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1.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54701

RESUMO

[Extract]. En septiembre del 2021, la Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas reunirá a los países en un momento crucial para orga-nizar la acción colectiva con el propósito de hacer frente a la crisis medioambiental mundial. Se reunirán una vez más en la Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas sobre la Diversidad Bioló-gica, en Kunming (China) y en la Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Cambio Climático (CP26), en Glasgow (Escocia). Antes de la celebración de estas reuniones trascendenta-les, nosotros —los editores de revistas sobre salud de todo el mundo— exigimos medidas urgentes para mantener los aumen-tos promedio de la temperatura a nivel mundial por debajo de 1,5 °C, detener la destrucción de la naturaleza y proteger la salud.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Temperatura , Saúde Ambiental , Aquecimento Global , COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Emergências
2.
Pac Symp Biocomput ; 26: 309-315, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409132

RESUMO

The environment plays an important role in mediating human health. In this session we consider research addressing ways to overcome the challenges associated with studying the multifaceted and ever-changing environment. Environmental health research has a need for technological and methodological advances which will further our knowledge of how exposures precipitate complex phenotypes and exacerbate disease.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional , Saúde Ambiental , Humanos , Fenótipo
3.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(8): 3087-3098, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378700

RESUMO

The Bolsa Família Programme and environmental health interventions are public policies that can have a combined positive effect on health inequities. The Bolsa Família Programme is designed to improve health conditions, reduce food insecurity and increase family incomes. Environmental health interventions aim to ensure public health and environmental protection. This study reviewed the literature for possible interactions between these two types of intervention that influence morbidity and mortality outcomes due to diarrhoea and malnutrition in the under-fives. A total of 1,658 articles were identified in the LILACS, SciELO and PubMed databases. The studies' methodologies were evaluated by scores on an adapted Downs & Black scale and four met all the study inclusion criteria. The findings showed evidence of the positive independent effects of the Bolsa Família Programme and of environmental health interventions in reducing illness and death from diarrhoea and malnutrition in the study age group. However, none of the articles offered results that might elucidate a joint effect of these public policies on an interaction model, revealing a gap in the literature on these diseases attributable particularly to poverty.


Assuntos
Desnutrição , Pobreza , Brasil , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Saúde Ambiental , Humanos , Renda , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle
4.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54758

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. This paper highlights the important leadership role of the public health sector, working with other governmental sectors and nongovernmental entities, to advance environmental public health in Latin America and the Carib-bean toward the achievement of 2030 Sustainable Development Goal 3: Health and Well-Being. The most pressing current and future environmental public health threats are discussed, followed by a brief review of major historical and current international and regional efforts to address these concerns. The paper concludes with a discussion of three major components of a regional environmental public health agenda that responsible parties can undertake to make significant progress toward ensuring the health and well-being of all people throughout Latin America and the Caribbean.


[RESUMEN]. En este artículo se destaca el importante papel de liderazgo que tiene el sector de la salud pública, en colaboración con otros sectores gubernamentales y entidades no gubernamentales, en el fomento de la salud pública medioambiental en América Latina y el Caribe con el fin de alcanzar para el 2030 el Objetivo de Desarrollo Sostenible número 3: salud y bienestar. Se abordan las amenazas de salud pública medioambi-ental actuales y futuras más urgentes, y se presenta una breve revisión de las principales medidas históricas y actuales adoptadas a nivel regional e internacional para abordar estas cuestiones. El artículo finaliza con un análisis de los tres principales componentes de un programa regional de salud pública ambiental que las partes responsables pueden ejecutar para realizar progresos significativos en la garantía de la salud y el bienestar de todos en América Latina y el Caribe.


[RESUMO]. Este artigo destaca o importante papel de liderança do setor de saúde pública, trabalhando com outros seto-res governamentais e entidades não governamentais, para promover a saúde pública ambiental na América Latina e no Caribe a fim de atingir o Objetivo de Desenvolvimento Sustentável 3 para 2030: Saúde e Bem- Estar. São discutidas as ameaças ambientais mais urgentes para a saúde pública, atuais e futuras, seguidas por uma breve revisão dos principais esforços históricos e atuais, internacionais e regionais, para abordar essas preocupações. O artigo conclui com uma discussão de três componentes essenciais de uma agenda regional de saúde pública ambiental que as partes responsáveis podem adotar para avançar significativa-mente no sentido de garantir a saúde e o bem-estar de todas as pessoas na América Latina e no Caribe.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Saúde Ambiental , Meio Ambiente e Saúde Pública , Equidade em Saúde , Política de Saúde , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , América , Mudança Climática , Saúde Ambiental , Meio Ambiente e Saúde Pública , Equidade em Saúde , Política de Saúde , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , América , Mudança Climática , Saúde Ambiental , Meio Ambiente e Saúde Pública , Equidade em Saúde , Política de Saúde , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , América
5.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54653

RESUMO

[EXTRACT]. The UN General Assembly in September 2021 will bring coun-tries together at a critical time for marshalling collective action to tackle the global environmental crisis. They will meet again at the biodiversity summit in Kunming, China, and the climate conference (COP26) in Glasgow, UK. Ahead of these pivotal meetings, we—the editors of health journals worldwide—call for urgent action to keep average global temperature increases below 1.5°C, halt the destruction of nature, and protect health.Health is already being harmed by global temperature increa-ses and the destruction of the natural world, a state of affairs health professionals have been bringing attention to for decades.1The science is unequivocal; a global increase of 1.5°C above the pre-industrial average and the continued loss of biodiversity risk catastrophic harm to health that will be impossible to reverse.2,3Despite the world’s necessary preoccupation with COVID-19, we cannot wait for the pandemic to pass to rapidly reduce emissions.Reflecting the severity of the moment, this editorial appears in health journals across the world. We are united in recogni-sing that only fundamental and equitable changes to societies will reverse our current trajectory.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Temperatura , COVID-19 , Emergências , Saúde Ambiental , Aquecimento Global
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444242

RESUMO

Little is known about the environmental health-related policies and practices of early care and education (ECE) programs that contribute to childhood asthma, particularly in Oklahoma where child asthma rates (9.8%) and rates of uncontrolled asthma among children with asthma (60.0%) surpass national rates (8.1% and 50.3%, respectively). We conducted a cross-sectional survey with directors of Oklahoma-licensed ECE programs to assess policies and practices related to asthma control and to evaluate potential differences between Centers and Family Childcare Homes (FCCHs). Surveyed ECEs (n = 476) included Centers (56.7%), FCCHs (40.6%), and other program types (2.7%). Almost half (47.2%) of directors reported never receiving any asthma training. More Center directors were asthma-trained than FCCH directors (61.0% versus 42.0%, p < 0.0001). Most ECEs used asthma triggers, including bleach (88.5%) and air fresheners (73.6%). Centers were more likely to use bleach daily than were FCCHs (75.6% versus 66.8%, p = 0.04). FCCHs used air fresheners more than did Centers (79.0% versus 61.0%, p < 0.0001). The majority of ECEs (74.8%) used pesticides indoors. Centers applied indoor pesticides more frequently (i.e., monthly or more often) than did FCCHs (86.0% versus 58.0%, p < 0.0001). Policy, educational, and technical assistance interventions are needed to reduce asthma triggers and improve asthma control in Oklahoma ECEs.


Assuntos
Asma , Creches , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Saúde Ambiental , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Oklahoma/epidemiologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Environmental risk assessments and interventions to mitigate environmental risks are essential to protect public health. While the objective measurement of environmental hazards is important, it is also critical to address the subjective perception of health risks. A population's perception of environmental health hazards is a powerful driving force for action and engagement in safety and health behaviors and can also inform the development of effective and more sustainable environmental health policies. To date, no instruments are available to assess risk perception of environmental health hazards in South America even though there are many concerning issues in the region, including mining. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to adapt and validate an environmental health risk perception questionnaire in a Chilean population affected by mining activity among other risks frequently reported in Latin American countries and included the collection of information on trust on public information sources. METHODS: We adapted an Australian risk perception questionnaire for validation in an adult population from a Chilean mining community. This adaptation included two blinded translations (direct, inverse), a pre-test study (n = 20) and a review by environmental health experts. Principal Component Analyses (PCA) was used to identify factors within major domains of interest. The Bartlett test of sphericity, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure and the Cronbach α test were used to assess the instrument's validity and reliability. The instrument was pilot tested in 205 adults from a mining community in Chañaral. RESULTS: The final adapted questionnaire proved to be a good instrument to measure risk perception in a community chronically exposed to mining waste. For community risks, four factors explained 59.4% of the variance. "Global Issues" (30.2%) included air pollution, contamination of mining, ozone layer depletion and vector diseases. For personal risks, the first two components explained 59.5% of the variance, the main factor (36.7%) was "unhealthy behaviors within the household". For trust in information, the first factor (36.2%) included as main sources "Media and authorities". The Cronbach α ranged between 0.68 and 0.75; and the KMO test between 0.7 to 0.79 for community and personal risks and trust. CONCLUSIONS: The final questionnaire is a simple, reliable and useful instrument that can assist in evaluating environmental health risk perceptions in Latin American countries.


Assuntos
Saúde Ambiental , Percepção , Austrália , Chile , América Latina , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Rev Infirm ; 70(272): 30-31, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238494

RESUMO

In order to be more consistent with their care giving values, a growing number of health professionals are looking for more environmentally friendly care practices. The health crisis we are going through strongly questions the footprint of care in terms of sustainable development and environmental health. Changes are possible; training courses exist to assimilate eco-actions.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Saúde Ambiental , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300003

RESUMO

The destruction of World Trade Center on 11 September 2001 exposed local community members to a complex mixture of known carcinogens and potentially carcinogenic substances. To date, breast cancer has not been characterized in detail in the WTC-exposed civilian populations. The cancer characteristics of breast cancer patients were derived from the newly developed Pan-Cancer Database at the WTC Environmental Health Center (WTC EHC). We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program breast cancer data as a reference source. Between May 2002 and 31 December 2019, 2840 persons were diagnosed with any type of cancer at the WTC EHC, including 601 patients with a primary breast cancer diagnosis (592 women and 9 men). There was a higher proportion of grade 3 (poorly differentiated) tumors (34%) among the WTC EHC female breast cancers compared to that of the SEER-18 data (25%). Compared to that of the SEER data, female breast cancers in the WTC EHC had a lower proportion of luminal A (88% and 65%, respectively), higher proportion of luminal B (13% and 15%, respectively), and HER-2-enriched (5.5% and 7%, respectively) subtypes. These findings suggest considerable differences in the breast cancer characteristics and distribution of breast cancer intrinsic subtypes in the WTC-exposed civilian population compared to that of the general population. This is important because of the known effect of molecular subtypes on breast cancer prognosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Ataques Terroristas de 11 de Setembro , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Carcinógenos , Saúde Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Sobreviventes
11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(16): 10923-10927, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34310109

RESUMO

In the United States (U.S.), chemical evaluations and assessments are conducted by seven federal agencies responding to distinct statutory requirements and focusing on different exposure scenarios. While risk assessment is a fundamental concept in public health practice and policy, there is no clear, central, and concise summary of these processes. The novel infographic presented here depicts more than 30 different evaluation and assessment processes conducted by federal agencies for chemicals found in the environment, workplace, consumer products, hazardous waste sites, food, and/or cosmetics. The majority of these assessments are statutorily required. Most serve as sources of authoritative information to provide public health guidance or recommendations. Less than half directly result in risk management actions or regulations. Understanding these roles and processes can facilitate engagement from the broader community, including by highlighting priority areas for research to inform public health policy. This infographic also illustrates the opportunity and need for further intra- and interagency collaboration and coordination - including a particular focus on aggregate risk assessment, given that the population regularly experiences exposures from multiple sources crossing agency domains.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública , Gestão de Riscos , Saúde Ambiental , Governo Federal , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos , Local de Trabalho
12.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1324, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although many indoor public places have implemented smoke-free regulations, private homes have remained sources of tobacco smoke pollutants. This study examined differences in urinary cotinine concentrations in the Korean non-smoking adult population between living in smoking and smoke-free homes, and the relationship of urinary cotinine concentrations with socio-demographic factors in smoke-free homes. METHODS: Samples from 2575 non-smoking adults (≥19 years old) in the Korean National Environmental Health Survey cycle 3 (2015-2017), a representative Korean study, were used. Smoking and smoke-free homes were defined based on whether there were smokers at homes. Weighted linear regression models were used to determine urinary cotinine concentrations and identify factors associated with urinary cotinine. RESULTS: The geometric mean of urinary cotinine concentrations for non-smoking adults living in smoking homes was 2.1 µg/L (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8-2.4), which was significantly higher than the mean of 1.3 µg/L (95% CI = 1.2-1.4) for those living in smoke-free homes. Urinary cotinine concentrations were different significantly by home smoking status in most socio-demographic subgroups. Data from smoke-free home showed urinary cotinine concentration in adults was significantly higher in those who lived in homes with ventilation duration < 30 min/day, those who spent more time indoors at home, those who spent less time outdoors, and those who worked in non-manual or manual occupations. CONCLUSIONS: The urinary cotinine concentration in Korean non-smoking adults living in smoking homes was higher than that in adults living in smoke-free homes. Even in smoke-free homes, home-related factors, such as ventilation duration and time spent indoors, were associated with urinary cotinine concentration. Further study is warranted to examine potential sources of tobacco smoke pollution in smoke-free homes.


Assuntos
Cotinina , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Adulto , Cotinina/análise , Saúde Ambiental , Humanos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise , Ventilação , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199698

RESUMO

The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing worldwide. Recent experimental studies suggested that phthalates might induce NAFLD. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between phthalates metabolites and NAFLD in the human population. This cross-sectional analysis was performed using data from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey II (2012-2014) among Korean adults (n = 5800). NAFLD was diagnosed using the hepatic steatosis index (HSI) in the absence of other causes of chronic liver diseases. Among the participants (mean age 46 years, 47.5% male), the prevalence of NAFLD was associated with urinary levels of mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate, mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) compared to the reference group. In the multivariate model, the odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence interval (CI) for NAFLD were 1.33 (1.00-1.78) and 1.39 (1.00-1.92) in the 3rd and 4th quartile of MEHHP, respectively. Based on the study findings, high levels of urinary phthalates are associated with the prevalence of NAFLD in Korean adults. Further investigation is required to elucidate the causal relationship.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Ácidos Ftálicos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Saúde Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/induzido quimicamente , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205009

RESUMO

Extensive scholarship has demonstrated that communities of color, low-income communities, and Indigenous communities face greater environmental and health hazards compared to communities with more White or affluent people. Low-income, Indigenous, Black, and/or other populations of color are also more likely to lack access to health care facilities, healthy food, and adequate formal education opportunities. Despite the mountains of evidence that demonstrate the existence and significance of the elevated toxic social and environmental exposures experienced by these communities, the inclusion of these factors into chemical evaluations has been scarce. In this paper, we demonstrate a process built with publicly available data and simple geospatial techniques that could be utilized by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to incorporate cumulative approaches into risk assessments under the Toxic Substances Control Act. The use of these approaches, particularly as they relate to identifying potentially exposed and susceptible subpopulations, would help USEPA develop appropriate risk estimates and mitigation strategies to protect disproportionately burdened populations from the adverse effects of chemical exposures. By utilizing such approaches to inform risk evaluation and mitigation, USEPA can identify and protect those most burdened and impacted by toxic chemicals, and finally begin to close the gap of environmental health inequities.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Saúde Ambiental , Formaldeído , Substâncias Perigosas/toxicidade , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency
15.
S Afr Fam Pract (2004) ; 63(1): e1-e3, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212751

RESUMO

In the wake of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the links between poor hygiene, unclean environments and human health cannot be overemphasised, particularly in South Africa with its high incidence of infectious diseases and overburdened health system. One very controllable factor that is often overlooked is the poor disposal of litter and waste management and its adverse effects on public health. By wearing masks, regular handwashing and sanitising, as well as making sure that neighbourhoods and public spaces are clean and safe, the spread of COVID-19 and other diseases can be prevented.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Saúde Ambiental/organização & administração , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Saúde Pública/métodos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Higiene/normas , Condições Sociais , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , África do Sul/epidemiologia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199270

RESUMO

Mercury is widely distributed in the environment, and a plausible association between mercury exposure and hepatic damage has been reported. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which comprises a spectrum of liver diseases, has recently been recognized in non-obese subjects. However, there have been no studies on the relationship between internal mercury levels and NAFLD in non-obese individuals. Therefore, we investigated the association between blood mercury levels and NAFLD in non-obese subjects. Cross-sectional data (n = 5919) were obtained from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (2012-2014). NAFLD was defined using the hepatic steatosis index (HSI). Blood mercury levels were log-transformed and divided into quartiles based on a weighted sample distribution. The association between blood mercury levels and NAFLD was analyzed using a multivariate logistic analysis after body mass index stratification. The geometric mean of blood mercury in the overweight group was significantly higher than that of the non-obese group (p < 0.001). The weighted frequencies of patients with NAFLD based on the HSI were 3.0-7.2% for the non-obese subjects and 52.3-63.2% for the overweight subjects. In the multivariate analysis, blood mercury levels were positively associated with NAFLD for both the overweight and non-obese groups (all p for trend < 0.001). Increased blood mercury levels are closely associated with NAFLD. In particular, mercury could be a risk factor for NAFLD in the non-obese population.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Saúde Ambiental , Humanos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/induzido quimicamente , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201356

RESUMO

Bushfires substantially increase the environmental health risks for people living in affected areas, especially the disadvantaged (e.g., those experiencing health inequities due to their socio-economic status, racial/ethnic backgrounds, geographic location and/or sexual orientation) and those with pre-existing health conditions. Pregnant women exposed to bushfire smoke are at a greater risk of adverse pregnancy and foetal outcomes, especially if they smoke tobacco, which may compound the toxic impacts. Bushfires may also exacerbate mental stress, leading to an increase in smoking. There are gaps in the evidence and more research is required on the combined effect of bushfire smoke and tobacco smoke on pregnant populations.


Assuntos
Fumaça , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Saúde Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Gestantes , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Fumar , Tabaco
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(12)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208244

RESUMO

The effects of environmental exposure on human health have been widely explored by scholars in health geography for decades. However, recent advances in geospatial technologies, especially the development of mobile approaches to collecting real-time and high-resolution individual data, have enabled sophisticated methods for assessing people's environmental exposure. This study proposes an individual environmental exposure assessment system (IEEAS) that integrates objective real-time monitoring devices and subjective sensing tools to provide a composite way for individual-based environmental exposure data collection. With field test data collected in Chicago and Beijing, we illustrate and discuss the advantages of the proposed IEEAS and the composite analysis that could be applied. Data collected with the proposed IEEAS yield relatively accurate measurements of individual exposure in a composite way, and offer new opportunities for developing more sophisticated ways to measure individual environmental exposure. With the capability to consider both the variations in environmental risks and human mobility in high spatial and temporal resolutions, the IEEAS also helps mitigate some uncertainties in environmental exposure assessment and thus enables a better understanding of the relationship between individual environmental exposure and health outcomes.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Saúde Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Geografia , Humanos , Incerteza
19.
Epidemiol Prev ; 45(3): 214-217, 2021.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212703

RESUMO

Plants not only provide ecosystem services, but also have real therapeutic effects: they prevent metabolic and degenerative diseases, improve sleep and mood, promote cardiorespiratory functions and healing, reduce the onset of cancer. Regularly walking in the forest induces the birth of new neurons and protects against the onset of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases; greater numbers of trees in the cities favour sociability and decrease the number of crimes; even just 10 more trees in a neighbourhood improve well-being and reduce pathologies. Trees are also essential to mitigate the climate, attenuate heat islands, absorb pollutants and carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and are the main weapon against climate change. But human beings go on deforesting, extensively cutting trees and burning them as renewable energy. This self-harm must be stopped.


Assuntos
Saúde Ambiental , Árvores , Cidades , Humanos , Itália
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Military personnel are frequently exposed to environmental pollutants that can cause a variety of diseases. METHODS: This review analyzed publications regarding epidemiological and biomonitoring studies on occupationally-exposed military personnel. RESULTS: The exposures include sulfur mustard, organ chlorines, combustion products, fuel vapors, and ionizing and exciting radiations. Important factors to be considered are the lengths and intensities of exposures, its proximity to the sources of environmental pollutants, as well as confounding factors (cigarette smoke, diet, photo-type, healthy warrior effect, etc.). Assessment of environmental and individual exposures to pollutants is crucial, although often omitted, because soldiers have often been evaluated based on reported health problems rather than on excessive exposure to pollutants. Biomarkers of exposures and effects are tools to explore relationships between exposures and diseases in military personnel. Another observation from this review is a major problem from the lack of suitable control groups. CONCLUSIONS: This review indicates that only studies which analyzed epidemiological and molecular biomarkers in both exposed and control groups would provide evidence-based conclusions on exposure and disease risk in military personnel.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Militares , Exposição Ocupacional , Exposição Ambiental , Saúde Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Fumaça
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