nor disagree (AOR = 0.07(0.02-0.30)). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among diabetic patients was relatively low. The identified independent predictors were age, vaccine awareness, COVID-19 vaccination history, awareness on vaccine preparation and exposure status to COVID-19 infection. The relevant agency should focus on efforts to translating these high levels of vaccine acceptance into actual uptake, through targeting identifying predictor variables and vaccine availability for a high-risk diabetes patient.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hospitais Públicos , Hesitação Vacinal , Humanos , Etiópia , Feminino , Masculino , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Hesitação Vacinal/psicologia , Hesitação Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/psicologia , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Idoso , Vacinação/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(29): e2310421121, 2024 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38976733

RESUMO

We generated a replication-competent OC43 human seasonal coronavirus (CoV) expressing the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike in place of the native spike (rOC43-CoV2 S). This virus is highly attenuated relative to OC43 and SARS-CoV-2 in cultured cells and animals and is classified as a biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) agent by the NIH biosafety committee. Neutralization of rOC43-CoV2 S and SARS-CoV-2 by S-specific monoclonal antibodies and human sera is highly correlated, unlike recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-CoV2 S. Single-dose immunization with rOC43-CoV2 S generates high levels of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and fully protects human ACE2 transgenic mice from SARS-CoV-2 lethal challenge, despite nondetectable replication in respiratory and nonrespiratory organs. rOC43-CoV2 S induces S-specific serum and airway mucosal immunoglobulin A and IgG responses in rhesus macaques. rOC43-CoV2 S has enormous value as a BSL-2 agent to measure S-specific antibodies in the context of a bona fide CoV and is a candidate live attenuated SARS-CoV-2 mucosal vaccine that preferentially replicates in the upper airway.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19 , Testes de Neutralização , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Animais , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Humanos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Camundongos , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Testes de Neutralização/métodos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Coronavirus Humano OC43/imunologia , Coronavirus Humano OC43/genética , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/imunologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Células Vero , Macaca mulatta
14.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 20(1): 2369358, 2024 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38972857

RESUMO

Medical and dental professionals should continue to adhere to preventive measures after COVID-19 vaccination due to their increased risk of exposure to the virus, particularly as new variants emerge that may heighten their risk perception and susceptibility. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the effects of COVID-19 vaccination on complacency to adherence to COVID-19 preventive behavioral measures and mental health among medical and dental professionals. In this cross-sectional study 410 medical and dental professionals were recruited from different medical and dental hospitals in Islamabad, Pakistan. The data was collected using a valid and reliable questionnaire comprising of three sections (socio-demographic, information of preventive behaviors performance against COVID-19 after vaccination, mental health status). A chi-square test and ordinal logistic regression were used for analysis. Post COVID-19 vaccination there was decrease in the frequency of use of hand washing, sanitizers (70.2%), and social distancing (60.5%), however greeting with a handshake (58.8%) and use of public transport (45.9%) seen upward trend among participants. Only face mask usage post-vaccination was statistically significant (p < .05) in association with age, marital status, and years of working Experience. The greatest decrease in the usage of masks after COVID-19 vaccination was seen in age group of 10-30 (41.7%) and working experience group of 0-5 years (39.7%). All the preventive behaviors are statistically significant (p < .05) associated with the mental status of the participants except online shopping and use of public transport. These results indicate the presence of vaccination-induced complacency in adherence to COVID-19 preventive behavioral measures among healthcare professionals.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Pessoal de Saúde , Saúde Mental , Vacinação , Humanos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Paquistão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto Jovem , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Desinfecção das Mãos
15.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 20(1): 2370970, 2024 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38977418

RESUMO

The impact of pre-graft COVID-19 vaccinations in donor or recipient as well as pre-graft infection has been studied in 157 adults having received allogeneic stem cell transplantation (Allo-SCT) for various hematological diseases during the delta/omicron waves. We showed here that pre-Allo-SCT COVID-19 vaccination and/or infection do not provide more protection in patients receiving vaccine, immunotherapy or both after transplant. COVID-19 vaccination is and remains of crucial importance after Allo-SCT, reinforcing the recommendation to start COVID-19 vaccination as soon as the third month following the transplant.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Transplante Homólogo , Vacinação , Humanos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/imunologia , Masculino , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Transplante Homólogo/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Imunoterapia/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco/efeitos adversos
16.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 20(1): 2370605, 2024 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38977415

RESUMO

The outbreak of the COVID-19 has seriously affected the whole society, and vaccines were the most effective means to contain the epidemic. This paper aims to determine the top 100 articles cited most frequently in COVID-19 vaccines and to analyze the research status and hot spots in this field through bibliometrics, to provide a reference for future research. We conducted a comprehensive search of the Web of Science Core Collection database on November 29, 2023, and identified the top 100 articles by ranking them from highest to lowest citation frequency. In addition, we analyzed the year of publication, citation, author, country, institution, journal, and keywords with Microsoft Excel 2019 and VOSviewer 1.6.18. Research focused on vaccine immunogenicity and safety, vaccine hesitancy, and vaccination intention.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Humanos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Hesitação Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina
17.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15753, 2024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38977773

RESUMO

A key lesson learned with COVID-19 is that public health measures were very different from country to country. In this study, we provide an analysis of epidemic dynamics using three well-known stochastic network models-small-world networks (Watts-Strogatz), random networks (Erdös-Rényi), and scale-free networks (Barabási-Albert)-to assess the impact of different viral strains, lockdown strategies, and vaccination campaigns. We highlight the significant role of highly connected nodes in the spread of infections, particularly within Barabási-Albert networks. These networks experienced earlier and higher peaks in infection rates, but ultimately had the lowest total number of infections, indicating their rapid transmission dynamics. We also found that intermittent lockdown strategies, particularly those with 7-day intervals, effectively reduce the total number of infections, serving as viable alternatives to prolonged continuous lockdowns. When simulating vaccination campaigns, we observed a bimodal distribution leading to two distinct outcomes: pandemic contraction and pandemic expansion. For WS and ER networks, rapid mass vaccination campaigns significantly reduced infection rates compared to slower campaigns; however, for BA networks, differences between vaccination strategies were minimal. To account for the evolution of a virus into a more transmissible strain, we modeled vaccination scenarios that varied vaccine efficacy against the wild-type virus and noted a decline in this efficacy over time against a second variant. Our results showed that vaccination coverage above 40% significantly flattened infection peaks for the wild-type virus, while at least 80% coverage was required to similarly reduce peaks for variant 2. Furthermore, the effect of vaccine efficacy on reducing the peak of variant 2 infection was minimal. Although vaccination strategies targeting hub nodes in scale-free networks did not substantially reduce the total number of infections, they were effective in increasing the probability of preventing pandemic outbreaks. These findings underscore the need to consider the network structure for effective pandemic control.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação , Humanos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , COVID-19/transmissão , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Pandemias/prevenção & controle
18.
J Korean Med Sci ; 39(26): e220, 2024 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38978490

RESUMO

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, conclusively evaluating possible associations between COVID-19 vaccines and potential adverse events was of critical importance. The National Academy of Medicine of Korea established the COVID-19 Vaccine Safety Research Center (CoVaSC) with support from the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency to investigate the scientific relationship between COVID-19 vaccines and suspected adverse events. Although determining whether the COVID-19 vaccine was responsible for any suspected adverse event necessitated a systematic approach, traditional causal inference theories, such as Hill's criteria, encountered certain limitations and criticisms. To facilitate a systematic and evidence-based evaluation, the United States Institute of Medicine, at the request of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, offered a detailed causality assessment framework in 2012, which was updated in the recent report by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM) in 2024. This framework, based on a weight-of-evidence approach, allows the independent evaluation of both epidemiological and mechanistic evidence, culminating in a comprehensive conclusion about causality. Epidemiological evidence derived from population studies is categorized into four levels-high, moderate, limited, or insufficient-while mechanistic evidence, primarily from biological and clinical studies in animals and individuals, is classified as strong, intermediate, weak, or lacking. The committee then synthesizes these two types of evidence to draw a conclusion about the causal relationship, which can be described as "convincingly supports" ("evidence established" in the 2024 NASEM report), "favors acceptance," "favors rejection," or "inadequate to accept or reject." The CoVaSC has established an independent committee to conduct causality assessments using the weight-of-evidence framework, specifically for evaluating the causality of adverse events associated with COVID-19 vaccines. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the weight-of-evidence framework and to detail the considerations involved in its practical application in the CoVaSC.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Causalidade , Estados Unidos
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