Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 242
Filtrar
1.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 30: e6, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416045

RESUMO

AIMS: There is compelling evidence for gradient effects of household income on school readiness. Potential mechanisms are described, yet the growth curve trajectory of maternal mental health in a child's early life has not been thoroughly investigated. We aimed to examine the relationships between household incomes, maternal mental health trajectories from antenatal to the postnatal period, and school readiness. METHODS: Prospective data from 505 mother-child dyads in a birth cohort in Singapore were used, including household income, repeated measures of maternal mental health from pregnancy to 2-years postpartum, and a range of child behavioural, socio-emotional and cognitive outcomes from 2 to 6 years of age. Antenatal mental health and its trajectory were tested as mediators in the latent growth curve models. RESULTS: Household income was a robust predictor of antenatal maternal mental health and all child outcomes. Between children from the bottom and top household income quartiles, four dimensions of school readiness skills differed by a range of 0.52 (95% Cl: 0.23, 0.67) to 1.21 s.d. (95% CI: 1.02, 1.40). Thirty-eight percent of pregnant mothers in this cohort were found to have perinatal depressive and anxiety symptoms in the subclinical and clinical ranges. Poorer school readiness skills were found in children of these mothers when compared to those of mothers with little or no symptoms. After adjustment of unmeasured confounding on the indirect effect, antenatal maternal mental health provided a robust mediating path between household income and multiple school readiness outcomes (χ2 126.05, df 63, p < 0.001; RMSEA = 0.031, CFI = 0.980, SRMR = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant mothers with mental health symptoms, particularly those from economically-challenged households, are potential targets for intervention to level the playing field of their children.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Renda , Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Singapura , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
2.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(2): 94-105, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer tends to be diagnosed at a younger age (median age 51 years) compared with most other malignancies (such as breast cancer [62 years] or lung cancer [71 years]). The incidence of thyroid cancer is higher in women than men diagnosed from early adolescence. However, few in-utero and early life risk exposures associated with increased risk of thyroid cancer have been identified. METHODS: In this population-based nested case-control study we used registry data from four Nordic countries to assess thyroid cancer risk in offspring in relation to maternal medical history, pregnancy complications, and birth characteristics. Patient with thyroid cancer (cases) were individuals born and subsequently diagnosed with first primary thyroid cancer from 1973 to 2013 in Denmark, 1987 to 2014 in Finland, 1967 to 2015 in Norway, or 1973 to 2014 in Sweden. Each case was matched with up to ten individuals without thyroid cancer (controls) based on birth year, sex, country, and county of birth. Cases and matched controls with a previous diagnosis of any cancer, other than non-melanoma skin cancer, at the time of thyroid cancer diagnosis were excluded. Cases and matched controls had to reside in the country of birth at the time of thyroid cancer diagnosis. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs. RESULTS: Of the 2437 cases, 1967 (81·4%) had papillary carcinomas, 1880 (77·1%) were women, and 1384 (56·7%) were diagnosed before age 30 years (range 0-48). Higher birth weight (OR per kg 1·14 [95% CI 1·05-1·23]) and congenital hypothyroidism (4·55 [1·58-13·08]); maternal diabetes before pregnancy (OR 1·69 [0·98-2·93]) and postpartum haemorrhage (OR 1·28 [1·06-1·55]); and (from registry data in Denmark) maternal hypothyroidism (18·12 [10·52-31·20]), hyperthyroidism (11·91 [6·77-20·94]), goiter (67·36 [39·89-113·76]), and benign thyroid neoplasms (22·50 [6·93-73·06]) were each associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer in offspring. INTERPRETATION: In-utero exposures, particularly those related to maternal thyroid disorders, might have a long-term influence on thyroid cancer risk in offspring. FUNDING: Intramural Research Program of the National Cancer Institute (National Institutes of Health).


Assuntos
Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/etiologia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321736

RESUMO

Environmental and community context earliest in the life course have a profound effect on life-long health outcomes. Yet, standard needs assessments for maternal and child health (MCH) programs often overlook the full range of influences affecting health in-utero and early childhood. To address this, we developed a methodology for assessing community risk in MCH based on six domains integrating 66 indicators across community, environment, socioeconomic indicators, and MCH outcomes. We pilot this methodology in Pennsylvania, and share examples of how local governments, planners, and public health officials across the geographic spectrum can integrate this data into community planning for improved maternal and child health.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído , Saúde da Criança , Planejamento em Saúde , Saúde Materna , Saúde Pública , Medição de Risco , Meio Social , Adulto , Criança , Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Planejamento em Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Pennsylvania , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/normas
4.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e044197, 2020 12 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33376182

RESUMO

AIM: To explore indigenous communities' responses to the COVID-19 pandemic and its consequences for maternal and neonatal health (MNH) care in the Peruvian Amazon. METHODS: Mamás del Río is a community-based, MNH programme with comprehensive supervision covering monthly meetings with community health workers (CHW), community leaders and health facilities. With the onset of the lockdown, supervisors made telephone calls to discuss measures against COVID-19, governmental support, CHW activities in communities and provision of MNH care and COVID-19 preparedness at facilities. As part of the programme's ongoing mixed methods evaluation, we analysed written summaries of supervisor calls collected during the first 2 months of Peru's lockdown. RESULTS: Between March and May 2020, supervisors held two rounds of calls with CHWs and leaders of 68 communities and staff from 17 facilities. Most communities banned entry of foreigners, but about half tolerated residents travelling to regional towns for trade and social support. While social events were forbidden, strict home isolation was only practised in a third of communities as conflicting with daily routine. By the end of April, first clusters of suspected cases were reported in communities. COVID-19 test kits, training and medical face masks were not available in most rural facilities. Six out of seven facilities suspended routine antenatal and postnatal consultations while two-thirds of CHWs resumed home visits to pregnant women and newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Home isolation was hardly feasible in the rural Amazon context and community isolation was undermined by lack of external supplies and social support. With sustained community transmission, promotion of basic hygiene and mask use becomes essential. To avoid devastating effects on MNH, routine services at facilities need to be urgently re-established alongside COVID-19 preparedness plans. Community-based MNH programmes could offset detrimental indirect effects of the pandemic and provide an opportunity for local COVID-19 prevention and containment.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Saúde do Lactente , Saúde Materna , Adulto , /prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/normas , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/tendências , Humanos , Saúde do Lactente/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde do Lactente/tendências , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Materna/tendências , Peru/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/métodos
5.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1771, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guaranteeing the sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) of populations living in fragile and humanitarian settings is essential and constitutes a basic human right. Compounded by the inherent vulnerabilities of women in crises, substantial complications are directly associated with increased risks of poor SRHR outcomes for displaced populations. The migration of Venezuelans, displaced due to current economic circumstances, is one of the largest in Latin America's history. This study aims to provide an overview of the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) issues affecting migrant Venezuelan women in the state of Roraima, Brazil. METHODS: Face-to-face interviews were conducted from 24 to 30 November 2019. Data collection covered various issues involving access to and use of SRH services by 405 migrant Venezuelan women aged 18-49 years. The Minimum Initial Service Package readiness assessment tools, available from the Inter-Agency Working Group on Reproductive Health in Crises, were used in the data collection. RESULTS: Most commonly, the women reported unmet family planning needs. Of these, a significant proportion reported being unable to obtain contraceptive methods, particularly long-acting reversible contraceptives, either due to the woman's inability to access them or their unavailability at healthcare centres. Although a significant proportion of women were largely satisfied with the attention received at the maternity hospital, both before and during childbirth, 24.0% of pregnant or postpartum women failed to receive any prenatal or postnatal care. CONCLUSION: Meeting the essential SRHR needs of migrant Venezuelan women in Roraima, Brazil is a challenge that has yet to be fully addressed. Given the size of this migrant population, the Brazilian healthcare system has failed to adapt sufficiently to meet their needs; however, problems with healthcare provision are similar for migrants and Brazilian citizens. Efforts need to be encouraged not only in governmental health sectors, but also with academic, non-governmental and international organisations, including a coordinated approach to ensure a comprehensive SRHR response. Given the current high risks associated with the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, meeting the SRHR needs of migrant populations has become more critical than ever.


Assuntos
Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez , Saúde Reprodutiva , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos , Saúde Sexual , Venezuela/etnologia
7.
Public Health Rep ; 135(5): 658-667, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805192

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The health profile of Arab American mothers and infants may differ from that of non-Arab American mothers and infants in the United States as a result of social stigma experienced in the historical and current sociopolitical climate. The objective of our study was to compare maternal health behaviors, maternal health outcomes, and infant health outcomes of Arab American mothers and non-Hispanic white mothers in Massachusetts and to assess the role of nativity as an effect modifier. METHODS: Using data from Massachusetts birth certificates (2012-2016), we conducted adjusted logistic and linear regression models for maternal health behaviors, maternal health outcomes, and infant health outcomes. We used Arab ethnicity as the exposure of interest and nativity as an effect modifier. RESULTS: Arab American mothers had higher odds than non-Hispanic white mothers of initiating breastfeeding (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.61; 95% CI, 2.39-2.86), giving birth to small-for-gestational-age infants (aOR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.18-1.39), and having gestational diabetes (aOR = 1.31; 95% CI, 1.20-1.44). Among Arab American mothers, non-US-born mothers had higher odds than US-born mothers of having gestational diabetes (aOR = 1.80; 95% CI, 1.33-2.44) and lower odds of initiating prenatal care in the first trimester (aOR = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.33-0.50). In linear regression models, infants born to non-US-born Arab American mothers weighed 42.1 g (95% CI, -75.8 to -8.4 g) less than infants born to US-born Arab American mothers. CONCLUSION: Although Arab American mothers engage in positive health behaviors, non-US-born mothers had poorer maternal health outcomes and access to prenatal care than US-born mothers, suggesting the need for targeted interventions for non-US-born Arab American mothers.


Assuntos
Árabes/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Saúde do Lactente/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/psicologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Árabes/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Massachusetts , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD013679, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global burden of poor maternal, neonatal, and child health (MNCH) accounts for more than a quarter of healthy years of life lost worldwide. Targeted client communication (TCC) via mobile devices (MD) (TCCMD) may be a useful strategy to improve MNCH. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of TCC via MD on health behaviour, service use, health, and well-being for MNCH. SEARCH METHODS: In July/August 2017, we searched five databases including The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE and Embase. We also searched two trial registries. A search update was carried out in July 2019 and potentially relevant studies are awaiting classification. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials that assessed TCC via MD to improve MNCH behaviour, service use, health, and well-being. Eligible comparators were usual care/no intervention, non-digital TCC, and digital non-targeted client communication. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane, although data extraction and risk of bias assessments were carried out by one person only and cross-checked by a second. MAIN RESULTS: We included 27 trials (17,463 participants). Trial populations were: pregnant and postpartum women (11 trials conducted in low-, middle- or high-income countries (LMHIC); pregnant and postpartum women living with HIV (three trials carried out in one lower middle-income country); and parents of children under the age of five years (13 trials conducted in LMHIC). Most interventions (18) were delivered via text messages alone, one was delivered through voice calls only, and the rest were delivered through combinations of different communication channels, such as multimedia messages and voice calls. Pregnant and postpartum women TCCMD versus standard care For behaviours, TCCMD may increase exclusive breastfeeding in settings where rates of exclusive breastfeeding are less common (risk ratio (RR) 1.30, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.06 to 1.59; low-certainty evidence), but have little or no effect in settings where almost all women breastfeed (low-certainty evidence). For use of health services, TCCMD may increase antenatal appointment attendance (odds ratio (OR) 1.54, 95% CI 0.80 to 2.96; low-certainty evidence); however, the CI encompasses both benefit and harm. The intervention may increase skilled attendants at birth in settings where a lack of skilled attendants at birth is common (though this differed by urban/rural residence), but may make no difference in settings where almost all women already have a skilled attendant at birth (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.34 to 2.94; low-certainty evidence). There were uncertain effects on maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity because the certainty of the evidence was assessed as very low. TCCMD versus non-digital TCC (e.g. pamphlets) TCCMD may have little or no effect on exclusive breastfeeding (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.07; low-certainty evidence). TCCMD may reduce 'any maternal health problem' (RR 0.19, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.79) and 'any newborn health problem' (RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.25 to 1.06) reported up to 10 days postpartum (low-certainty evidence), though the CI for the latter includes benefit and harm. The effect on health service use is unknown due to a lack of studies. TCCMD versus digital non-targeted communication No studies reported behavioural, health, or well-being outcomes for this comparison. For use of health services, there are uncertain effects for the presence of a skilled attendant at birth due to very low-certainty evidence, and the intervention may make little or no difference to attendance for antenatal influenza vaccination (RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.58), though the CI encompasses both benefit and harm (low-certainty evidence). Pregnant and postpartum women living with HIV TCCMD versus standard care For behaviours, TCCMD may make little or no difference to maternal and infant adherence to antiretroviral (ARV) therapy (low-certainty evidence). For health service use, TCC mobile telephone reminders may increase use of antenatal care slightly (mean difference (MD) 1.5, 95% CI -0.36 to 3.36; low-certainty evidence). The effect on the proportion of births occurring in a health facility is uncertain due to very low-certainty evidence. For health and well-being outcomes, there was an uncertain intervention effect on neonatal death or stillbirth, and infant HIV due to very low-certainty evidence. No studies reported on maternal mortality or morbidity. TCCMD versus non-digital TCC The effect is unknown due to lack of studies reporting this comparison. TCCMD versus digital non-targeted communication TCCMD may increase infant ARV/prevention of mother-to-child transmission treatment adherence (RR 1.26, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.48; low-certainty evidence). The effect on other outcomes is unknown due to lack of studies. Parents of children aged less than five years No studies reported on correct treatment, nutritional, or health outcomes. TCCMD versus standard care Based on 10 trials, TCCMD may modestly increase health service use (vaccinations and HIV care) (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.34; low-certainty evidence); however, the effect estimates varied widely between studies. TCCMD versus non-digital TCC TCCMD may increase attendance for vaccinations (RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.28; low-certainty evidence), and may make little or no difference to oral hygiene practices (low-certainty evidence). TCCMD versus digital non-targeted communication TCCMD may reduce attendance for vaccinations, but the CI encompasses both benefit and harm (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.33 to 1.20; low-certainty evidence). No trials in any population reported data on unintended consequences. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The effect of TCCMD for most outcomes is uncertain. There may be improvements for some outcomes using targeted communication but these findings were of low certainty. High-quality, adequately powered trials and cost-effectiveness analyses are required to reliably ascertain the effects and relative benefits of TCCMD. Future studies should measure potential unintended consequences, such as partner violence or breaches of confidentiality.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Saúde da Criança/normas , Comunicação , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Saúde do Lactente/normas , Saúde Materna/normas , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Parto Obstétrico/normas , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Saúde do Lactente/estatística & dados numéricos , Recém-Nascido , Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Envio de Mensagens de Texto
9.
Nutrients ; 12(8)2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731389

RESUMO

Reproductive health is a significant public health issue during pandemics; however, the impacts of the novel 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on noninfected pregnant women are still unknown. This study intends (1) to examine whether emotional eating (EE) occurred during the pandemic triggered by disease concerns and (2) to explore the associations among EE, dietary changes, and gestational weight gain (GWG). Based on an online survey, 640 new mothers who experienced the lockdown in their third trimester were recruited from seven provinces in China. EE was evaluated with the Chinese version of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, EE domain. A self-designed e-questionnaire was used to collect the data of participants on the sociodemographic characteristics, concerns about the COVID-19 pandemic, maternity information, physical activities, and dietary changes during lockdown. The results show that the average EE score was 26.5 ± 8.3, and women living in a severely affected area, who are very worried about the pandemic and who had less physical activity had a higher tendency of EE. Although there is a dietary pattern changed during pandemic, the average GWG in the studied group was in the normal range. However, a higher EE score was associated with a significant excess of GWG in women not from Wuhan (EE score 33-65 vs. 13-22: adjusted Odd Ratio (OR), 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.90, 1.08-3.32). The sensitivity analysis that additionally adjusted for the pregestational body mass index and gestational metabolic disease was consistent with this result. The mediation model was also examined and showed that, after adjusting for living area and exercise, EE was associated with significantly increased consumption of cereals (EE score 33-65 vs. 13-22: adjusted OR, 95% CI = 2.22, 1.29-3.82) and oil (EE score 33-65 vs. 13-22: adjusted OR, 95% CI = 3.03, 1.06-8.69) but decreased consumption of fish and seafood (EE score 33-65 vs. 13-22: adjusted OR, 95% CI = 1.88, 1.14-3.11; 23-32 vs. 13-22: adjusted OR, 95% CI = 1.79, 1.20-2.66). In conclusion, this study indicated that EE occurred in a proportional number of pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic and is associated with excess GWG mediated by increased intake of certain foods. The findings suggest the need for psychosocial and nutritional education and interventions during pregnancy checkups. Further studies are needed to determine modifiable psychosocial predictors and potential nutritional concerns in pregnant women during disease outbreaks.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna/fisiologia , Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234305, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is one of the most sensitive and important stages of women's life. Maternal health literacy is the key to achieving a healthy pregnancy. It also affects pregnancy outcomes by improving the quality of health care in this period. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of maternal health literacy inventory in pregnancy (MHELIP). METHODS: This sequential, exploratory and mixed study was carried out in two parts (qualitative study and psychometric evaluation of the tool) in Tehran in 2016-18. The first part involved a qualitative content analysis with a traditional approach using in-depth, semi-structured and personal interviews with 19 eligible pregnant women. Then, the pool of items extracted from the qualitative part was completed by reviewing the existing literature and tools. In the second part, the overlapping items were summarized and the tool was validated. In order to evaluate the construct validity, a cross-sectional study was conducted with the participation of 320 pregnant women. Data analysis was performed by SPSS-19 software using exploratory factor analysis and reliability tests (Cronbach's alpha and ICC). RESULTS: Findings of qualitative part produced a pool of 120 items that reached to 124 items after reviewing the literature. After confirming face and content validity by calculating CVI and CVR for each item, 53 items remained in the pool. Finally, the results of exploratory factor analysis confirmed a tool with 48 items in four factors, explaining 46.49% of the variance of total variables of the tool. Reliability of the tool was approved by Cronbach's alpha = 0.94 and test-retest with 2-weeks intervals, indicating an appropriate stability for the scale (ICC = 0.96). Finally, the tool was finalized with 48 items in 4 dimensions, including "Maternal Health Knowledge", "Maternal Health Information Search", "Maternal Health Information Assessment" and "Maternal Health Decision Making and Behavior". CONCLUSION: The designed tool is a multidimensional, reliable and validated scale for assessing maternal health literacy during pregnancy. This tool can be used to evaluate different aspects of maternal health literacy in pregnant women, which was prepared based on their experiences during a qualitative study.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234573, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, the under-10 years of age mortality has not been comprehensively studied. We applied the life-course perspective in the analysis and interpretation of the event history demographic and verbal autopsy data to examine when and why children die before their 10th birthday. METHODS: We analysed a decade (2005-2015) of event histories data on 22385 and 1815 verbal autopsies data collected by Iganga-Mayuge HDSS in eastern Uganda. We used the lifetable for mortality estimates and patterns, and Royston-Parmar survival analysis approach for mortality risk factors' assessment. RESULTS: The under-10 and 5-9 years of age mortality probabilities were 129 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 123-370) per 1000 live births and 11 (95% CI = 7-26) per 1000 children aged 5-9 years, respectively. The top four causes of new-born mortality and stillbirth were antepartum maternal complications (31%), intrapartum-related causes including birth injury, asphyxia and obstructed labour (25%), Low Birth Weight (LBW) and prematurity (20%), and other unidentified perinatal mortality causes (18%). Malaria, protein deficiency including anaemia, diarrhoea or gastrointestinal, and acute respiratory infections were the major causes of mortality among those aged 0-9 years-contributing 88%, 88% and 46% of all causes of mortality for the post-neonatal, child and 5-9 years of age respectively. 33% of all causes of mortality among those aged 5-9 years was a share of Injuries (22%) and gastrointestinal (11%). Regarding the deterministic pattern, nearly 30% of the new-borns and sick children died without access to formal care. Access to the treatment for the top five morbidities was after 4 days of symptoms' recognition. The childhood mortality risk factors were LBW, multiple births, having no partner, adolescence age, rural residence, low education level and belonging to a poor household, but their association was stronger among infants. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified the vulnerable groups at risk of mortality as LBW children, multiple births, rural dwellers, those whose mother are of low socio-economic position, adolescents and unmarried. The differences in causes of mortalities between children aged 0-5 and 5-9 years were noted. These findings suggest for a strong life-course approach in the design and implementation of child health interventions that target pregnant women and children of all ages.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Mortalidade da Criança , Mortalidade Infantil , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Saúde do Lactente/estatística & dados numéricos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil/estatística & dados numéricos , Anamnese/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Uganda
12.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233985, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492055

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In sub-Saharan Mozambique, high adolescent fertility rates are a significant public health problem. Understanding the consequences of teenage pregnancies facilitates effective strategies for improving the quality of care of both mother and the newborn. AIMS: To identify the factors associated with adolescent motherhood in Tete (Mozambique). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study including 821 pregnant women (255 teenagers) admitted to the general maternity ward of the Provincial Hospital between March and October 2016. The survey included clinical data of the mother and newborn. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of adolescent deliveries was 31.8% (95% CI 27.9% - 34.2%). Multivariate analysis showed that independent factors associated with teenage motherhood were: number of pregnancies (OR 0.066; 95% CI 0.040-0.110), pregnancy follow-up (OR 0.29; CI 0.173-0.488) and previous abortions (OR 4.419; 95% CI 1.931-10.112). When the age of the mother was analysed as a continuous variable, positively associated factors were body mass index, arterial hypertension, HIV infection, previous abortions, pregnancy follow-up, and the weight of the newborn. Negatively associated factors were episiotomy and respiratory distress in the newborn. CONCLUSION: Teenage motherhood is a serious public health problem in Mozambique. Intensive sexual and reproductive health planning for adolescents is needed.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde do Lactente/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez na Adolescência/estatística & dados numéricos , Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente/organização & administração , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Número de Gestações , Planejamento em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Mortalidade Materna , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Gravidez na Adolescência/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235258, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589647

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether the presence of care workers who completed a specialization course on family health was associated with improved care and maternal and child health indicators in municipalities in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: Negative binomial regression models with fixed effects were used for the 79 municipalities in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, with repeated observations for the period 2009-2015. For our reference, the parameter "number of professionals who completed the course" calculated the proportion of professionals who completed the course, and was divided by the total number of primary health care professionals in the municipality to create a ratio. The cutoff points used represented tertile distribution: T3: high (0.35-1.00), T2: intermediate (0.02-0.33) and T1: low (0.00-0.01); to avoid biased results, the analysis was also performed for the years prior to the beginning of the course in question (2009 and 2010). RESULTS: During the study period, enrollment of pregnant women, exclusive breastfeeding for children under 4 months, and up-to-date vaccinations in children younger than 1 year to 23 months increased (high to intermediate categories) in municipalities where professionals who completed the specialization course worked. Growth in the intermediate ratio was also observed in indicators related to cervical cancer screening and new diagnoses of congenital syphilis in infants under one year of age. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of care workers who completed a specialization course on family health was seen to be associated with improved care and indicators for maternal and child health in municipalities in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. These findings reaffirm the importance and effectiveness of policies on training and continuing education for the Brazilian Unified Health System.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação Continuada , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Gravidez , Sistema de Registros
15.
Matern Child Health J ; 24(9): 1121-1129, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557134

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Maternal health-seeking behaviors are critical to improving maternal and child health in low-income countries. This study investigates associations between maternal decision-making input and their health-seeking behaviors in the first 1000-day period between pregnancy and a child's second birthday in Nepal. METHODS: We used data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2018 in 16 districts of Nepal. Among the 3648 households surveyed, 1910 mothers of a child 0 to 24 months with complete data were included for analyses. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between decision-making input and the utilization of antenatal, delivery and postnatal care services, and attendance at health mothers' group (HMG) meetings. We also used negative binomial regression to assess the relationship between her decision-making input and participation in growth monitoring and promotion (GMP) in the 6 months prior to the survey. For each relationship examined, we adjusted for clustering, as well as potentially confounding factors at individual and household levels. RESULTS: After adjusting for confounders, maternal decision-making input had a small but positive and significant association with receiving at least 4 antenatal care visits (OR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.02, 1.17), attendance at GMP in the 6 months prior to the survey (IRR = 1.02, 95% CI 1.00, 1.04), and HMG attendance (OR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.03, 1.17), but not with receiving at least 3 postnatal care visits or delivering in a health institution. CONCLUSIONS FOR PRACTICE: Our findings indicated that empowering women and mothers in household decision-making might warrant greater attention when developing future policies and programs in Nepal.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Tomada de Decisões , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Nepal , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos
16.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230947, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32287266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although studies report that more than 90% of pregnant women utilize digital sources to supplement their maternal healthcare, little is known about the kinds of information that women seek from their peers during pregnancy. To date, most research has used self-report measures to elucidate how and why women to turn to digital sources during pregnancy. However, given that these measures may differ from actual utilization of online health information, it is important to analyze the online content pregnant women generate. OBJECTIVE: To apply machine learning methods to analyze online pregnancy forums, to better understand how women seek information from a community of online peers during pregnancy. METHODS: Data from seven WhatToExpect.com "birth club" forums (September 2018; January-June 2018) were scraped. Forum posts were collected for a one-year period, which included three trimesters and three months postpartum. Only initial posts from each thread were analyzed (n = 262,238). Automatic natural language processing (NLP) methods captured 50 discussed topics, which were annotated by two independent coders and grouped categorically. RESULTS: The largest topic categories were maternal health (45%), baby-related topics (29%), and people/relationships (10%). While pain was a popular topic all throughout pregnancy, individual topics that were dominant by trimester included miscarriage (first trimester), labor (third trimester), and baby sleeping routine (postpartum period). CONCLUSION: More than just emotional or peer support, pregnant women turn to online forums to discuss their health. Dominant topics, such as labor and miscarriage, suggest unmet informational needs in these domains. With misinformation becoming a growing public health concern, more attention must be directed toward peer-exchange outlets.


Assuntos
Troca de Informação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Aborto Espontâneo , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto , Grupo Associado , Gravidez , Gestantes , Apoio Social
17.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 29(3): 291-296, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186964

RESUMO

Many reproductive-aged women with a disability can achieve successful healthy pregnancies; however, they may face challenges accessing prenatal and postpartum care and finding providers who are knowledgeable about their specific condition. Depending on the nature of the disability, some women may also be at increased risk for adverse maternal and infant outcomes such as pre-eclampsia, infection, anemia, primary cesarean delivery, or preterm birth. Population-based data are needed to better understand the pregnancy and postpartum experiences of women living with disability. The National Institutes of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) collaborated to address these data gaps by leveraging CDC's Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) to gather information about disability among women who have had a recent live birth. Data collection began in 2019. Information gathered through PRAMS can be used to guide the development of clinical practices guidelines, intervention programs, and other initiatives of federal, state, and local agencies to improve services and the health of women of reproductive age living with disability.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (U.S.) , Vigilância da População , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 88(5): 615-618, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trauma is the leading cause of nonobstetric death during pregnancy and is associated with an increased risk of maternal and fetal mortality. In an effort to improve the delivery of care to pregnant trauma patients, we developed an institutional multidisciplinary quality initiative designed to improve response times of nontrauma specialists and ensure immediate availability of resources. We hypothesized that implementation of a perinatal emergency response team (PERT) would improve time to patient and fetal evaluation and monitoring by the obstetrics (OB) team and improve both maternal and fetal outcomes. METHODS: We performed a 6-year (2012-2018) retrospective cohort analysis of consecutive pregnant trauma patients presenting to our university-affiliated, level I trauma center. Patients in the pre-PERT cohort (before April 2015) were compared with a post-PERT cohort. Variables analyzed included patient demographics, mechanism of injury, Injury Severity Score, and level of trauma activation. The main outcome measure was time to OB evaluation. Secondary outcomes included time to cardiotocometry, and mortality. RESULTS: Of 92 pregnant trauma patients, there were 50 patients (54.3%) in the pre-PERT cohort and 42 (45.7%) in the post-PERT group. Blunt injuries predominated (98.9%), with the most common mechanism being motor vehicle collisions (76.1%), followed by assaults (13%) and falls (6.5%). The mean time to obstetrical evaluation was 44 minutes in the pre-PERT cohort compared with 14 minutes in the post-PERT cohort (p = 0.001). There was a significant decrease in level I (highest acuity) trauma activations pre-PERT and post-PERT (46% vs. 21%, p = 0.01), and the time to cardiotocography was significantly decreased post-PERT implementation (72 vs. .37 min, p = 0.01) CONCLUSION: Implementation of a multidisciplinary PERT improves time to evaluation by the OB team and time to cardiotocometry in the pregnant trauma patient. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Retrospective review, level IV.


Assuntos
Cardiotocografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Equipe de Respostas Rápidas de Hospitais/organização & administração , Lesões Pré-Natais/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Adulto , Feminino , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Equipe de Respostas Rápidas de Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Lesões Pré-Natais/etiologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo para o Tratamento , Centros de Traumatologia/organização & administração , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Triagem/organização & administração , Triagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
19.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 60, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional medicine serves as a form of primary health care for more than 80% of African populations. Currently, there is no research documenting if and how African migrant communities engage with their traditional health practices and beliefs after they resettle in Western countries. The aim of this study was to examine African migrant women's experiences and perspectives about traditional and complementary medicine use in relation to their maternal health and wellbeing in Australia. METHODS: We conducted a mixed method study between December 2016 and October 2017. Questionnaires were completed by 319 women and 15 in-depth interviews were conducted among African migrant women residing across the Sydney metropolitan area, Australia. Survey data were analysed using SPSS (version 23) and logistic regression model was used to test associations. Qualitative data were analysed thematically using NVivo 11 software to identify themes and conceptual categories in the participants' responses. The study was informed by Andersen's Socio-behavioural model of health service utilisation. RESULTS: The findings indicated that use of traditional and complementary medicine was high and continued to be well used following African women's resettlement in Australia. The survey found that 232 (72.7%) women use some form of traditional and complementary medicine for maternal health and wellbeing purposes. Most women (179, 77.2%) reported that maintaining their maternal health and wellbeing was the most common reason for use. The interview findings indicated that access to traditional medicine included making requests from relatives and friends who travelled to Africa looking for a similar medicinal plant in Australia and preparing home remedies with advice from family members and healers back in Africa. Age ≥ 35 years (OR, 16.5; 95%CI, 6.58-41.5; p < 0.001), lower education (OR, 24; 95%CI, 8.18-71.1; p < 0.001), parity (OR, 7.3; 95%CI, 1.22-42.81; p = 0.029), and lower income (OR, 2.7; 95%CI, 1.23-5.83; p = 0.013) were strong predictors of traditional medicine use. CONCLUSION: Use of traditional and complementary medicine among African migrant women in Sydney remained high following resettlement in Australia. As noted in Andersen's sociobehavioural model of health service utilisation, specific predisposing and enabling factors including age, education and income were associated with use of traditional and complementary medicine.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/etnologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde/etnologia , Terapias Complementares/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Migrantes , Adolescente , Adulto , África/etnologia , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Matern Child Health J ; 24(4): 405-411, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052275

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the extent to which communities participating in the Collective Impact Learning Collaborative (CILC) increased capacity to create conditions for collective impact (CI) to address racial disparities in maternal and child health (MCH) and align local efforts with state MCH priorities over a 12-month period. DESCRIPTION: Eight communities participated in a learning collaborative that involved the provision of technical assistance via webinars, monthly team calls, and site visits to facilitate the development of a collective impact initiative. A Ready-Set-Go approach to technical assistance was used to guide the communities through each phase of development while also providing individual assistance to teams based on their capacity at the start of participation. ASSESSMENT: A pre/post design measured change in capacity to engage in CI efforts over time. A survey designed to assess the completion of core tasks related to early indicators of CI was completed at baseline and 12 months later. Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test and Mann-Whitney test determined statistically significant progress towards outcomes over 12 months and differences in progress between high- and low- capacity teams. CONCLUSION: In 12 months, teams with little established groundwork made significant progress, in some ways exceeding progress of more established teams. Statistically significant progress was achieved in eleven of fourteen outcomes measured. Five teams aligned local efforts with state priorities after 12 months. Findings suggest technical assistance to establish conditions for collective impact can support progress even when pre-conditions for collective impact are not previously established.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança/normas , Saúde Materna/normas , Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Participação da Comunidade/métodos , Participação da Comunidade/tendências , Humanos , Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Saúde Materno-Infantil/organização & administração , Centros de Saúde Materno-Infantil/tendências , Inquéritos e Questionários
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...