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1.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1239-1256, out.-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-994986

RESUMO

Diversos integrantes da Liga Brasileira de Higiene Mental/LBHM tiveram lugar significativo no processo de difusão e consolidação da psicologia no Brasil. A LBHM tinha como meta contribuir com a transformação do país em nação moderna a exemplo dos países europeus. Alinhados a tal proposta, tinha como principio o ideário da higiene mental e, a partir de 1928, o ideário da eugenia. Neste trabalho temos como objetivo analisar os títulos Tipos vulgares, publicado em 1927, e Psicologia da personalidade, publicado em 1941, de autoria de Renato Kehl (1889-1974), membro atuante da Liga, destacando-se sobremaneira como defensor e publicista da eugenia. Percorrendo estas obras à luz da historicidade dos fatos, observamos que os saberes psicológicos difundidos e apropriados pelo autor, referem-se a uma psicologia tida como científica, reverberada pela fisiologia experimental da psicologia europeia. Nas obras, é marcante o debate acerca do conhecimento e avaliação da personalidade para construção de uma nação forte. É igualmente marcante a concepção biologizante de homem e o caráter secundário das relações sociais na formação humana. As asserções de Kehl lançam luz às contribuições da psicologia naquela época e nos fazem refletir criticamente sobre concepções que ainda imperam no campo científico e profissional da psicologia.(AU)


Several members of the Brazilian League of Mental Hygiene / LBHM had significant place in the process of diffusion and consolidation of psychology in Brazil. The goal of LBHM was to contribute to the transformation of the country into a modern nation, like the European countries. Aligned with this proposal, it had as its principle the idea of​mental hygiene and, from 1928, the ideology of eugenics. In this work, we aim to analyze the works Vulgar Types, published in 1927, and Psychology of Personality, published in 1941, by Renato Kehl (1889-1974), an active member of the League, standing out as a defender and publicist of eugenics. Going through these works in light of the historicity of the facts, we observe that the psychological knowledge diffused and appropriated by the author, refer to a psychology considered as scientific, reverberated by the experimental physiology of European psychology. In the works, it is remarkable the debate about the knowledge and evaluation of the personality for the construction of a strong nation. It is also striking the biological conception of man and the secondary character of social relations in human formation. Kehl's assertions shed light on the contributions of psychology at that time and make us reflect critically on conceptions still prevalent in the scientific and professional field of psychology.(AU)


Diversos integrantes de la Liga Brasileña de Higiene Mental/LBHM tuvieron un lugar significativo en el proceso de difusión y consolidación de la psicología en Brasil. La LBHM tenía como meta contribuir con la transformación del país en una nación moderna siguiendo el ejemplo de los países europeos. En esa línea, se fijaron como principios las ideas de la higiene mental y, a partir de 1928, el ideario de la eugenesia. Nuestro objetivo es analizar dos libros de Renato Kehl (1889-1974), miembro activo de la Liga, que se destacó sobremanera como defensor de la eugenesia. Los títulos de las obras son: Tipos vulgares, publicado en 1927, y Psicología de la personalidad, de 1941.Analizando estos textos a la luz de la historicidad de los hechos, observamos que los saberes psicológicos difundidos y apropiados por el autor, se refieren a una psicología entendida como científica e influenciada por la fisiología experimental de la psicología europea. En las obras es notable el debate acerca del conocimiento y la evaluación de la personalidad para la construcción de una nación fuerte. Es igualmente notable la concepción biologicista del hombre y el papel secundario de las relaciones sociales en la formación humana. Las aseveraciones de Kehl arrojan luz a las contribuciones de la psicología en aquel momento y nos hacen pensar críticamente sobre las concepciones que todavía imperan en el campo científico y profesional de la psicología.(AU)


Assuntos
Psicologia/história , Personalidade , Brasil , Saúde Mental , Eugenia
2.
; NHS/UK.
Recurso na Internet em Inglês | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46803

RESUMO

Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder where you regularly have sudden attacks of panic or fear.


Assuntos
Transtornos Fóbicos , Saúde Mental , Transtorno de Pânico
3.
Recurso na Internet em Inglês | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46778

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that usually appears in late adolescence or early adulthood. Characterized by delusions, hallucinations, and other cognitive difficulties, schizophrenia can often be a lifelong struggle.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Saúde Mental
6.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 40-44, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437881

RESUMO

Assessing a patient's risk of an impending suicide attempt has been hampered by limited information about dynamic factors that change rapidly in the days leading up to an attempt. The storage of patient data in electronic health records (EHRs) has facilitated population-level risk assessment studies using machine learning techniques. Until recently, most such work has used only structured EHR data and excluded the unstructured text of clinical notes. In this article, we describe our experiments on suicide risk assessment, modelling the problem as a classification task. Given the wealth of text data in mental health EHRs, we aimed to assess the impact of using this data in distinguishing periods prior to a suicide attempt from those not preceding such an attempt. We compare three different feature sets, one structured and two text-based, and show that inclusion of text features significantly improves classification accuracy in suicide risk assessment.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Aprendizado de Máquina , Medição de Risco , Suicídio , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Projetos de Pesquisa , Suicídio/prevenção & controle
7.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 50-54, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437883

RESUMO

Suicide is a growing public health concern in online communities. In this paper, we analyze online communications on the topic of suicide in the social networking platform, Reddit. We combine lexical text characteristics with semantic information to identify comments with features of suicide attempts and methods. Then, we develop a set of machine learning methods to automatically extract suicide methods and classify the user comments. Our classification methods performance varied between suicide experiences, with F1-scores up to 0.92 for "drugs" and greater than 0.82 for "hanging" and "other methods". Our exploratory analysis reveals that the most frequent reported suicide methods are drug overdose, hanging, and wrist-cutting.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Mídias Sociais , Rede Social , Tentativa de Suicídio , Sobreviventes , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina
8.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 945-949, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438063

RESUMO

Smartphones offer new opportunities to monitor health-related behaviours in the real world. This allows researchers to go beyond traditional data collection methods, such as interviews and questionnaires that suffer from recall bias and low spatio-temporal resolution. In this study, we present an experiment that uses advanced analytical methods to identify daily activities relevant to assess social functioning, from geolocation data. Twenty-one healthy volunteers used a smartphone to continuously record their GPS location for up to 10 days. Participants also completed a diary to record their daily activities that was used as ground truth. Using clustering algorithms and semantic enrichment methods we were able to predict these activities from the GPS data with a precision of 0.75 (standard deviation [SD] 0.13) and a recall of 0.60 (SD 0.11). Although performed on a limited sample, our study shows potential for continuous, and passive geolocation-based monitoring of patient behaviour in mental health.


Assuntos
Smartphone , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Monitorização Fisiológica , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(31): e16631, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This systematic review protocol describes the methods that will be used to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ear acupuncture for trauma-related disorders after large-scale disasters. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The following electronic databases will be searched up to May 2019 without language or publication status restrictions: Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PsycARTICLES. We will also search Korean, Chinese, and Japanese databases. Any clinical studies with original data related to ear acupuncture for trauma-related disorders after large-scale disaster will be included. Traumatic stress-related symptoms will be assessed as primary outcomes. Depression, anxiety, adverse events, and total effective rate will be evaluated as secondary outcomes. Two researchers will independently perform the study selection, data extraction, and assessment of study quality. Descriptive analyses of the details of participants, interventions, and outcomes for all included studies will be conducted. Data synthesis and analysis will be performed using RevMan version 5.3. The methodological quality of the included studies will be evaluated according to the study design. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required because individual patient data are not included. The findings of this systematic review will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication or conference presentations. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019134658.


Assuntos
Acupuntura Auricular/métodos , Desastres , Saúde Mental , Trauma Psicológico/terapia , Acupuntura Auricular/efeitos adversos , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Dor Crônica/epidemiologia , Dor Crônica/terapia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/terapia , Humanos , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiologia , Projetos de Pesquisa
10.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 413-417, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437956

RESUMO

Suicidal ideation is a risk factor for self-harm, completed suicide and can be indicative of mental health issues. Adolescents are a particularly vulnerable group, but few studies have examined suicidal behaviour prevalence in large cohorts. Electronic Health Records (EHRs) are a rich source of secondary health care data that could be used to estimate prevalence. Most EHR documentation related to suicide risk is written in free text, thus requiring Natural Language Processing (NLP) approaches. We adapted and evaluated a simple lexicon- and rule-based NLP approach to identify suicidal adolescents from a large EHR database. We developed a comprehensive manually annotated EHR reference standard and assessed NLP performance at both document and patient level on data from 200 patients ( 5000 documents). We achieved promising results (>80% f1 score at both document and patient level). Simple NLP approaches can be successfully used to identify patients who exhibit suicidal risk behaviour, and our proposed approach could be useful for other populations and settings.


Assuntos
Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Suicídio , Adolescente , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Ideação Suicida
11.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 266: 101-107, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397309

RESUMO

Information sharing is key to integrated, collaborative, and continuous care. People with a lived experience of mental illness may access several services across the health, mental health and social care sectors, which creates challenges for information sharing. The health informatics community has traditionally not prioritised social care informatics. However, with the growing role of social care in the lives of people with complex health conditions, now is the time when we must consider the articulation between health informatics and social care informatics in Australia. This paper reports the results of a qualitative study to understand the current context of information sharing between health, mental health and social care services. Interviews and focus groups with nine clinicians, caseworkers and support workers were undertaken. Thematic analysis supported the development of several themes. These include the growing role of social care services, the importance of trust and the challenge created by the complexity of conditions people can present with when accessing social care services. To ensure the growing range of social care services do not get left behind with the increasing digitisation of the Australian health system, the health informatics community should prioritise the inclusion of social care informatics in its scope of practice.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Austrália , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Saúde Mental
12.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 266: 156-161, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Digital Health Interventions (DHIs) can improve mental health literacy (MHL) and help-seeking behaviour in teens and adults. However, it is unclear whether DHIs improve parental MHL, help-seeking behaviour or access to mental health services for their children. OBJECTIVE: To perform a scoping review of DHIs aiming to improve MHL, help-seeking behaviour or access to mental health services among parents of 2-12-year-olds with behavioural and emotional problems (BEP). METHOD: A search of Ovid MEDLINE found four original articles meeting inclusion criteria. RESULTS: One of the four articles was a randomised controlled trial, which showed a significant improvement in some measures of MHL, but no change in help-seeking attitudes. The other three studies evaluated interventions, in uncontrolled pre-test and post-test evaluations, on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder knowledge. Two of these studies showed a significant change in ADHD knowledge. There was no consistency in MHL measures between studies. CONCLUSIONS: There is preliminary evidence that DHIs may improve MHL in parents of children with BEP. How this translates to help seeking, access to mental health services or improved outcomes is unknown.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Alfabetização em Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pais
13.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 526-530, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437979

RESUMO

There is an important gap in scaling up psychosocial interventions for people with severe mental health problems so that these interventions are not only widely available but also delivered in a timely manner. We examined the feasability of adapting a psychological intervention traditionally delivered face-to-face onto a digital platform. We report both the clinical and technical processes used to adapt and develop the digital platform in a group of people in the early phase of psychosis. The digital platform prompts people to engage with the intervention multiple times a day over a 12-week period. Participants are also able to access a repository of multi-media content to support their mental health. The digital platform has been successfully validated by participants registered with early intervention for psychosis services in the Northwest of England, UK and is currently being tested in a powered efficacy trial.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Inglaterra , Humanos
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(32): e16768, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the number of patients who suffer from non-specific chronic neck pain (CNP) is increasing in the Republic of Korea, conservative treatments for patients with CNP have been spotlighted. Although several studies on thread embedding acupuncture (TEA) treatment have been published for the treatment of such patients, no randomized controlled trial has been reported that investigates the effectiveness and safety of the TEA treatment compared with other conservative treatments for the treatment of patients with CNP. Therefore, the purpose of this trial is to compare the effectiveness and safety of TEA to those of physical therapy (PT) for the treatment of patients with CNP. METHODS/DESIGN: This study is planned as a parallel design, randomized, controlled, assessor-blinded, clinical study. One hundred twenty-eight patients diagnosed with CNP will be randomly assigned to either the TEA group or the PT group in a 1:1 ratio. Participants in the TEA group will receive 4 sessions of TEA treatment, while those in the PT group will receive 8 sessions of PT treatment over 4 weeks. An assessment of effectiveness based on the outcomes of the Neck Pain and Disability Scale (NPDS), cervical spinal angle, Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC), EuroQol-Five Dimension 3 level version (EQ-5D-3L), and Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT) will be conducted at baseline, and at 5, 9, and 13 weeks. The primary outcome is the mean change in the NPDS at 9 weeks. Adverse events (AEs) will be recorded at every visit. DISCUSSION: The results of this study will be expected to provide useful information for the effectiveness and safety of TEA treatment compared to PT treatment for patients with CNP. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Research Information Service of Republic of Korea (CRIS- KCT0003720), April 5, 2019.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Cervicalgia/terapia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Polidioxanona/química , Projetos de Pesquisa , Terapia por Acupuntura/efeitos adversos , Dor Crônica , Avaliação da Deficiência , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Método Simples-Cego
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(32): e16794, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393408

RESUMO

To investigate the emotional problems (depressive and anxiety symptoms) of mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and explore the role of the mother's socioeconomic status (SES) and the core symptoms of the child on the mother's emotional problems.This cross-sectional survey was performed in 180 mothers of children with ASD in Chang Sha city of China. The 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) and the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) were used to assess the anxiety and depressive symptoms of the mothers of the autistic children. The education level and annual family income, as well as occupation, were be selected as components of the mother's SES. Autism Behaviour Checklist (ABC) and Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) were used for the evaluation of the core symptoms of the children. A general information questionnaire was also used. The ordinal regression was used to examine the effect of the SES and children's core symptoms on maternal emotional problems.The valid response rate was 92.7% (167 of 180 questionnaires were returned). Of the mothers studied, 72.5% and 80.2% had depressive and anxiety symptoms, respectively, and 67.1% suffered from both symptoms. Mother's SES was observed to be unrelated to maternal anxiety symptoms (P >.05). Only 1 component of the SES (junior high school education level) was related to depressive symptoms (OR = 0.31, 95% CI 0.12-0.80). SRS score under 115 (OR = 0.38, 95% CI 0.16-0.93) of autistic children was a protective factor against maternal anxiety symptoms. The borderline and mild behavioral problems (OR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.19-0.99; OR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.22-0.94, respectively) of autistic children were protective factors against maternal depressive symptoms.Mothers of autistic children generally exhibited high levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. The core symptoms of the autistic children were observed to be strongly associated with both maternal anxiety and depressive symptoms. Improvements in the core symptoms of children with ASD may help reduce maternal anxiety and depressive symptoms to some extent.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/psicologia , Classe Social , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Linguagem , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
16.
Recurso na Internet em Inglês | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46677

RESUMO

Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a national health crisis that continues to grow—yet it remains one of the most misunderstood and incorrectly treated illnesses today. According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC), 20% of boys and 11% of girls are being diagnosed with it.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental
17.
Recurso na Internet em Inglês | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46670

RESUMO

With the distorted images portrayed by the media or the many stereotypes that exist, it may be confusing to understand exactly what an eating disorder is or the various types of eating disorders. Having knowledge and understanding about the different kinds of eating disorders and their characteristics can be beneficial in increasing awareness of these complex diseases.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Saúde Mental , Bulimia , Anorexia
19.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 262: 392-395, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349250

RESUMO

Individuals within the Arab world rarely access mental health services. One of the major reasons for this relates to the stigma associated with mental disorders. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), untreated and undiagnosed individuals living with moderate to severe mental health disorders are more likely to die 10-20 years earlier than the estimated life expectancy of the general population. Mental disorders also cause a large amount of costs to economies. Access to mental health services is out of reach for many individuals within in the Arab world due to insufficient planning, inadequate community resources, and military conflicts. Online mental health information and services are growing within the region; however, they are embedded and often sidelined within a wealth of other general health information. The purpose of this paper is to present the conceptual framework of the Mental Health Assistant (MeHA) digital platform being developed for the Arab world. The aim of this platform is to provide mental health information and educational resources through the use of a conversational agent, multi-media information, and to digitally connect patients with mental health service providers. The conceptual framework for the platform is based on mental health and information technology expert feedback, review of both academic and gray literature on mental health, and an examination of leading mental health digital platforms. As a result of this process, we developed a conceptual framework that will guide the development of the MeHA platform.


Assuntos
Internet , Transtornos Mentais , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Estigma Social , Mundo Árabe , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Mental
20.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 262: 114-117, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349279

RESUMO

Composite multi-dimensional constructs, such as 'global mental health' and 'global physical health', in PROMIS® instruments and ICHOM standard outcome sets, are formative, not reflective. Their preference-insensitivity means they are potentially misleading in both clinical and policy decision making practice. Their frequent validation by reflective psychometric tests is also improper methodologically. The spread of these instruments is occurring without sufficient awareness on the part of patients, clinicians, researchers and policy makers that the need for group-specific preference bases ('tariffs') for such measures rules out any possibility of 'international gold standard metrics'.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Saúde Mental , Humanos , Psicometria
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