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2.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(supp 3): e20190236, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365610

RESUMO

To understand the increasingly tenuous relationship between ourselves and the finite resource base upon which we depend for all sustenance, an exploration of recent history and basic human behavior is warranted. An attempt is made to shed light on how short-term economic demands have come to take priority over nearly all other long-term aspects of our existence. Without full recognition of our historical and cultural trajectories in relation to the modern mass mentality of materialism, consumerism and wealth, there is little possibility to develop or implement truly functional strategies that can be utilized indefinitely.


Assuntos
Saúde Ambiental , Internacionalidade , Recursos Naturais , Valores Sociais , Humanos
3.
Global Health ; 15(1): 52, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The adverse health impacts of climate change are increasing on a global level. However, knowledge about climate change and health is still unavailable to many global citizens, in particular on adaptation measures and co-benefits of health mitigation. Educational technologies, such as massive open online courses (MOOCs), may have a high potential for providing access to information about climate change links to health for a global audience. MAIN BODY: We developed three MOOCs addressing the link between climate change and health to take advantage of the methodology's broad reach and accelerate knowledge dissemination on the nexus of climate change and health. The primary objective was to translate an existing face-to-face short course that only reached a few participants on climate change and health into globally accessible learning opportunities. In the following, we share and comment on our lessons learned with the three MOOCs, with a focus on global teaching in the realm of climate change and health. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the three MOOCs attracted a global audience with diverse educational backgrounds, and a large number of participants from low-income countries. Our experience highlights that MOOCs may play a part in global capacity building, potentially for other health-related topics as well, as we have found that our MOOCs have attracted participants within low-resource contexts. MOOCs may be an effective method for teaching and training global students on health topics, in this case on the complex links and dynamics between climate change and health and may further act as an enabler for equitable access to quality education.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Educação a Distância , Saúde Ambiental/educação , Saúde Global/educação , Humanos
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(Suppl 2): 332, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254081

RESUMO

In this study, we found that machine learning was able to effectively estimate student learning outcomes geo-spatially across all the campuses in a large, urban, independent school district. The machine learning showed that key factors in estimating the student learning outcomes included the number of days students were absent from school. In turn, one of the most important factors in estimating the number of days a student was absent was whether or not the student had asthma. This highlights the importance of environmental public health for student learning outcomes.


Assuntos
Absenteísmo , Asma/epidemiologia , Saúde Ambiental/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Sucesso Acadêmico , Adolescente , Criança , Saúde Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Texas/epidemiologia
5.
Global Health ; 15(1): 40, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Industrial food animal production (IFAP) is characterized by dense animal housing, high throughput, specialization, vertical integration, and corporate consolidation. Research in high-income countries has documented impacts on public health, the environment, and animal welfare. IFAP is proliferating in some low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where increased consumption of animal-source foods has occurred alongside rising incomes and efforts to address undernutrition. However, in these countries IFAP's negative externalities could be amplified by inadequate infrastructure and resources to document issues and implement controls. METHODS: Using UN FAOSTAT data, we selected ten LMICs where food animal production is expanding and assessed patterns of IFAP growth. We conducted a mixed methods review to explore factors affecting growth, evidence of impacts, and information gaps; we searched several databases for sources in English, Spanish, and Portuguese. Data were extracted from 450+ sources, comprising peer-reviewed literature, government documents, NGO reports, and news articles. RESULTS: In the selected LMICs, not only has livestock production increased, but the nature of expansion appears to have involved industrialized methods, to varying extents based on species and location. Expansion was promoted in some countries by explicit government policies. Animal densities, corporate structure, and pharmaceutical reliance in some areas mirrored conditions found in high-income countries. There were many reported weaknesses in regulation and capacity for enforcement surrounding production and animal welfare. Global trade increasingly influences movement of and access to inputs such as feed. There was a nascent, compelling body of scientific literature documenting IFAP's negative environmental and public health externalities in some countries. CONCLUSIONS: LMICs may be attracted to IFAP for economic development and food security, as well as the potential for increasing access to animal-source foods and the role these foods can play in alleviating undernutrition. IFAP, however, is resource intensive. Industrialized production methods likely result in serious negative public health, environmental, and animal welfare impacts in LMICs. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic effort to assess IFAP trends through an environmental public health lens for a relatively large group of LMICs. It contributes to the literature by outlining urgent research priorities aimed at informing national and international decisions about the future of food animal production and efforts to tackle global undernutrition.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Saúde Ambiental , Indústria Alimentícia , Desenvolvimento Industrial , Saúde Pública , Animais , Humanos
6.
Sante Publique ; S1(HS): 207-217, 2019 May 13.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210481

RESUMO

Growing urbanisation in the last decades and the increase in population density have significantly contributed to lessening contacts between people and nature. In response to this phenomenon, the consideration given to the role played by nature in urban environments has increased uninterruptedly, supported by the social demand for a greener urban environment. Health impact assessment is an approach aimed at anticipating the consequences of policies, projects or laws on health, prior to their implementation, and offering suggestions for readjustments that limit negative impacts and reinforce positive ones. It has been developing in France since 2010 mostly in connection with urban planning projects in which green space development is an important feature. This article examines HIA's capacity to influence urban planning choices and policies to make them greener, fairer and more beneficial to health.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Cidades , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde/métodos , Política de Saúde , Urbanização , Cidades , Saúde Ambiental , França , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Saúde da População Urbana , Reforma Urbana
7.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 733, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When communicating risks to the general population, the format of the epidemiological results may affect individual reactions. In environmental epidemiology, no study has compared the use of different statistical formats in communicating results to the population. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether the degree of concern expressed by residents of a high environmental risk site, regarding epidemiological results on cancer mortality in the area where they live, is influenced by the statistical indicator used in communication. METHODS: A sample of residents in the high environmental risk area of Livorno (Italy) was randomized to respond to different questionnaires, in which the same epidemiological results were expressed by two alternative risk indexes: percent excess risk and time needed to harm, defined as the number of days that one has to wait for, on average, to observe 1 death in excess in respect to the baseline. Participants were asked to express their concern on a quantitative scale or to rank different diseases according to their impressions. The statistical analysis was performed using an Inverse Probability of Treatment Weighting approach based on propensity score, in order to account for sample stratification and adjust for unbalance between groups occurring despite randomization. RESULTS: The probability of high concern levels was larger under time needed to harm than under percent excess, with a difference between proportions of 6.7% (95% Confidence Interval, 0.6,12.8%). Mortality from sexual glands cancer was ranked as more worrisome and mortality from thyroid gland cancer as less worrisome under time needed to harm than under percent excess. No rank change was found for lung cancer. Larger differences between the two indicators arose in subjects with higher education or better numerical skills. CONCLUSIONS: Communicating epidemiological results to the population is not a neutral task. The degree of concern and judgments when comparing results on different diseases may depend on the risk indicators used. Translating scientific results into lay language should not exempt from careful evaluation of the impact of this translation on lay people.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Saúde Ambiental/métodos , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Neoplasias Pulmonares/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
8.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 66(3): 4-5, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134594

RESUMO

The United Nation's 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are an urgent call to all countries for action to combat climate change and its impacts (United Nations, 2015). In response, Taiwan's highest national body, the Executive Yuan, has designated health as one of eight primary areas of threats and challenges in the policy document "Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change in Taiwan". Further, the Ministry of Education has been promoting climate-change adaptation education since 2012 and, in 2016, the Teaching Alliance was established to promote the integration of climate change issues into public education curricula as well as resource sharing and multidisciplinary collaboration (Ministry of Education, 2019). The focus of nursing on primary healthcare and community care makes nursing professionals critical to successfully attaining UN SDGs (Shmian, 2016). In addition, the environmental health component of nursing education addresses core global health and public health competences directly (Clark, Raffray, Hendricks, & Gagnon, 2016). The American Nurses Association (2013) includes environmental health as one of the eleven standards of professional performance for public health nursing. This column invites Teaching Alliance educators to share their experiences in multidisciplinary professional, teaching, and practice environments in articles that hopefully enhance readers' knowledge of adaptation strategies and of the sustainable development of public health under climate change.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Saúde Ambiental/educação , Política Pública , Educação em Enfermagem , Humanos , Enfermagem em Saúde Pública , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Taiwan , Nações Unidas
9.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(4): 342-344, 2019 Apr 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982264

RESUMO

With the acceleration of global urbanization, the human health impact from growing e-waste has become increasingly serious. Several regions of China are heavily polluted by e-waste, which has led to adverse health outcomes. Critical issues need to be addressed, including how to identify adverse health effects and conduct the health risk assessment for prevention. Recently, globally governmental-based regulations and enforcement of legislation regarding the export, recycling and disposal process of e-waste have made certain achievements. In this issue, we published several articles, which summarized and analyzed the relationship between e-waste pollution and adverse health effects from various aspects such as exposure analysis, adverse health outcomes, mechanisms and risk assessment. These findings could provide basic data and guidelines for health risk assessment and disease prevention of e-waste pollution in China.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Saúde Global , Resíduos Perigosos , Reciclagem , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , China , Exposição Ambiental , Saúde Ambiental , Humanos , Medição de Risco
10.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 43(3): 221-227, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958630

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess homeowners' intentions to make voluntary improvements to their homes following a warrant-of-fitness (WOF) assessment to highlight health and safety issues. METHODS: We recruited 83 homeowners, including nine landlords, in Taranaki, New Zealand, who agreed to have a WOF assessment carried out on their homes. We interviewed 40 of the homeowners to ascertain what improvements they planned to make, and barriers to improving their homes. RESULTS: Of the 83 properties, 76 (92%) failed the WOF. Of the 40 interview participants, 31 (76%) had addressed or planned to address at least one of the identified issues with the home. Participants were least likely to address identified issues with security stays on windows, and absence of ground vapour barrier. Reasons for not addressing identified issues included cost, and a belief that making the improvement would not benefit health and safety. CONCLUSIONS: Information about housing defects appears insufficient to encourage people to make improvements to their homes to meet a specified health and safety standard. Implications for public health: Better understanding of how particular housing defects pose a risk for health and safety, and provision of funding support in some cases, may encourage people to invest in safer, healthier homes.


Assuntos
Saúde Ambiental , Habitação/normas , Segurança/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 28(1): e2018117, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970073

RESUMO

The Drinking Water Quality Surveillance Information System (SISAGUA) is an instrument used in Brazil to record forms of water supply and water quality monitoring data recommended by the potable water standard. This information is used in the management of health risks associated with water supply in the country and supports the surveillance of drinking water quality, the structuring of public policies in the area of environmental health and sanitation, the prevention of waterborne diseases, and the characterization of the quality of water consumed by the Brazilian population. This article describes the history of SISAGUA and presents the main features of its current version (SISAGUA 4) regarding data collection and processing, variables, uses and accesses, data coverage and quality, as well as the system's applicability, limitations and challenges.


Assuntos
Água Potável/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Qualidade da Água/normas , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Brasil , Água Potável/normas , Saúde Ambiental , Humanos , Política Pública , Saneamento/normas
12.
Rev Environ Health ; 34(2): 171-186, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30990788

RESUMO

In developing countries, one of the most severe modern-day dilemmas is the management of industrial wastewater. In these countries, industrial wastewater effluents are directly discharged into the natural drain, a sewer system, an internal septic tank or a nearby field. Some of these industrial wastewater effluents are inadequately treated or untreated before being discharged. In recent years, in developing countries, urbanization and industrial activities have led to environmental deterioration. This paper was designed to review the health and environmental impacts of inadequately treated or untreated industrial wastewater effluents in Pakistan. The quality of industrial wastewater effluents is responsible for the degradation of the receiving water bodies. This is due to the reason that inadequately treated or untreated industrial wastewater effluents may cause eutrophication in the receiving water bodies and also form a favorable condition for toxin-producing waterborne pathogens. In order to comply with the wastewater guidelines and legislations, there is a need for proper treatment before discharge. In order to minimize the risk to the environment and public health, there is a need for proper treatment processes for industrial wastewater effluents. To achieve unpolluted discharge of industrial wastewater into the receiving water bodies, regular monitoring, proper and suitable treatment, careful planning and appropriate legislation are recommended.


Assuntos
Saúde Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Resíduos Industriais/efeitos adversos , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Saúde Ambiental/economia , Saúde Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Eutrofização , Humanos , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Paquistão , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(14): 13931-13947, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949945

RESUMO

The suburbanisation of modern cities has forced many people in locations that are far less accessible than their prior residences, requiring motorised massive transport. Sustainable suburban development characteristics proposed to be relevant to transit-oriented development (TOD) are defined, including walking and cycling, population density, employment opportunities, urban form, open space and mixed-use land. In the study, an urban design proposal of Reedy Creek Town Centre is intended to guide the sustainable development of the outlying community as an integrated and dense urban centre based around the new rail station. Moreover, a range of residential development choices and commercial office uses supported by convenience retailing and associated services are providing for a diverse range of people having varying incomes and social interests who live and work in suburban area. This paper, which builds on the work of transit-oriented community proposal by dissecting the principles and approaches of TOD, establishes an urban design framework for suburban development to reveal the key sustainability strategies. The result concludes that transit-oriented development holds considerable promise for placing rapidly suburbanising cities on more comprehensive sustainable strategies, which give a basis to guide appropriate growth, change and development, and to prevent development inconsistency.


Assuntos
População Suburbana , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/economia , Cidades , Saúde Ambiental , Humanos , Veículos Automotores , Queensland , Ferrovias , Características de Residência , População Urbana
15.
Acta Trop ; 194: 181-188, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946811

RESUMO

This paper provides a view of the major facts and figures related to infectious diseases with a focus on food-borne and water-borne diseases and their link with environmental factors and climate change. The global burden of food-borne diseases for 31 selected hazards was estimated by the World Health Organization at 33 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 2010 with 40% of this burden concentrated among children under 5 years of age. The highest burden per population of food-borne diseases is found in Africa, followed by Southeast Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean sub-regions. Unsafe water used for the cleaning and processing of food is a key risk factors contributing to food-borne diseases. The role of quality and quantity of water to the general burden of infectious diseases deserves attention, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, as its effects go beyond the food chain. Water-related infectious diseases are a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, and climate change effects will exacerbate the challenges for the public health sector for both food-borne and water-borne diseases. Selected case studies from Africa and Asia show that (i) climate change extreme events, such as floods, may exacerbate the risks for infectious diseases spreading through water systems, and (ii) improvements related to drinking water, sanitation and hygiene could result in a significant reduction of intestinal parasitic infections among school-aged children. There is a need to better anticipate the impacts of climate change on infectious diseases and fostering multi-stakeholder engagement and multi-sectoral collaborations for integrated interventions at schools, community and household levels. The paper calls for giving priority to improving the environmental conditions affecting food-borne and water-borne infectious diseases under climate change.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Saúde Ambiental , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Microbiologia da Água , África/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Pessoas com Deficiência , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Saneamento , Organização Mundial da Saúde
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(5): 307, 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028501

RESUMO

Over the years, pesticides have become a dominant feature of Ghana's agriculture. In the past, pesticides usage was restricted to the cocoa, cotton, vegetables, and fruits sectors. Today, there is a widespread use of pesticides in the cultivation of yam. Since the introduction of pesticides into yam production, farmers have expressed satisfaction about the relief it has brought them with regard to labor and productivity. However, there has been public concern about the human and environmental health impacts of pesticides. In this study, 100 farmers were interviewed through a structured questionnaire to determine their knowledge, awareness, and use practices of pesticides and to determine their level of exposure. The study revealed that the common pesticides currently being used for yam production are herbicides. Although the farmers are aware of the risks associated with the use of pesticides, they use more than the recommended doses and do not pay attention to the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) thereby predisposing themselves to the potential health effects of pesticides. A significant percentage (20 to 40%) of the farmers reported to have never used these PPEs and over 44% of them use glyphosate above the recommended dose (between 1.5 and 2 L/ha). This resulted in an average farmer exposure to glyphosate of 4.2 mg/kgBW/day, well above the acute reference dose (ARfD) of 0.5 mg/kgBW/day. The government should develop and implement programs to train pesticides dealers, educate farmers, enforce the laws on pesticides, and support farmers to uphold protective measures.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/estatística & dados numéricos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Agricultura/métodos , Dioscorea , Saúde Ambiental/métodos , Frutas , Gana , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/toxicidade , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Verduras
18.
Medisan ; 23(2)mar.-abr. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1006932

RESUMO

En noviembre del pasado año 2018 se efectuó en la ciudad de Santiago de Cuba el II Encuentro de Alcaldes y Alcaldesas de Municipios y Comunidades Saludables en la Región de las Américas. En este artículo se exponen los acuerdos tomados en este evento en cuanto a la Estrategia Regional de Promoción de Salud por parte de los diferentes países participantes y, además, se dan a conocer algunas de las acciones ejecutadas al respecto y otras en proyección en la provincia de Santiago de Cuba.


On November of last year 2018, it was hold in Santiago de Cuba city the II Meeting of Mayors and Mayoresses from Municipalities and Healthy Communities in the America Region. In this work, the agreements taken in this event as for the Regional Strategy of Health Promotion on the part of the different participant countries are exposed and, also, some of the tasks implemented on this respect and others in projection in Santiago de Cuba province.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Saúde Ambiental , Participação da Comunidade , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Promoção da Saúde , Cidade Saudável , Eventos Científicos e de Divulgação
20.
Hum Genet ; 138(6): 547-561, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968250

RESUMO

Air pollution is recognized as causal factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is associated with multiple CVD risk factors. Substantial research effort has been invested in understanding the linkages between genetic variation and CVD risk, resulting in over 50 CVD-associated genetic loci. More recently, gene-air pollution interaction studies have quantified the contribution of genetic variation to inter-individual heterogeneity in air pollution health risks, and aided in elucidating mechanisms of air pollution exposure health risks. Here, we perform a comprehensive review of gene-air pollution interaction studies for CVD, as well as risk factors and emerging CVD biomarkers. The literature review revealed that most published interaction studies have been candidate gene studies, causing observed interactions to cluster in a few genes related to detoxification (GSTM1 and GSTT1), inflammation (IL-6), iron processing (HFE), and microRNA processing (GEMIN4 and DGCR8). There have been a few genome-wide interaction studies with results indicating that interactions extend beyond commonly considered genetic loci. Gene-air pollution interactions are observed for exposure periods ranging from hours to years and a variety of air pollutants including particulate matter, gaseous pollutants, and pollutant sources such as traffic. Though the existing evidence for the existence of relevant gene-air pollution interactions for CVD outcomes is substantial, it could be strengthened by improved replication and meta-analyses as well as functional validation.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Saúde Ambiental/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
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