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1.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e18835, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent decades, advances in information technology have given new momentum to telemedicine research. These advances in telemedicine range from individual to population levels, allowing the exchange of patient information for diagnosis and management of health problems, primary care prevention, and education of physicians via distance learning. OBJECTIVE: This scientometric investigation aims to examine collaborative research networks, dominant research themes and disciplines, and seminal research studies that have contributed most to the field of telemedicine. This information is vital for scientists, institutions, and policy stakeholders to evaluate research areas where more infrastructural or scholarly contributions are required. METHODS: For analyses, we used CiteSpace (version 4.0 R5; Drexel University), which is a Java-based software that allows scientometric analysis, especially visualization of collaborative networks and research themes in a specific field. RESULTS: We found that scholarly activity has experienced a significant increase in the last decade. Most important works were conducted by institutions located in high-income countries. A discipline-specific shift from radiology to telestroke, teledermatology, telepsychiatry, and primary care was observed. The most important innovations that yielded a collaborative influence were reported in the following medical disciplines, in descending order: public environmental and occupational health, psychiatry, pediatrics, health policy and services, nursing, rehabilitation, radiology, pharmacology, surgery, respiratory medicine, neurosciences, obstetrics, and geriatrics. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a continuous rise in scholarly activity in telemedicine, we noticed several gaps in the literature. For instance, all the primary and secondary research central to telemedicine was conducted in the context of high-income countries, including the evidence synthesis approaches that pertained to implementation aspects of telemedicine. Furthermore, the research landscape and implementation of telemedicine infrastructure are expected to see exponential progress during and after the COVID-19 era.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Pesquisa , Telemedicina , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Assistência à Saúde , Educação a Distância , Saúde Ambiental , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Enfermagem , Saúde do Trabalhador , Pandemias , Médicos , Pneumonia Viral , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Psiquiatria , Publicações , Radiologia , Telerreabilitação
3.
J UOEH ; 42(3): 275-279, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879192

RESUMO

The Japan Environment Health and Children's Study (JECS) is an ongoing cohort study designed to evaluate the impact of various environmental factors on children's health. In this study, more than 100,000 pregnant women were recruited in 15 regional centers throughout Japan. Within the University of Occupational and Environmental Health, the departments of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Environmental Health, and the School of Health Sciences collaborate with the JECS University of Occupational and Environmental Health Subunit Center in advancing research in this study. Several original articles based on JECS and written by our unit members were published in recent years. The aim of this review is to summarize these studies by JECS and University of Occupational and Environmental Health Subunit Center based on the data from JECS. We introduce research articles covering the following categories; environmental health, occupational health, and maternal and child health. Studies found associations between concentrations of metals and maternal health, such as premature birth, placenta previa and placenta accrete, associations between metals and IgE, dietary differences among occupational groups, associations between work-related factors and dietary behaviors, associations between job changes and pregnancy/delivery, mental and physical stress among pregnant women and influence on work, associations between sleep and gestational diabetes, and associations between an ability to push up in the prone position and infant development. This review may promote the development of new research, such as collaborative research projects, including clinical and social medicine, epidemiological studies and laboratory investigations.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Saúde Ambiental , Saúde do Trabalhador , Universidades , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Gestacional , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E , Japão , Metais/metabolismo , Placenta Acreta , Placenta Prévia , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Trabalho
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961660

RESUMO

Leveraging the community of practice recently established through the U.S. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Disaster Research Response (DR2) working group, we used a modified Delphi method to identify and prioritize environmental health sciences Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and associated Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) research questions. Twenty-six individuals with broad expertise across a variety of environmental health sciences subdisciplines were selected to participate among 45 self-nominees. In Round 1, panelists submitted research questions and brief justifications. In Round 2, panelists rated the priority of each question on a nine-point Likert scale. Responses were trichotomized into priority categories (low priority; medium priority; and high priority). A research question was determined to meet consensus if at least 69.2% of panelists rated it within the same priority category. Research needs that did not meet consensus in round 2 were redistributed for re-rating. Fourteen questions met consensus as high priority in round 2, and an additional 14 questions met consensus as high priority in round 3. We discuss the impact and limitations of using this approach to identify and prioritize research questions in the context of a disaster response.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Saúde Ambiental , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral , Pesquisa , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Técnica Delfos , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (U.S.) , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
5.
Aquat Toxicol ; 227: 105594, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911329

RESUMO

Diatoms are highly sensitive to perturbations in their environment and are thus useful as bioindicators for anthropogenic impacts such as pollution. However, there is no consensus about what aspects of diatom populations to measure (e.g., diversity, physiology, or morphology) and efficient and reliable survey protocols are lacking. Here, we evaluated the ecological status of diatom communities using both traditional and relatively novel methods on two islands (Deokjeok island and Daeijak island) affected by anthropogenic activities due to extensive agricultural practices and exploitation and that are under consideration for representative touristic sites in South Korea. Dissolved concentrations of metals and metalloid (As, Cu, Cr, Cd, Ni, Hg, Pb, and Zn) were below the ecological screening and toxicity reference values in water fractions but were above these values for sediment, particularly at one island, Deokjeok. The tested methods were generally consistent in finding little evidence for disruption of diatom communities, with dominance by Navicula and Gyrosigma, relatively high diversity, and typical abundance of lipid bodies and morphological deformities. However, analysis of lipid bodies and morphological deformities suggested greater potential anthropogenic disturbance at one site in Deokjeok. Future planning is required to ensure the maintenance of the near-pristine environments present on these islands.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Agricultura , China , Saúde Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Ilhas , Mercúrio/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , República da Coreia , Medição de Risco
8.
Rev Environ Health ; 35(3): 281-293, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853171

RESUMO

Objectives Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) pose the greatest threat to human health globally. The dramatic rise in early onset NCDs - such as childhood obesity, the allergy epidemic and an increasing burden of mental ill health in children and youth - reflect the profound early impact of modern environments on developing systems. The ORIGINS Project is a research platform enabling world class investigation of early antecedent pathways to NCDs, and how to curtail these. As well as facilitating strategic long-term research capacity, ORIGINS is a pipeline for short-term productivity through a series of clinical trials, early interventions, mechanistic studies, and targeted research questions to improve maternal and paternal health and the early environment. Methods ORIGINS is a decade-long collaborative initiative between the Joondalup Health Campus (JHC) and the Telethon Kids Institute (TKI) to establish a Western Australian (WA) birth cohort of 10,000 families, enrolled during pregnancy. It is currently funded to follow up participating children and their families to five years of age. Comprehensive data and biological samples are collected from participants at up to 15 different timepoints, from the first antenatal clinic visit. In the process, ORIGINS is creating a major research platform, consisting of an extensive, world class biobank and databank. Of key strength and novelty, ORIGINS includes a series of harmonised nested sub-projects integrated with clinical and diagnostic services and providing real-time feedback to improve the health of individuals and the community. Conclusions At its core, ORIGINS aims to improve the health and quality of life of the next generation through improved pathways to optimise the early environment and reduce adversity by promoting primary prevention, early detection and early intervention. This dynamic, interactive, community-based project not only provides novel research capacity, productivity, collaboration and translational impact on future generations - it is also anticipated to have flow on benefits for community engagement, cohesion and purpose. This will provide a sentinel example for tailored replication in other communities around the world as part of interconnected grass root strategies to improve planetary health.


Assuntos
Saúde Ambiental , Qualidade de Vida , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Austrália Ocidental
9.
Caracas; Observatorio Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación; ago.2020. 124-143 p. ilus.(Observador del Conocimiento. Revista Especializada en Gestión Social del Conocimiento, 5, 2).
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1118169

RESUMO

La nueva pandemia de Covid-19 nos obliga a un debate de naturaleza compleja, multi-dimensional y con factores en permanentes incertidumbres, que conduce a auto-reflexiones y redimensiones de nuestro papel, acciones y corresponsabilidades para con la sociedad y el futuro. Este ensayo aspira elevar, revalorar y configurar las reflexiones relevantes para el debate y las soluciones; considera tanto las condiciones históricas en las elaboraciones teóricas, como las razones paradigmáticas que nos ayudan a aproximarnos a los problemas y sus respuestas; reconoce el encuentro de los paradigmas de salud que el gobierno bolivariano impulsa y las estrategias, dinámicas, investigaciones, gestiones y logros al combatir y frenar la pandemia del Covid-19, que refuerza con lo que aquí denominamos "Paradigma de Salud y Ambiente para la Vida". Mediante estrategias descriptivo-reflexivas, y con gran alcance hacia el despliegue de la conceptualización y aplicación de los diez factores básicos integradores del paradigma referido, avanza en las ideas, propuestas y sueños necesarios para la consolidación de un Sistema Nacional de Salud Universal para Venezuela, al tiempo que apuntilla los requerimientos necesarios para el tránsito y la consolidación del mismo, y apuesta a propuestas concretas para el desarrollo del paradigma en sí(AU)


The new Covid-19 pandemic forces us to a debate of a complex, multi-dimensional nature and with factors in permanent uncertainties, which lead to self-reflections and re-dimensions of our role, actions and co-responsibilities towards society and the future. This essay aims to raise, re-evaluate and configure the reflections relevant to the debate and solutions; it considers both the historical conditions in the theoretical elaborations and the paradigmatic reasons that help us to approach the problems and their answers; recognizes the meeting of the health paradigms that the Bolivarian government promotes and the strategies, dynamics, investigations, efforts and achievements, in lighting and stopping the Covid-19 pandemic, which reinforces with what we call the "Paradigm of Health and Environment for Life". Through descriptive-reflective strategies, and with great scope towards the deployment of the conceptualization and application of the ten basic factors integrating the referred paradigm, it advances in the ideas, proposals and dreams necessary for the consolidation of a National Universal Health System for Venezuela, at the same time that it outlines the necessary requirements for its growth and consolidation, and sets out concrete proposals for the development of the paradigm itself(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Ciência , Venezuela , Saúde Ambiental , Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus , Meio Ambiente , Sistemas Nacionais de Saúde , Pandemias , Cobertura Universal de Saúde
10.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 159: 111439, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692669

RESUMO

Metal pollution is currently a major issue in marine ecosystems, as organisms, and particularly seabirds, are exposed and accumulating increased levels from several anthropogenic sources. A set of 13 metals were quantified in two gull species breeding in sympatry, and in two distinct colonies separated by ca. 400 km. Oxidative stress was measured, and stable isotope analyses were used to link metal contamination and oxidative stress with the trophic ecology of each species/population. There was a clear segregation of metal contamination between the two species and to a much lesser extent between colonies. Overall, Audouin's gull was the most contaminated species for most metals, once this species relies mainly on fish and other marine resources. The Yellow-legged gull feeds regularly on terrestrial food sources besides fish, which may dilute contamination levels. Oxidative stress responses were related with birds' trophic ecology and foraging habitat, but apparently not with metal contamination.


Assuntos
Charadriiformes , Animais , Cruzamento , Ecossistema , Saúde Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais , Estresse Oxidativo , Simpatria
12.
BMJ ; 370: m2322, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669369

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the health and environmental implications of adopting national food based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) at a national level and compared with global health and environmental targets. DESIGN: Modelling study. SETTING: 85 countries. PARTICIPANTS: Population of 85 countries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A graded coding method was developed and used to extract quantitative recommendations from 85 FBDGs. The health and environmental impacts of these guidelines were assessed by using a comparative risk assessment of deaths from chronic diseases and a set of country specific environmental footprints for greenhouse gas emissions, freshwater use, cropland use, and fertiliser application. For comparison, the impacts of adopting the global dietary recommendations of the World Health Organization and the EAT-Lancet Commission on Healthy Diets from Sustainable Food Systems were also analysed. Each guideline's health and sustainability implications were assessed by modelling its adoption at both the national level and globally, and comparing the impacts to global health and environmental targets, including the Action Agenda on Non-Communicable Diseases, the Paris Climate Agreement, the Aichi biodiversity targets related to land use, and the sustainable development goals and planetary boundaries related to freshwater use and fertiliser application. RESULTS: Adoption of national FBDGs was associated with reductions in premature mortality of 15% on average (95% uncertainty interval 13% to 16%) and mixed changes in environmental resource demand, including a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions of 13% on average (regional range -34% to 35%). When universally adopted globally, most of the national guidelines (83, 98%) were not compatible with at least one of the global health and environmental targets. About a third of the FBDGs (29, 34%) were incompatible with the agenda on non-communicable diseases, and most (57 to 74, 67% to 87%) were incompatible with the Paris Climate Agreement and other environmental targets. In comparison, adoption of the WHO recommendations was associated with similar health and environmental changes, whereas adoption of the EAT-Lancet recommendations was associated with 34% greater reductions in premature mortality, more than three times greater reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and general attainment of the global health and environmental targets. As an example, the FBDGs of the UK, US, and China were incompatible with the climate change, land use, freshwater, and nitrogen targets, and adopting guidelines in line with the EAT-Lancet recommendation could increase the number of avoided deaths from 78 000 (74 000 to 81 000) to 104 000 (96 000 to 112 000) in the UK, from 480 000 (445 000 to 516 000) to 585 000 (523 000 to 646 000) in the USA, and from 1 149 000 (1 095 000 to 1 204 000) to 1 802 000 (1 664 000 to 1 941 000) in China. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis suggests that national guidelines could be both healthier and more sustainable. Providing clearer advice on limiting in most contexts the consumption of animal source foods, in particular beef and dairy, was found to have the greatest potential for increasing the environmental sustainability of dietary guidelines, whereas increasing the intake of whole grains, fruits and vegetables, nuts and seeds, and legumes, reducing the intake of red and processed meat, and highlighting the importance of attaining balanced energy intake and weight levels were associated with most of the additional health benefits. The health results were based on observational data and assuming a causal relation between dietary risk factors and health outcomes. The certainty of evidence for these relations is mostly graded as moderate in existing meta-analyses.


Assuntos
Dieta/normas , Política Nutricional/legislação & jurisprudência , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/legislação & jurisprudência , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Doença Crônica/mortalidade , Dieta/tendências , Dieta Saudável/normas , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Saúde Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Gases de Efeito Estufa/efeitos adversos , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Política Nutricional/tendências , Medição de Risco , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Organização Mundial da Saúde/organização & administração
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 742: 140640, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721747

RESUMO

Phthalates and parabens are ubiquitous chemicals of public concern. This study aimed to investigate the use of personal care products (PCPs) as predictors of exposure to phthalates, parabens, and triclosan (TCS) among various age groups in a nationally representative population. The concentrations of eight phthalate metabolites, three parabens, and TCS were measured in a random spot urine sample in 5962 study participants (age range: 3-86 years). The information on PCPs use was obtained in seven categories over previous three months. The exposure risks to phthalates, parabens, and TCS were different according to the pattern of PCPs use in different age groups and gender. In adolescents and adults, females used all categories of PCPs more frequently than males, with statistical significance. The use rates of PCPs and the significant exposure risks to phthalates, parabens, and TCS associated with PCP use were more clearly observed in adults. The least square geometric means (LSGMs) of urinary methylparaben (MeP), ethylparaben (EtP), and propylparaben (PrP) steadily increased, as the cumulative number of used PCPs increased with statistical significance. The exposure risks to MeP were consistently observed with various PCPs use and showed a significant increase as the cumulative number of PCPs use increased in adults. Furthermore, the use of fragrance products, makeup, and air fresheners significantly increased the exposure risk to EtP in preschoolers. The significant exposure risk to mono-(3-carboxypropyl)- phthalate (MCPP) associated with nail polishes use was observed in preschoolers and adults. This study showed the associations between PCPs use and urinary concentrations of phthalates, parabens, and TCS in various age groups. Environmental health policies to reduce exposure to phthalates and parabens should be widely implemented, including industry regulations and increasing public awareness. Future studies are needed to explore other important exposure sources of these chemicals and their related adverse health effects.


Assuntos
Cosméticos , Poluentes Ambientais , Ácidos Ftálicos , Triclosan , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Saúde Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parabenos/análise , República da Coreia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 73, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Translational data analytics aims to apply data analytics principles and techniques to bring about broader societal or human impact. Translational data analytics for environmental health is an emerging discipline and the objective of this study is to describe a real-world example of this emerging discipline. METHODS: We implemented a citizen-science project at a local high school. Multiple cohorts of citizen scientists, who were students, fabricated and deployed low-cost air quality sensors. A cloud-computing solution provided real-time air quality data for risk screening purposes, data analytics and curricular activities. RESULTS: The citizen-science project engaged with 14 high school students over a four-year period that is continuing to this day. The project led to the development of a website that displayed sensor-based measurements in local neighborhoods and a GitHub-like repository for open source code and instructions. Preliminary results showed a reasonable comparison between sensor-based and EPA land-based federal reference monitor data for CO and NOx. CONCLUSIONS: Initial sensor-based data collection efforts showed reasonable agreement with land-based federal reference monitors but more work needs to be done to validate these results. Lessons learned were: 1) the need for sustained funding because citizen science-based project timelines are a function of community needs/capacity and building interdisciplinary rapport in academic settings and 2) the need for a dedicated staff to manage academic-community relationships.


Assuntos
Ciência do Cidadão/organização & administração , Ciência de Dados/métodos , Exposição Ambiental , Saúde Ambiental/métodos , Adolescente , Poluição do Ar/análise , Ciência de Dados/organização & administração , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
15.
Goiânia; SES-GO; jul. 2020. 1-11 p. ilus, graf, tab.(Boletim Informativo Vigilância em Saúde do Trabalhador, 3).
Monografia em Português | Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1116891

RESUMO

Projeto Benzeno realizado pela Coordenação de Vigilância em Saúde do Trabalhador e pela Coordenação de Vigilância em Saúde Ambiental nos municípios de Anápolis, Aparecida de Goiânia, Ceres, Formosa e Goiânia, estado de Goiás, Brasil. Foram realizadas 126 inspeções e 570 entrevistas com trabalhadores. O objetivo do Projeto Benzeno é intervir nos ambientes, processos e nas condições de trabalho dos trabalhadores e da população exposta ao benzeno na perspectiva de obter melhorias das condições de saúde e segurança dos trabalhadores que laboram nestes estabelecimentos e da população exposta ao benzeno, bem como traçar o perfil de saúde dos trabalhadores e população circunvizinha. Conclui que o benzeno é um problema de saúde pública que merece atuações prioritárias da vigilância em saúde de prevenção contra o câncer. As ações não podem ser apenas para os trabalhadores, mas também no âmbito doméstico e ambiental


Benzene project carried out by the Occupational Health Surveillance Coordination and the Environmental Health Surveillance Coordination in the municipalities of Anápolis, Aparecida de Goiânia, Ceres, Formosa and Goiânia, state of Goiás, Brazil. 126 inspections and 570 interviews with workers were carried out. The purpose of the Benzene Project is to intervene in the environments, processes and working conditions of workers and the population exposed to benzene in order to improve the health and safety conditions of workers working in these establishments and the population exposed to benzene, as well as outline the health profile of workers and the surrounding population. It concludes that benzene is a public health problem that deserves priority actions for cancer prevention health surveillance. The actions can not only be for workers, but also at the domestic and environmental level


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Benzeno/toxicidade , Condições de Trabalho , Riscos Ocupacionais , Saúde do Trabalhador , Vigilância em Saúde do Trabalhador , Programa de Prevenção de Riscos no Ambiente de Trabalho , Posto de Combustível , Perfil de Saúde , Saúde Ambiental , Prevenção de Doenças , Vigilância Sanitária Ambiental , Categorias de Trabalhadores , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(28): 35051-35064, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588301

RESUMO

Road traffic noise exposures have been recognized as serious environmental health concerns, especially in most developing countries with arid climate conditions, rapid increase in vehicle population, and limited traffic management systems. The excessive noise exposure level is associated with increase in the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and anxiety, including annoyance. This study aimed at determining traffic noise levels in residential areas, including the assessment of its annoyance and health effects based on the people's perception and reportage. To do so, field measurement and traffic noise modeling were carried out in six road points to estimate the current noise levels along various roads close to human inhabitants in Muscat Governorate, Sultanate of Oman. The detailed measured noise levels in urban residential areas across the selected roads showed that noise levels have exceeded the local and international threshold limits at all locations during the entire day. The high sound levels (48.0-56.3 dBA) were observed using the US Federal Highway Administration's Traffic Noise Model (TNM, version 2.5) results, which were in agreement with the observed (56.3-60.4 dBA) data. To assess health implication to residents through interviews (n = 208), annoyance at home was found to be little (32%), moderate (28%), and high (9%) in comparison with workplace settings of 42%, 43%, and 15%, respectively. Nineteen percent of the interviewees had difficulties in sleeping, while 19.8% experienced stress due to road traffic noise exposures. Moreover, a strong association (p < 0.05) was established between the use and objection of noise barriers. The study revealed high noise levels and the prevalence of annoyance and health effects among the exposed population. Therefore, immediate action is required to tackle the current noise levels.


Assuntos
Ruído dos Transportes , Exposição Ambiental , Saúde Ambiental , Humanos , Incidência , Omã
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