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3.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(4): 105557, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556672

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cost-effectiveness of endovascular therapy (EVT) is a key consideration for broad use of this approach for emergent large vessel occlusion stroke. We evaluated the evidence on cost-effectiveness of EVT in comparison with best medical management from a global perspective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This systematic review of studies published between January 2010 and May 2020 evaluated the cost effectiveness of EVT for patients with large vessel occlusion acute ischemic stroke. The gain in quality adjusted life year (QALY) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), expressed as cost per QALY resulting from EVT, were recorded. The study setting (country, economic perspective), decision model, and data sources used in economic models of EVT cost-effectiveness were recorded. RESULTS: Twenty-five original studies from 12 different countries were included in our review. Five of these studies were reported from a societal perspective; 18 were reported from a healthcare system perspective. Two studies used real-world data. The time horizon varied from 1 year to a lifetime; however, 18 studies reported a time horizon of >10 years. Twenty studies reported using outcome data from randomized, controlled clinical trials for their models. Nineteen studies reported using a Markov model. Incremental QALYs ranged from 0.09-3.5. All studies but 1 reported that EVT was cost-effective. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence from different countries and economic perspectives suggests that EVT for stroke treatment is cost-effective. Most cost-effectiveness studies are based on outcome data from randomized clinical trials. However, there is a need to study the cost-effectiveness of EVT based solely on real-world outcome data.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Endovasculares/economia , Saúde Global/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/economia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Humanos , Modelos Econômicos , Qualidade de Vida , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0246326, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The overall global impact of COVID-19 in children and regional variability in pediatric outcomes are presently unknown. METHODS: To evaluate the magnitude of global COVID-19 death and intensive care unit (ICU) admission in children aged 0-19 years, a systematic review was conducted for articles and national reports as of December 7, 2020. This systematic review is registered with PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42020179696). RESULTS: We reviewed 16,027 articles as well as 225 national reports from 216 countries. Among the 3,788 global pediatric COVID-19 deaths, 3,394 (91.5%) deaths were reported from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), while 83.5% of pediatric population from all included countries were from LMIC. The pediatric deaths/1,000,000 children and case fatality rate (CFR) were significantly higher in LMIC than in high-income countries (HIC) (2.77 in LMIC vs 1.32 in HIC; p < 0.001 and 0.24% in LMIC vs 0.01% in HIC; p < 0.001, respectively). The ICU admission/1,000,000 children was 18.80 and 1.48 in HIC and LMIC, respectively (p < 0.001). The highest deaths/1,000,000 children and CFR were in infants < 1 year old (10.03 and 0.58% in the world, 5.39 and 0.07% in HIC and 10.98 and 1.30% in LMIC, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The study highlights that there may be a larger impact of pediatric COVID-19 fatality in LMICs compared to HICs.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Saúde Global/economia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pandemias , Pediatria
12.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(2): 182-189, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The growing demand for cancer surgery has placed a global strain on health systems. In-depth analyses of the global demand for cancer surgery and optimal workforce requirements are needed to plan service provision. We estimated the global demand for cancer surgery and the requirements for an optimal surgical and anaesthesia workforce, using benchmarks based on clinical guidelines. METHODS: Using models of benchmark surgical use based on clinical guidelines, we estimated the proportion of cancer cases with an indication for surgery across 183 countries, stratified by income group. These proportions were multiplied by age-adjusted national estimates of new cancer cases using GLOBOCAN 2018 data and then aggregated to obtain the estimated number of surgical procedures required globally. The numbers of cancer surgical procedures in 44 high-income countries were divided by the actual number of surgeons and anaesthetists in the respective countries to calculate cancer procedures per surgeon and anaesthetist ratios. Using the median (IQR) of these ratios as benchmarks, we developed a three-tiered optimal surgical and anaesthesia workforce matrix, and the predictions were extrapolated up to 2040. FINDINGS: Our model estimates that the number of cancer cases globally with an indication for surgery will increase by 5 million procedures (52%) between 2018 (9 065 000) and 2040 (13 821 000). The greatest relative increase in surgical demand will occur in 34 low-income countries, where we also observed the largest gaps in workforce requirements. To match the median benchmark for high-income countries, the surgical workforce in these countries would need to increase by almost four times and the anaesthesia workforce by nearly 5·5 times. The greatest increase in optimal workforce requirements from 2018 to 2040 will occur in low-income countries (from 28 000 surgeons to 58 000 surgeons; 107% increase), followed by lower-middle-income countries (from 166 000 surgeons to 277 000 surgeons; 67% increase). INTERPRETATION: The global demand for cancer surgery and the optimal workforce are predicted to increase over the next two decades and disproportionately affect low-income countries. These estimates provide an appropriate framework for planning the provision of surgical services for cancer worldwide. FUNDING: University of New South Wales Scientia Scholarship and UK Research and Innovation Global Challenges Research Fund.


Assuntos
Anestesia/tendências , Planos de Sistemas de Saúde/tendências , Mão de Obra em Saúde/tendências , Neoplasias/cirurgia , Anestesia/economia , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Saúde Global/economia , Planos de Sistemas de Saúde/economia , Mão de Obra em Saúde/economia , Humanos , Renda , Neoplasias/economia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Cirurgiões/economia
13.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(2): e181-e188, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria is a robust vertical global health programme. The extent to which vertical programmes financially support health security has not been investigated. We, therefore, endeavoured to quantify the extent to which the budgets of this vertical programme support health security. We believe this is a crucial area of work as the global community works to combine resources for COVID-19 response and future pandemic preparedness. METHODS: We examined budgets for work in Kenya, Uganda, Vietnam, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guatemala, Guinea, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone from January, 2014 to December, 2020. These ten countries were selected because of the robustness of investments and the availability of data. Using the International Health Regulations Joint External Evaluation (JEE) tool as a framework, we mapped budget line items to health security capacities. Two researchers independently reviewed each budget and mapped items to the JEE. Budgets were then jointly reviewed until a consensus was reached regarding if an item supported health security directly, indirectly, or not at all. The budgets for the study countries were inputted into a single Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and line items that mapped to JEE indicators were scaled up to their respective JEE capacity. Descriptive analyses were then done to determine the total amount of money budgeted for activities that support health security, how much was budgeted for each JEE capacity, and how much of the support was direct or indirect. FINDINGS: The research team reviewed 37 budgets. Budgets totalled US$6 927 284 966, and $2 562 063 054 (37·0%) of this mapped to JEE capacities. $1 330 942 712 (19·2%) mapped directly to JEE capacities and $1 231 120 342 (17·8%) mapped indirectly to JEE capacities. Laboratory systems, antimicrobial resistance, and the deployment of medical countermeasures and personnel received the most overall budgetary support; laboratory systems, antimicrobial resistance, and workforce development received the greatest amount of direct budgetary support. INTERPRETATION: Over one-third of the Global Fund's work also supports health security and the organisation has budgeted more than $2 500 000 000 for activities that support health security in ten countries since 2014. Although these funds were not budgeted specifically for health security purposes, recognising how vertical programmes can synergistically support other global health efforts has important implications for policy related to health systems strengthening. FUNDING: Resolve to Save Lives: An Initiative of Vital Strategies.


Assuntos
Organização do Financiamento/economia , Saúde Global/economia , Cooperação Internacional , Orçamentos , /prevenção & controle , Países em Desenvolvimento , Programas Governamentais/economia , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos
15.
Am J Ind Med ; 64(4): 227-237, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491195

RESUMO

The impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 permeates all aspects of society worldwide. Initial medical reports and media coverage have increased awareness of the risk imposed on healthcare workers in particular, during this pandemic. However, the health implications of COVID-19 for the global workforce are multifaceted and complex, warranting careful reflection and consideration to mitigate the adverse effects on workers worldwide. Accordingly, our review offers a framework for considering this topic, highlighting key issues, with the aim to prompt and inform action, including research, to minimize the occupational hazards imposed by this ongoing challenge. We address respiratory disease as a primary concern, while recognizing the multisystem spectrum of COVID-19-related disease and how clinical aspects are interwoven with broader socioeconomic forces.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Doenças Profissionais , Pandemias , /diagnóstico , /epidemiologia , /métodos , Saúde Global/economia , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/economia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/terapia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Trabalhador , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública
16.
J Surg Res ; 260: 56-63, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, there is a question of whether hospitals have adequate resources to manage patients. We aim to investigate global hospital bed (HB), acute care bed (ACB), and intensive care unit (ICU) bed capacity and determine any correlation between these hospital resources and COVID-19 mortality. METHOD: Cross-sectional study utilizing data from the World Health Organization (WHO) and other official organizations regarding global HB, ACB, ICU bed capacity, and confirmed COVID-19 cases/mortality. Descriptive statistics and linear regression were performed. RESULTS: A total of 183 countries were included with a mean of 307.1 HBs, 413.9 ACBs, and 8.73 ICU beds/100,000 population. High-income regions had the highest mean number of ICU beds (12.79) and HBs (402.32) per 100,000 population whereas upper middle-income regions had the highest mean number of ACBs (424.75) per 100,000. A weakly positive significant association was discovered between the number of ICU beds/100,000 population and COVID-19 mortality. No significant associations exist between the number of HBs or ACBs per 100,000 population and COVID-19 mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Global COVID-19 mortality rates are likely affected by multiple factors, including hospital resources, personnel, and bed capacity. Higher income regions of the world have greater ICU, acute care, and hospital bed capacities. Mandatory reporting of ICU, acute care, and hospital bed capacity/occupancy and information relating to coronavirus should be implemented. Adopting a tiered critical care approach and targeting the expansion of space, staff, and supplies may serve to maximize the quality of care during resurgences and future disasters.


Assuntos
/terapia , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Número de Leitos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , /mortalidade , Cuidados Críticos/economia , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Carga Global da Doença/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Global/economia , Recursos em Saúde/economia , Número de Leitos em Hospital/economia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Acad Med ; 96(3): 384-389, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332906

RESUMO

PROBLEM: The World Health Organization and the World Bank have identified improvement in access to surgical care as an urgent global health challenge and a cost-effective investment in public health. However, trainees in standard U.S. general surgery programs do not have adequate exposure to the procedures, technical skills, and foundational knowledge essential for providing surgical care in resource-limited settings. APPROACH: The Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery at Baylor College of Medicine (BCM) created a 7-year global surgery track within its general surgery residency in 2014. Individualized rotations equip residents with the necessary skills, knowledge, and experience to operate in regions with low surgeon density and develop sustainable surgical infrastructures. BCM provides a formal, integrated global surgery curriculum-including 2 years dedicated to global surgery-with surgical specialty rotations in domestic and international settings. Residents tailor their individual experience to the needs of their future clinical practice, region of interest, and surgical specialty. OUTCOMES: There have been 4 major outcomes of the BCM global surgery track: (1) increased exposure for trainees to a broad range of surgeries critical in resource-limited settings, (2) meaningful international partnerships, (3) contributions to global surgery scholarship, and (4) establishment of sustainable global surgery activities. NEXT STEPS: To better facilitate access to safe, timely, and affordable surgical care worldwide, global surgeons should pursue expertise in topics not currently included in U.S. general surgical curricula, such as setting-specific technical skills, capacity building, and organizational collaboration. Future evaluations of the BCM global surgery track will assess the effect of individualized education on trainees' professional identities, clinical practices, academic pursuits, global surgery leadership preparedness, and comfort with technical skills not encompassed in general surgery programs. Increasing availability of quality global surgery training programs would provide a critical next step toward contributing to the delivery of safe surgical care worldwide.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Saúde Global/economia , Especialidades Cirúrgicas/organização & administração , Cirurgiões/provisão & distribução , Competência Clínica , Análise Custo-Benefício/estatística & dados numéricos , Currículo/normas , Bolsas de Estudo/métodos , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Internato e Residência , Conhecimento , Desenvolvimento de Programas/métodos , Especialidades Cirúrgicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
BMJ ; 371: m4750, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323376

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the premarket purchase commitments for coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) vaccines from leading manufacturers to recipient countries. DESIGN: Cross sectional analysis. DATA SOURCES: World Health Organization's draft landscape of covid-19 candidate vaccines, along with company disclosures to the US Securities and Exchange Commission, company and foundation press releases, government press releases, and media reports. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA AND DATA ANALYSIS: Premarket purchase commitments for covid-19 vaccines, publicly announced by 15 November 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Premarket purchase commitments for covid-19 vaccine candidates and price per course, vaccine platform, and stage of research and development, as well as procurement agent and recipient country. RESULTS: As of 15 November 2020, several countries have made premarket purchase commitments totaling 7.48 billion doses, or 3.76 billion courses, of covid-19 vaccines from 13 vaccine manufacturers. Just over half (51%) of these doses will go to high income countries, which represent 14% of the world's population. The US has reserved 800 million doses but accounts for a fifth of all covid-19 cases globally (11.02 million cases), whereas Japan, Australia, and Canada have collectively reserved more than one billion doses but do not account for even 1% of current global covid-19 cases globally (0.45 million cases). If these vaccine candidates were all successfully scaled, the total projected manufacturing capacity would be 5.96 billion courses by the end of 2021. Up to 40% (or 2.34 billion) of vaccine courses from these manufacturers might potentially remain for low and middle income countries-less if high income countries exercise scale-up options and more if high income countries share what they have procured. Prices for these vaccines vary by more than 10-fold, from $6.00 (£4.50; €4.90) per course to as high as $74 per course. With broad country participation apart from the US and Russia, the COVAX Facility-the vaccines pillar of the World Health Organization's Access to COVID-19 Tools (ACT) Accelerator-has secured at least 500 million doses, or 250 million courses, and financing for half of the targeted two billion doses by the end of 2021 in efforts to support globally coordinated access to covid-19 vaccines. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides an overview of how high income countries have secured future supplies of covid-19 vaccines but that access for the rest of the world is uncertain. Governments and manufacturers might provide much needed assurances for equitable allocation of covid-19 vaccines through greater transparency and accountability over these arrangements.


Assuntos
/economia , Saúde Global/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , /imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Países Desenvolvidos/economia , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos
19.
Yale J Biol Med ; 93(4): 579-585, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33005122

RESUMO

Not only do epidemics such as HIV/AIDS, Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), and the current Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) cause the loss of millions of lives, but they also cost the global economy billions of dollars. Consequently, there is an urgent need to formulate interventions that will help control their spread and impact when they emerge. The education of young girls and women is one such historical approach. They are usually the vulnerable targets of disease outbreaks - they are most likely to be vehicles for the spread of epidemics due to their assigned traditional roles in resource-limited countries. Based on our work and the work of others on educational interventions, we propose six critical components of a cost-effective and sustainable response to promote girl-child education in resource-limited settings.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Infecções por Coronavirus , Identidade de Gênero , Saúde Global , Educação em Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Saúde Global/economia , Saúde Global/educação , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
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