Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 358
Filtrar
1.
Sci Total Environ ; 754: 142141, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920402

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance is a quintessential One Health issue, among the most serious 21st century global threats to human health. Seabirds may act as sentinels of natural and anthropogenic changes in the marine ecosystem health, including pollution by antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). We used real time PCR to identify and quantify 22 plasmid-mediated ARGs in the gastrointestinal microbiome of six wild seabird species, comparing an anthropized (Fernando de Noronha Archipelago - FNA) and a pristine biotope (Rocas Atoll - ROA), Brazil. Of 257 birds, 218 (84.8%) were positive to at least one ARG. ARG classes encoding resistance to tetracyclines (75.1%), quinolones (10.5%) and phenicols (10.5%) were the most prevalent, with tetracyclines significantly greater than the remaining classes (p < 0.05). Genes tet(S) (29.2%), tet(A) (28.8%), and tet(B) (24.9%) were the most commonly found and had a significantly greater prevalence when compared to the remaining ARGs (p < 0.05). The anthropized biotope presented statistically significant higher prevalence of sulfonamide- and quinolone-encoding ARGs in comparison with the pristine (respectively, p = 0.01 and p = 0.03), and higher sulII gene prevalence (p = 0.04), consistent with anthropogenic pressure. Migratory species (only present in ROA) showed statistically significant higher mcr-1 (polymyxins) and blaTEM (betalactam) prevalences (respectively, p = 0.009 and p = 0.02), and mcr-1 percentage load (p = 0.0079) in comparison with non-migratory. To our knowledge, this is the largest ARGs survey based on direct detection and quantification in seabirds worldwide, and the first to evaluate non-synanthropic species in oceanic islands. This is the first detection of mcr-1 in wild free-ranging seabirds in Brazil and in free-ranging migratory non-synanthropic seabirds worldwide. Our findings show the importance of biological and ecological factors, highlighting the role of seabirds as anthropization sentinels and ARGs-pollution environmental indicators (even in a pristine biotope), and their involvement in the One Health epidemiological chain of ARGs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Saúde Única , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Aves , Brasil , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Ecossistema , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Ilhas
2.
Onderstepoort J Vet Res ; 87(1): e1-e9, 2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33354975

RESUMO

The first known severe disease caused by a coronavirus (CoV) in humans emerged with the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in China, which killed 774 people during its 2002/2003 outbreak. The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) was the second human fatal disease, which started in 2012 in Saudi Arabia and resulted in 858 fatalities. In December 2019, a new virus, SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), originating from China, began generating headlines worldwide because of the unprecedented speed of its transmission; 5.2 million people were infected and 338 480 had been reported dead from December 2019 to May 2020. These human coronaviruses are believed to have an animal origin and had reached humans through species jump. Coronaviruses are well known for their high frequency of recombination and high mutation rates, allowing them to adapt to new hosts and ecological niches. This review summarises existing information on what is currently known on the role of wild and domesticated animals and discussions on whether they are the natural reservoir/amplifiers hosts or incidental hosts of CoVs. Results of experimental infection and transmission using different wild, domesticated and pet animals are also reviewed. The need for a One Health approach in implementing measures and practices is highlighted to improve human health and reduce the emergence of pandemics from these zoonotic viruses.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Zoonoses , Animais , /transmissão , Camelus/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Vetores de Doenças , Saúde Global , Humanos , Saúde Única , Pandemias
3.
Open Vet J ; 10(3): 239-251, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33282694

RESUMO

Coronaviruses are a group of enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses that are broadly classified into alpha, beta, gamma, and delta coronavirus genera based on the viral genome. Coronavirus was not thought to be a significant problem in humans until the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome in 2002, but infections in animals, including pigs, cats, dogs, and poultry, have been problematic for a long time. The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, drew special attention towards this virus once again. The intermediate host of this novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is yet to be determined, but it has a very close genomic relationship with the bat coronavirus (Bat-CoV), RaTG13 strain, and the pangolin coronaviruses. As veterinary medicine has a long-term experience dealing with coronaviruses, this could be helpful in better understanding and detecting the origin of SARS-CoV-2 and drive human medicine towards the development of vaccines and antiviral drugs through the collaborative and transdisciplinary approaches of One Health.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus/classificação , Saúde Única , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Especificidade da Espécie
4.
Emerg Top Life Sci ; 4(5): 449-452, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33313786

RESUMO

COVID 19 has raised the profile of biosecurity. However, biosecurity is not only about protecting human life. This issue brings together mini-reviews examining recent developments and thinking around some of the tools, behaviours and concepts around biosecurity. They illustrate the multi-disciplinary nature of the subject, demonstrating the interface between research and policy. Biosecurity practices aim to prevent the spread of harmful organisms; recognising that 2020 is the International Year of Plant Health, several focus on plant biosecurity although invasive species and animal health concerns are also captured. The reviews show progress in developing early warning systems and that plant protection organisations are increasingly using tools that compare multiple pest threats to prioritise responses. The bespoke modelling of threats can inform risk management responses and synergies between meteorology and biosecurity provide opportunities for increased collaboration. There is scope to develop more generic models, increasing their accessibility to policy makers. Recent research can improve pest surveillance programs accounting for real-world constraints. Social science examining individual farmer behaviours has informed biosecurity policy; taking a broader socio-cultural approach to better understand farming networks has the potential to change behaviours in a new way. When encouraging public recreationists to adopt positive biosecurity behaviours communications must align with their values. Bringing together the human, animal, plant and environmental health sectors to address biosecurity risks in a common and systematic manner within the One Biosecurity concept can be achieved through multi-disciplinary working involving the life, physical and social sciences with the support of legislative bodies and the public.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Saúde Ambiental , Gestão de Riscos , Animais , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Saúde Única , Pandemias , Controle de Pragas , Plantas
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(50): 1889-1894, 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332289

RESUMO

Harmful algal bloom events can result from the rapid growth, or bloom, of photosynthesizing organisms in natural bodies of fresh, brackish, and salt water. These events can be exacerbated by nutrient pollution (e.g., phosphorus) and warming waters and other climate change effects (1); have a negative impact on the health of humans, animals, and the environment; and damage local economies (2,3). U.S. harmful algal bloom events of public health concern are centered on a subset of phytoplankton: diatoms, dinoflagellates, and cyanobacteria (also called blue-green algae). CDC launched the One Health Harmful Algal Bloom System (OHHABS) in 2016 to inform efforts to prevent human and animal illnesses associated with harmful algal bloom events. A total of 18 states reported 421 harmful algal bloom events, 389 cases of human illness, and 413 cases of animal illness that occurred during 2016-2018. The majority of harmful algal bloom events occurred during May-October (413; 98%) and in freshwater bodies (377; 90%). Human and animal illnesses primarily occurred during June-September (378; 98%) and May-September (410; 100%). Gastrointestinal or generalized illness signs or symptoms were the most frequently reported (>40% of human cases and >50% of animal cases); however, multiple other signs and symptoms were reported. Surveillance data from harmful algal bloom events, exposures, and health effects provide a systematic description of these occurrences and can be used to inform control and prevention of harmful algal bloom-associated illnesses.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Saúde Única , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Vet Med Educ ; 47(5): 619-631, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231519

RESUMO

Limitations in workforce size and access to resources remain perennial challenges to greater progress in academic veterinary medicine and engagement between human and veterinary medicine (One Health). Ongoing resource constraints occur in part due to limited public understanding of the role veterinarians play in improving human health. One Health interactions, particularly through interdisciplinary collaborations in biomedical research, present constructive opportunities to inform resource policies and advance health care. To this end, inter-institutional partnerships between individual veterinary medical education programs (VMEPs) and several National Institutes of Health (NIH) intramural research programs have created synergies beyond those provided by individual programs. In the NIH Comparative Biomedical Scientist Training Program (CBSTP), interdisciplinary cross-training of veterinarians consisting of specialty veterinary medicine coupled with training in human disease research leading to a PhD, occurs collaboratively on both VMEP and NIH campuses. Pre-doctoral veterinary student research opportunities have also been made available. Through the CBSTP, NIH investigators and national biomedical science policy makers gain access to veterinary perspective and expertise, while veterinarians obtain additional opportunities for NIH-funded research training. CBSTP Fellows serve as de facto ambassadors enhancing visibility for the profession while in residence at NIH, and subsequently through a variety of university, industry, and government research appointments, as graduates. Thus, the CBSTP represents an inter-institutional opportunity that not only addresses critical needs for veterinarian-scientists in the biomedical workforce, but also simultaneously exposes national policy makers to veterinarian-scientists' specialized training, leading to more effective realization of One Health goals to benefit human and animal health.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Educação em Veterinária , Saúde Única , Médicos Veterinários , Animais , Objetivos , Humanos , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Estados Unidos
7.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 471-480, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046928

RESUMO

Enteric pathogens, such as non-typhoidal Salmonella, Campylobacter and Escherichia coli, can reside in the intestinal tract of many animals, including livestock, companion animals, small mammals and reptiles. Often, these animals can appear healthy; nonetheless, humans can become infected after direct or indirect contact, resulting in a substantial illness burden. An estimated 14% of the 3.2 million illnesses that occur in the United States of America (USA) each year from such enteric pathogens are attributable to animal contact. Surveillance for enteric pathogens in the USA includes the compilation and interpretation of both laboratory and epidemiologic data. However, the authors feel that a collaborative, multisectoral and transdisciplinary - or One Health - approach is needed for data collection and analysis, at every level. In addition, they suggest that the future of enteric illness surveillance lies in the development of improved technologies for pathogen detection and characterisation, such as genomic sequencing and metagenomics. In particular, using whole-genome sequencing to compare genetic sequences of enteric pathogens from humans, food, animals and the environment, can help to predict antimicrobial resistance among these pathogens, determine their genetic relatedness and identify outbreaks linked to a common source. In this paper, the authors describe three recent, multi-state human enteric illness outbreaks linked to animal contact in the USA and discuss how integrated disease surveillance was essential to outbreak detection and response. Additional datasharing between public health and animal health laboratories and epidemiologists at the local, national, regional and international level may help to improve surveillance for emerging animal and human health threats and lead to new opportunities for prevention.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Saúde Única , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Humanos , Laboratórios , Saúde Pública , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/veterinária
8.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 359-371, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046939

RESUMO

With human population growth, rapid urbanisation, increasing globalisation, and climate change, the interdependency of human health and animal health is mounting. Therefore, the importance of national emergency management plans (NEMPs) for the mitigation of, and preparedness for, all hazards, including disease epidemics, both zoonotic and zootic, is ever increasing. The authors decided to take a One Health approach by assessing the inclusion of Veterinary Services and animal health in NEMPs, based on geographical region, the date of the NEMP, national income status, and the proportion of the agricultural sector in national gross domestic product (GDP). To carry out the assessment, the authors analysed the publicly available NEMPs of 86 Members of the World Organisation for Animal Health. Of the 86 NEMPs reviewed, only a third expressly mentioned Veterinary Services, almost 60% mentioned zoonotic and/or zootic diseases, and about two-thirds mentioned animals to some extent. The highest correlating factor to the inclusion of animal health in NEMPs was the level of the agricultural sector's contributions to the national GDP. Fisheries and aquaculture were not a major consideration in any of the reviewed NEMPs, especially not in relation to diseases. Based on region, Latin America and the Caribbean exhibited the lowest inclusion rate of animal health in NEMPs. The results demonstrate that the omission of animal health is still a problem. A multi-disciplinary approach that includes veterinary medicine as well as human medicine is vital in the construction and/or revision of NEMPs. Future studies should consider whether or not there is a connection between countries' veterinary capacities and the inclusion of Veterinary Services in their NEMPs and whether or not they have the infrastructure and human resources to put into operation the roles of Veterinary Services as identified in their NEMPs.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Saúde Única , Animais , Região do Caribe , Humanos , Internacionalidade , América Latina
10.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52947

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. La Red de las Américas para la Equidad en Salud (RAES) es una red multidisciplinaria que promueve el intercambio de conocimientos y la acción intersectorial para la equidad en salud y los derechos humanos en las Américas. Los objetivos de la RAES consisten en: 1) compartir experiencias exitosas en el desarrollo de intervenciones, considerando la determinación y los determinantes sociales, para lograr respuestas participativas y comunitarias en salud; 2) analizar los impactos sanitarios, sociales, políticos, ambientales y económicos de la pandemia de COVID-19; 3) identificar los efectos de la atención de la pandemia en las poblaciones de mayor riesgo por su edad y las condiciones de salud preexistentes; 4) examinar la situación de las fronteras y de los movimientos de población en la propagación de la pandemia y de sus efectos en las poblaciones migrantes; 5) proponer estrategias para asegurar el acceso a la atención integral de las mujeres gestantes, con el fin de reducir el sufrimiento, la morbilidad y la mortalidad materna y neonatal; y 6) analizar vulneraciones de derechos humanos y del derecho a la salud de poblaciones históricamente marginalizadas, incluyendo habitantes en situación de calle y otras comunidades que dependen de los espacios públicos y de la calle para sobrevivir. Los modelos analíticos y de intervención para la equidad en salud de la RAES se desarrollan desde varios enfoques, como la medicina social, la epidemiologia social, la antropología médica, la ecología humana y el de Una salud.


[ABSTRACT]. The Health Equity Network of the Americas (HENA) is a multidisciplinary network that promotes knowledge sharing and intersectoral action for equity in health and human rights in the Americas. The objectives of HENA are: 1) to share successful experiences in the development of interventions, considering the social determinants and determination of health, to achieve participatory and community-based health responses; 2) to analyze the health, social, political, environmental and economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic; 3) to identify the effects of pandemic care on populations most at risk because of their age and pre-existing health conditions; 4) examine the situation at borders and population movements in the spread of the pandemic and its effects on migrant populations; 5) propose strategies to ensure access to comprehensive care for pregnant women in order to reduce maternal and neonatal suffering, morbidity, and mortality; and 6) analyze violations of human rights and the right to health of historically marginalized populations, including street dwellers and other communities that depend on public spaces and the street for survival. The analytical and intervention models for health equity at HENA are based on various approaches, including social medicine, social epidemiology, medical anthropology, human ecology, and One health.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde , Saúde Única , Colaboração Intersetorial , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , América , Equidade em Saúde , Saúde Única , Colaboração Intersetorial , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , América
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086731

RESUMO

Community-acquired antimicrobial resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CA-ARE) are an increasingly important issue around the world. Characterizing the distribution of regionally specific patterns of resistance is important to contextualize and develop locally relevant interventions. This systematic review adopts a One Health framework considering the health of humans, animals, and the environment to describe CA-ARE in Central America. Twenty studies were identified that focused on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Enterobacteriaceae. Studies on CA-ARE in Central America characterized resistance from diverse sources, including humans (n = 12), animals (n = 4), the environment (n = 2), and combinations of these categories (n = 2). A limited number of studies assessed prevalence of clinically important AMR, including carbapenem resistance (n = 3), third generation cephalosporin resistance (n = 7), colistin resistance (n = 2), extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production (n = 4), or multidrug resistance (n = 4). This review highlights significant gaps in our current understanding of CA-ARE in Central America, most notably a general dearth of research, which requires increased investment and research on CA-ARE as well as AMR more broadly.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae , Enterobacteriaceae , Saúde Única , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , América Central/epidemiologia , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Humanos , beta-Lactamases
12.
Niger J Physiol Sci ; 35(1): 4-9, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084622

RESUMO

A novel pulmonary illness caused by coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) of unknown origin was first reported in China. This disease has claimed over a million human lives worldwide. This pandemic respiratory disease spread through droplets on surfaces and community spread. Government of different countries adopted a total lockdown to reduce human to human contact and keep families safe from the disease. This compulsory movement restriction reduces physical activity of individuals which could pose cardiovascular risk to physically inactive African population. This brief states the various cultural and one health approaches that could be adopted to increase physical activity within the home setting. Literature search using pubmed, scopus and google scholar and views of one health personnel in the promotion of physical activity at home during the compulsory lockdown were sought for to identify some simple approaches and gaps that need to be researched on. The overview identified culturally related indoor physical activities in Africa such as ampe or tente that could enhance health. It encouraged dog walking, tending backyard farm and catering for indigenous chicken and small ruminants as means of increasing physical activity. Counseling was proffered by nurses to increase health promotion activities such as setting reminders for physical activities and routine house chores. This submission bring to bear indigenous, flexible and simple measures to combat boredom, promote cardiovascular health by increasng physical activity during the compulsory lockdown currently being experienced in Africa, a known cardiovascular risk, physically inactive population.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Exercício Físico , Saúde Única , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Quarentena , África , Agricultura , Animais , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Animais de Estimação
13.
mBio ; 11(5)2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051368

RESUMO

Despite numerous barriers to transmission, zoonoses are the major cause of emerging infectious diseases in humans. Among these, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and ebolaviruses have killed thousands; the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has killed millions. Zoonoses and human-to-animal cross-species transmission are driven by human actions and have important management, conservation, and public health implications. The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, which presumably originated from an animal reservoir, has killed more than half a million people around the world and cases continue to rise. In March 2020, New York City was a global epicenter for SARS-CoV-2 infections. During this time, four tigers and three lions at the Bronx Zoo, NY, developed mild, abnormal respiratory signs. We detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA in respiratory secretions and/or feces from all seven animals, live virus in three, and colocalized viral RNA with cellular damage in one. We produced nine whole SARS-CoV-2 genomes from the animals and keepers and identified different SARS-CoV-2 genotypes in the tigers and lions. Epidemiologic and genomic data indicated human-to-tiger transmission. These were the first confirmed cases of natural SARS-CoV-2 animal infections in the United States and the first in nondomestic species in the world. We highlight disease transmission at a nontraditional interface and provide information that contributes to understanding SARS-CoV-2 transmission across species.IMPORTANCE The human-animal-environment interface of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an important aspect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that requires robust One Health-based investigations. Despite this, few reports describe natural infections in animals or directly link them to human infections using genomic data. In the present study, we describe the first cases of natural SARS-CoV-2 infection in tigers and lions in the United States and provide epidemiological and genetic evidence for human-to-animal transmission of the virus. Our data show that tigers and lions were infected with different genotypes of SARS-CoV-2, indicating two independent transmission events to the animals. Importantly, infected animals shed infectious virus in respiratory secretions and feces. A better understanding of the susceptibility of animal species to SARS-CoV-2 may help to elucidate transmission mechanisms and identify potential reservoirs and sources of infection that are important in both animal and human health.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico/virologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Pandemias/veterinária , Panthera/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Animais , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Haplótipos , Humanos , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Saúde Única , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia
14.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 140, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028426

RESUMO

Most human pathogens originate from non-human hosts and certain pathogens persist in animal reservoirs. The transmission of such pathogens to humans may lead to self-sustaining chains of transmission. These pathogens represent the highest risk for future pandemics. For their prevention, the transmission over the species barrier - although rare - should, by all means, be avoided. In the current COVID-19 pandemic, surprisingly though, most of the current research concentrates on the control by drugs and vaccines, while comparatively little scientific inquiry focuses on future prevention. Already in 2012, the World Bank recommended to engage in a systemic One Health approach for zoonoses control, considering integrated surveillance-response and control of human and animal diseases for primarily economic reasons. First examples, like integrated West Nile virus surveillance in mosquitos, wild birds, horses and humans in Italy show evidence of financial savings from a closer cooperation of human and animal health sectors. Provided a zoonotic origin can be ascertained for the COVID-19 pandemic, integrated wildlife, domestic animal and humans disease surveillance-response may contribute to prevent future outbreaks. In conclusion, the earlier a zoonotic pathogen can be detected in the environment, in wildlife or in domestic animals; and the better human, animal and environmental surveillance communicate with each other to prevent an outbreak, the lower are the cumulative costs.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Animais/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Animais/transmissão , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Saúde Única , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(4): 589-595, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007198

RESUMO

In the post-genomic era, genomic medicine interventions as a key component of personalized medicine and tailored-made health care are greatly anticipated following recent scientific and technological advances. Indeed, large-scale sequencing efforts that explore human genomic variation have been initiated in several, mostly developed, countries across the globe, such as the United States, the United Kingdom, and a few others. Here, we highlight the successful implementation of large-scale national genomic initiatives, namely the Genome of Greece (GoGreece) and the DNA do Brasil (DNABr), aiming to emphasize the importance of implementing such initiatives in developing countries. Based on this experience, we also provide a roadmap for replicating these projects in other low-resource settings, thereby bringing genomic medicine in these countries closer to clinical fruition.


Assuntos
Genética Médica/organização & administração , Genoma Humano , Genômica/organização & administração , Saúde Única/legislação & jurisprudência , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Brasil , Países em Desenvolvimento , Grécia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/economia , Humanos , Saúde Pública/métodos , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
16.
Emerg Top Life Sci ; 4(5): 539-549, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111945

RESUMO

In the wake of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the world has woken up to the importance of biosecurity and the need to manage international borders. Yet strong sectorial identities exist within biosecurity that are associated with specific international standards, individual economic interests, specific research communities, and unique stakeholder involvement. Despite considerable research addressing human, animal, plant, and environmental health, the science connections between these sectors remain quite limited. One Biosecurity aims to address these limitations at global, national, and local scales. It is an interdisciplinary approach to biosecurity policy and research that builds on the interconnections between human, animal, plant, and environmental health to effectively prevent and mitigate the impacts of invasive alien species. It provides an integrated perspective to address the many biosecurity risks that transcend the traditional boundaries of health, agriculture, and the environment. Individual invasive alien plant and animal species often have multiple impacts across sectors: as hosts of zoonotic parasites, vectors of pathogens, pests of agriculture or forestry, as well as threats to biodiversity and ecosystem function. It is time these risks were addressed in a systematic way. One Biosecurity is essential to address several major sociological and environmental challenges to biosecurity: climate change, increasing urbanisation, agricultural intensification, human global mobility, loss of technical capability as well as public resistance to pesticides and vaccines. One Biosecurity will require the bringing together of taxonomists, population biologists, modellers, economists, chemists, engineers, and social scientists to engage in a new agenda that is shaped by politics, legislation, and public perceptions.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Saúde Ambiental , Saúde Única , Animais , Mudança Climática , Humanos , Pandemias , Plantas , Urbanização
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 738: 139495, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957261

RESUMO

Evidence of exposure to enteric pathogens through the air and associated risk of infection is scarce in the literature outside of animal- or human-waste handling settings. Cities with poor sanitation are important locations to investigate this aerial exposure pathway as their rapid growth will pose unprecedented challenges in waste management. To address this issue, simple surveillance methods are needed. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to optimize a community exposure bioaerosol surveillance strategy for urban outdoor locations with poor sanitation, and to determine which bioaerosols could contribute to exposure. Passive and active bioaerosol sampling methods were used to characterize the fate and transport of sanitation-related bioaerosols during the rainy and dry seasons in La Paz, Bolivia. Median coliform bacteria fluxes were 71 CFU/(m2 × h) during the rainy season and 64 CFU/(m2 × h) during the dry season, with 38% of the dry season samples testing positive for E. coli. Wind speed, relative humidity and UVB irradiance were identified as significant covariates to consider in bioaerosol transport models in La Paz. Active sampling yielded one positive sample (10%) for human adenovirus (HadV) and one sample (10%) for influenza A virus during the rainy season. HadV was detected at the site with the highest bacterial flux. Four samples (8%) were positive for influenza A virus in the dry season. These findings suggest that aerosols can contribute to community exposure to potentially pathogenic microorganisms in cities with poor sanitation. The use of passive sampling, despite its limitations, can provide quantitative data on microorganisms' viability within realistic timeframes of personal exposure.


Assuntos
Saúde Única , Saneamento , Aerossóis , Microbiologia do Ar , Animais , Bolívia , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Escherichia coli , Humanos
18.
Can J Public Health ; 111(5): 641-644, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32909226

RESUMO

This commentary discusses the contributions that One Health (OH) principles can make in improving the global response to the COVID-19 pandemic. We highlight four areas where the application of OH has the potential to significantly improve the governance of infectious diseases in general, and of COVID-19 in particular. First, more integrated surveillance infrastructure and monitoring of the occurrence of infectious diseases in both humans and animals can facilitate the detection of new infectious agents sharing similar genotypes across species and the monitoring of the spatio-temporal spread of such infections. This knowledge can guide public and animal health officials in their response measures. Second, application of the OH approach can improve coordination and active collaboration among stakeholders representing apparently incompatible domains. Third, the OH approach highlights the need for an effective institutional landscape, facilitating adequate regulation of hotspots for transmission of infectious agents among animals and humans, such as live animal markets. And finally, OH thinking emphasizes the need for equitable solutions to infectious disease challenges, suggesting that policy response mechanisms and interventions need to be reflective of the disproportionate disease burdens borne by vulnerable and marginalized populations, or by persons providing health care and other essential services to those sick.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Saúde Única , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA