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1.
Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother ; 48(1): 47-56, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30375920

RESUMO

Progress and challenges in the analysis of big data in social media of adolescents Abstract. Social media are ubiquitous today, and adolescents use them to express their thoughts, feelings, and behaviours. New interdisciplinary methods allow the automatic analysis of the massive amounts of data (big data) available on social networking websites using machine-learning tools to detect indicators of mental-health problems and disorders by identifying differences with common activity and communication patterns. This review first introduces the concept and potential fields of applications of big data in social media. It then discusses the first studies that used big data analyses and detected mental-health problems by identifying differences in the structure of social networks, in the use of certain words, and in the communication of opinions and sentiments. Future studies employing several assessment points could use longitudinal mediation analysis to model intraindividual changes in order to understand when and through which mechanisms social media use has an impact on mental health. Furthermore, future studies should include additional mental disorders, various sources of information, a broader age range, and additional social-networking websites to develop more precise models for the early detection of mental disorders. This would enable the development of personalised intervention programs to promote mental health and resilience in adolescents.


Assuntos
Big Data , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Comunicação , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia
2.
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi ; 37(11): 835-839, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826549

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the mental health status and influencing factors of medical staff after blood-borne occupational exposure, and to provide scientific basis for effective psychological intervention. Methods: From January 2017 to December 2018, 178 medical staff with blood-borne occupational exposure in three hospitals of Shandong Province were collected as the contact group, and 100 routine medical staff as the control group during the same period. Questionnaires were conducted among medical staff in the two groups, including general information questionnaire, symptom checklist 90 (SCL-90) , post-traumatic stress disorder self-rating scale (PCL-C) , coping style scale (CPS) , social support scale (SSRS) . The basic situation and mental health level of medical staff in the two groups, as well as the coping and social support status of medical staff exposed to hematogenous occupational exposure were analyzed. Relevant influencing factors. Results: The total score of SCL-90 was 1.66+0.33, 45 (38.14%) were positive, and 21 (21.00%) were positive in the control group. The difference was statistically significant (χ(2)=7.529, P<0.05) . Compared with the control group, the scores of SCL-90 somatization, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depression, anxiety, hostility, paranoia and total scores of medical staff in the exposure group increased significantly (P<0.05) . The total PCL-C score of exposure group was 36.84+9.50, PTSD positive 47 (39.83%) and control group 13 (13.00%) . The difference was statistically significant (χ(2)=19.534, P<0.05) . Compared with the control group, PCL-C re-experience, avoidance, vigilance factor scores and total scores of medical staff in the contact group increased significantly (P<0.05) . The problem solving, help seeking and subjective support of the medical staff in the positive mental health group with blood-borne occupational exposure were significantly lower than those in the negative group, while self-blame, fantasy and withdrawal were significantly higher than those in the negative group (P<0.05) . The mental health level of medical staff with occupational exposure was negatively correlated with problem solving, help seeking and subjective support, and positively correlated with self-blame, fantasy and withdrawal (P<0.05) . Problem solving, help seeking and subjective support were protective factors of mental health (OR=2.121, 1.616, 1.371) , and self-blame and withdrawal were risk factors of mental health (OR=0.160, 0.484) . Conclusion: Medical personnel exposed to blood-borne occupational exposure are prone to psychological problems and PTSD. Solving problems, seeking help and subjective support are protective factors for mental health, while self-blame and withdrawal are risk factors for mental health.


Assuntos
Corpo Clínico , Saúde Mental , Exposição Ocupacional , Humanos , Corpo Clínico/psicologia , Corpo Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 64, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flourishing, defined as the coexistence of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, is the most favorable end of the mental health spectrum. A growing body of evidence has demonstrated the association between flourishing mental health and favorable work-related outcomes. However, epidemiology of flourishing mental health is scarce in Japan. Moreover, the relationship between flourishing mental health and occupational stress has not been elaborated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate (1) the prevalence of flourishing mental health and (2) the association between flourishing mental health and occupational stress among Japanese workers. METHODS: The present survey was conducted in from February to March 2017 via an anonymous, self-administered, and web-based questionnaire among workers in Tsukuba Science City, Japan. Mental Health Continuum Short Form was used to assess flourishing mental health. We performed binomial logistic regression analyses to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of occupational stress for flourishing mental health, controlling for sociodemographic factors. RESULTS: A total of 7012 respondents (4402 men, 2610 women) were analyzed. The overall prevalence of flourishing mental health among the respondents was 12.4%. Full-time (permanent) workers were less likely to be flourishing. Reward from work (AOR = 2.34, 95% CI = 2.04-2.68), support from colleagues and superiors (AOR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.44-1.94), and workload (AOR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.05-1.36) were positively associated with flourishing mental health, whereas mental workload (AOR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.57-0.75) was inversely associated with flourishing mental health. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study shed light on the association between flourishing mental health and occupational stress.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Saúde do Trabalhador , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Emprego/psicologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1428, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dog ownership is suggested to improve mental well-being, although empirical evidence among community dog owners is limited. This study examined changes in human mental well-being following dog acquisition, including four measures: loneliness, positive and negative affect, and psychological distress. METHODS: We conducted an eight-month controlled study involving three groups (n = 71): 17 acquired a dog within 1 month of baseline (dog acquisition); 29 delayed dog acquisition until study completion (lagged control); and 25 had no intentions of acquiring a dog (community control). All participants completed the UCLA Loneliness Scale (possible scores 0-60), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and Kessler10 at baseline, three-months and eight-months. We used repeated measures ANCOVAs to analyse data with owner age and sex included as covariates. Post-hoc tests were performed for significant effects (p < 0.05). RESULTS: There was a statistically significant group by time interaction for loneliness (p = 0.03), with an estimated reduction of 8.41 units (95% CI -16.57, - 0.26) from baseline to three-months and 7.12 (95% CI -12.55, - 1.69) from baseline to eight-months in the dog acquisition group. The group by time interaction for positive affect was also significant (p = 0.03), although there was no change in the dog acquisition group. CONCLUSIONS: Companion dog acquisition may reduce loneliness among community dog owners. Our study provides useful direction for future larger trials on the effects of dog ownership on human mental well-being. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was retrospectively registered on 5th July 2017 with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ( ACTRN12617000967381 ).


Assuntos
Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Propriedade/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais de Estimação/psicologia , Adulto , Afeto , Idoso , Animais , Austrália , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Solidão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(4): 457-464, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698402

RESUMO

AIMS: National mental health policies must be grounded in accurate assessments of diseases. In the current article we used the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 to examine burden due to mental and substance use disorders in Romania. METHODS: For each mental and substance use disorder included in the GBD 2016 we reported the yearly estimates for YLL (as a measure for non-fatal burden), YLD (fatal burden) and DALY (summing years lived with disability and years of life lost to give a measure of total burden). RESULTS: Mental and substance use disorders were the third leading cause of non-fatal burden in Romania in 2016, explaining 13.53% of total years lived with disability, the ninth leading cause for fatal burden explaining 0.84% of total years of life lost, and were the fifth leading cause of total burden, accounting for 5.52% of total disability-adjusted life years. Among MSDs, depression, anxiety and alcohol use disorders have the highest rate. Starting 1997 there has been a slow decrease of age-standardized disability-adjusted life year rates, with no significant change in the last 5 years. CONCLUSION: Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 found that mental and substance use disorders were the fifth leading contributors to disease burden in Romania, with anxiety and depressive being the most prevalent. Despite national programs and strategies in the area of mental health initiated especially after 1990, the mental health system does not fully meet the needs of the patients. Effective population-level strategic measures are still required in order to reduce the burden of disease.


Assuntos
Carga Global da Doença/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Pessoas com Deficiência , Humanos , Prevalência , Romênia/epidemiologia
6.
Br J Nurs ; 28(21): 1410-1413, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778336

RESUMO

This article presents a personal reflection using theoretical frameworks as the basis of understanding multifaceted influences on the personal health of the primary author since beginning undergraduate university degree studies in nursing. It also explores theoretical and lay definitions of health and wellbeing, before analysing influences on health from a personal perspective. This illustrates how understanding, developed through the use of theoretical frameworks, can enable individuals to enhance their own health and wellbeing.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades
7.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1436, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study investigated the self-assessed mental and general health status of informal carers in Australia. It evaluated the influence of carer's health behaviours, namely physical activity, smoking and drinking status, along with their social connectedness and workforce engagement on their health status. METHODS: The study used a retrospective longitudinal design using data from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics of Australia survey, waves 5-15 (2005-2015). It included individuals aged 15 years and older from Australian households surveyed over a period of 11 years. The sample consisted of 23,251 individuals. The outcome measures included: mental health, general health and physical functioning domains of the Short Form 36 Questionnaire, a widely used multi-dimensional measure of health-related quality of life. Using fixed effects regression and following individuals over time, the analysis took care of the issue of individuals self-selecting themselves as carers due to some predisposing factors such as age, poor health, socioeconomic status and sedentary behaviour. RESULTS: There were statistically significant carer-noncarer status differences in mental (Beta = - 0.587, p = 0.003) and general health (Beta = - 0.670, p = 0.001) outcomes. Aging had a modifying impact on carers' mental and general health outcomes. Older carers coped better with their caregiving responsibilities than younger ones. Moreover, while physical activities had a positive influence on both mental and general health for non-carers, with more activities generating better health outcomes, it only had a modifying impact on carers' mental health. Furthermore, the study found that moderate levels of social drinking had beneficial modifying impact on carers' mental and general health. CONCLUSION: This study added value to the literature on informal carers' mental and general health in Australia by identifying some of the protective and risk factors. The study found the modifying effects of carers' age, health behaviours such as physical activity, smoking and drinking status on their health. Finally, the study identified an apparent beneficial link between moderate levels of social drinking and carer health that needs to be further explored with more targeted future research.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1286, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Occupational stressors in police work increase the risk for officer mental health morbidities. Officers' poor mental wellbeing is harmful to the individual, can affect professionalism, organisational effectiveness, and public safety. While the impact of operational stressors on officers' mental wellbeing is well documented, no review has systematically investigated organisational stressor impacts. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review to assess the relationship between organisational stressors and police officer mental wellbeing. METHODS: Systematic review conducted following PRISMA and Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. Literature search was undertaken from 1990 to May 2017 on four databases (EBSCOHOST Medline/SocINDEX/PsycINFO/OVID Embase) and grey literature. Included articles were critically appraised and assessed for risk of bias. Narrative and evidence syntheses were performed by specific mental health outcomes. RESULTS: In total, 3571 results were returned, and 15 studies met the inclusion criteria. All included studies were published in English between 1995 and 2016, had cross-sectional study designs, spanned across four continents and covered 15,150 officers. Strong evidence of significant associations was identified for organisational stressors and the outcomes of: occupational stress, psychiatric symptoms/psychological distress, emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment. The organisational stressors most often demonstrating consistently significant associations with mental health outcomes included lack of support, demand, job pressure, administrative/organisational pressure and long working-hours. CONCLUSIONS: This review is the first to systematically examine organisational stressors and mental health in police officers. Organisational stressors that can be targeted by interventions and policy changes to secure officer wellbeing, a healthy work environment, and benefits to the organisation and the public are identified.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Polícia/psicologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 139(15)2019 10 22.
Artigo em Norueguês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the public health survey in the Norwegian counties is to obtain information that is useful for public health work. In 2018, two parallel data collection processes were undertaken in Hordaland county. Both samples were drawn randomly from the National Population Register, but one of these was limited to users of the helsenorge.no website. The purpose of this article is to investigate the degree to which limiting users to the helsenorge.no website leads to selection bias beyond the selection that occurs through ordinary non-participation. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Services for Sensitive Data (TSD) was used in the data collection for the sample drawn from the National Population Register (n = 36 000), and the helsenorge.no platform was used in the data collection for the sample limited to users of helsenorge.no (n = 30 000). The response rate was 40.8 % and 41.5 %, respectively. RESULTS: For some outcome measures, the differences between the two datasets were modest (gender distribution, age, education and health habits). For variables that were more directly related to health, the differences were greater. In the helsenorge.no sample a higher proportion reported generally poorer health (29.4 vs. 24.0 %), mental health problems (13.6 vs. 11.6 %), disability pension (10.5 vs. 7.8 %) and long-term illness (13.3 vs. 9.3 %). Analyses of subgroups showed more pronounced differences in the proportion with generally poorer health and mental health problems between those with low education in the helsenorge.no sample and the corresponding group in the sample from the National Population Register. INTERPRETATION: Systematic and pronounced differences between the samples show that limiting recruitment to users of helsenorge.no's services results in further selection problems.


Assuntos
Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Seleção de Pacientes , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Escolaridade , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Saúde Pública , Sistema de Registros , Viés de Seleção , Autorrelato , Previdência Social/estatística & dados numéricos , Apoio Social , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1363, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This scoping review summarizes the existing literature regarding the mental health of physicians and physicians-in-training and explores what types of mental health concerns are discussed in the literature, what is their prevalence among physicians, what are the causes of mental health concerns in physicians, what effects mental health concerns have on physicians and their patients, what interventions can be used to address them, and what are the barriers to seeking and providing care for physicians. This review aims to improve the understanding of physicians' mental health, identify gaps in research, and propose evidence-based solutions. METHODS: A scoping review of the literature was conducted using Arksey and O'Malley's framework, which examined peer-reviewed articles published in English during 2008-2018 with a focus on North America. Data were summarized quantitatively and thematically. RESULTS: A total of 91 articles meeting eligibility criteria were reviewed. Most of the literature was specific to burnout (n = 69), followed by depression and suicidal ideation (n = 28), psychological harm and distress (n = 9), wellbeing and wellness (n = 8), and general mental health (n = 3). The literature had a strong focus on interventions, but had less to say about barriers for seeking help and the effects of mental health concerns among physicians on patient care. CONCLUSIONS: More research is needed to examine a broader variety of mental health concerns in physicians and to explore barriers to seeking care. The implication of poor physician mental health on patients should also be examined more closely. Finally, the reviewed literature lacks intersectional and longitudinal studies, as well as evaluations of interventions offered to improve mental wellbeing of physicians.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Humanos , América do Norte
11.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1255, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Climate change is associated with greater frequency, duration, intensity and unpredictability of certain weather-related events, including floods. Floods harm mental health. There is limited understanding of the mental health and well-being effects from river flooding, particularly over the longer term and in rural contexts. This paper describes the rationale, aims, objectives, study design and socio-demographic characteristics of the sample for a study measuring associations between flood experience and mental health and wellbeing of residents (particularly those most likely to be negatively impacted and hard to reach) in rural NSW Australia 6 months following a devastating flood in 2017. To our knowledge, the study is the first of its kind within Australia in a rural community and is an important initiative given the likelihood of an increasing frequency of severe flooding in Australia given climate change. METHODS: A conceptual framework (The Flood Impact Framework) drawing on social ecological approaches was developed by the research team. It was based on the literature and feedback from the community. The Framework describes putative relationships between flood exposure and mental health and wellbeing outcomes. Within a community-academic partnership approach, a cross-sectional survey was then undertaken to quantify and further explore these relationships. RESULTS: The cross-sectional survey was conducted online (including on mobile phone) and on paper between September and November 2017 and recruited 2530 respondents. Of those, 2180 provided complete demographic data, among whom 69% were women, 91% were aged 25-74, 4% identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander, 9% were farmers and 33% were business owners. CONCLUSIONS: The study recruited a wide range of respondents and the partnership facilitated the community's engagement with the design and implementation of the study. The study will provide a basis for a follow-up study, that will aim to improve the understanding of mental health and wellbeing effects over the longer term. It will provide an important and original contribution to understanding river flooding and mental health in rural Australia, a topic that will grow in importance in the context of human-induced climate change, and identify critical opportunities to strengthen services, emergency planning and resilience to future flooding.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Inundações , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Mudança Climática , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547286

RESUMO

In an increasingly urbanised world where mental health is currently in crisis, interventions to increase human engagement and connection with the natural environment are one of the fastest growing, most widely accessible, and cost-effective ways of improving human wellbeing. This study aimed to provide an evaluation of a smartphone app-based wellbeing intervention. In a randomised controlled trial study design, the app prompted 582 adults, including a subgroup of adults classified by baseline scores on the Recovering Quality of Life scale as having a common mental health problem (n = 148), to notice the good things about urban nature (intervention condition) or built spaces (active control). There were statistically significant and sustained improvements in wellbeing at one-month follow-up. Importantly, in the noticing urban nature condition, compared to a built space control, improvements in quality of life reached statistical significance for all adults and clinical significance for those classified as having a mental health difficulty. This improvement in wellbeing was partly explained by significant increases in nature connectedness and positive affect. This study provides the first controlled experimental evidence that noticing the good things about urban nature has strong clinical potential as a wellbeing intervention and social prescription.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Aplicativos Móveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Natureza , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Smartphone , Adulto , Ambiente Construído/estatística & dados numéricos , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is increasingly established as an indicator for the subjective health of children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to describe the current HRQoL among children and adolescents in Germany aged between 11 and 17 years taking into account common chronic diseases (bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis, obesity, ADHD) and mental health problems. METHODS: The analysis is based on information obtained from 6,599 children and adolescents (51.9% girls; 48.1% boys) from KiGGS Wave 2 (2014-2017). HRQoL was measured with the multidimensional KIDSCREEN-27. The chronic diseases and mental health problems under investigation were assessed by several indicators. RESULTS: Differences in HRQoL could be found as a function of age and gender. The HRQoL among girls was lower at an older age across all dimensions. These age-related differences are less pronounced among boys. The HRQoL of children and adolescents with chronic diseases and mental health problems was lower compared to their healthy peer groups. The comparison of the investigated chronic diseases and mental health problems revealed significant differences. Particularly, HRQoL was lower for children and adolescents with obesity and mental health problems. DISCUSSION: The distinction of several dimensions of HRQoL allows a comprehensive understanding of age- and gender-related effects and provides a detailed assessment of the impact of chronic diseases and mental health problems. The present findings underline the importance of HRQoL as an indicator for the subjective health of children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Idoso , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 75, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553378

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between exposure to green areas in the surroundings of the residence and the presence of common mental disorders among adults, according to different income strata. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 2,584 participants from the Pró-Saúde Study (2006), residing in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Common Mental Disorders were measured using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and exposure to green areas was measured using the normalized difference vegetation index, in buffers with radiuses between 100 and 1,500 meters around the residence. We used the mean and maximum normalized difference vegetation index categorized into quartiles. The study population was divided into three subgroups, according to the income: low, intermediate, and high. Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were estimated with logistic regression models. The models were adjusted by sex and age, with and without inclusion of physical activity practice. RESULTS: The proportion of common mental disorders was 30% and 39% among men and women, respectively. The results of the adjusted models showed an inverse association between the presence of green areas in the surroundings of the residence and the occurrence of common mental disorders, in the buffer of 200 meters in the intermediate-income group and in the buffers of 400 and 1,500 meters in the low-income group. The odds ratio ranged from 0.52 (buffer of 1,500 meters) to 0.68 (buffer of 200 meters). The association found was independent of physical activity practice. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence found suggests the existence of a beneficial effect of urban green areas on the mental health of lower-income individuals. These findings can help in understanding how the urban environment can affect the mental health of the population.


Assuntos
Jardins/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Parques Recreativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Exercício/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487774

RESUMO

Pesticide exposure is an important rural public health concern that is linked to a spectrum of health outcomes in farmers. However, little is known about these effects on residents living in close proximity to agricultural fields and who are not involved in regular farming. This paper compared the effects of residential proximity to farming lands on a number of neurological and mental health outcomes in adults. A cross-sectional study was performed on 57 adults involved in farming only occasionally in rural Matlab in Bangladesh. A health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) and geocoding were used to define proximity to the agricultural field. Neurological health was measured using the trail making test, vibrotactile threshold measurement, and dominant ulnar nerve conduction velocity (NCV) amplitude. An adapted Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) questionnaire was used to evaluate mental health. Results indicated that respondents living near agricultural fields had significantly higher vibrotactile threshold in big toes (p < 0.004) and needed a longer time to complete the trail making test (p < 0.004) than those living far from fields after accounting for the covariates. Results of this pilot study suggest further investigations to establish the impact of pesticide exposure among occasional and non-farmers on neurological health outcomes.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Condução Nervosa/fisiologia , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Teste de Sequência Alfanumérica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Bangladesh , Estudos Transversais , Fazendas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Condução Nervosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Projetos Piloto , Características de Residência
16.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 312-317, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488746

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A recent study commissioned by the Scottish Government on the prevalence of mental disorders in Muslims in Scotland revealed that over 50% of the sample met the diagnostic criteria for a mental illness. Stigma is a major barrier to mental health services and despite the availability of effective treatment, many Muslims in Scotland with mental health difficulties continue to suffer in silence. The Federation of Student Islamic Societies (FOSIS) Scotland branch organized a mental health conference in Glasgow to improve Mental Health Literacy and challenge mental health related stigma in the Scottish Muslim community. The conference was comprised of: A counsellor with a background of Islamic psychology, a psychiatrist and an Imam (a Muslim religious leader). DESIGN: We conducted a single-arm, pre- post- comparison study on Muslims who attended the FOSIS mental health conference in Glasgow, Scotland. Validated psychometric stigma scales measuring knowledge (Mental Health Knowledge Schedule (MAKS)), attitudes (Community Attitudes towards the Mentally Ill (CAMI)) and behaviours (Reported and Intended Behaviour Scale (RIBS)) were administered on participants before and immediately after exposure to the programme. RESULTS: 34 out of the 55 participants who attended the conference responded (response rate 62%). 34/34 (100%) of the respondents were Muslim and the mean age was 22.7 years (Std. Dev. 6.04, min. 18, max. 49). There were no statistically significant changes in stigma across the domains of knowledge, attitude and behaviour in respondents following exposure to the event. CONCLUSION: Previous FOSIS anti-stigma conferences in England and Ireland featuring an Expert by Lived Experience were associated with statistically significant reductions in mental health related stigma. The results of the FOSIS Glasgow study supports the, 'Power of contact' with an Expert by Lived Experience at reducing mental health related stigma in the Muslim community. More robust research in this area is urgently required.


Assuntos
Islamismo/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Estigma Social , Estudantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escócia/epidemiologia , Estereotipagem , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 371-375, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this paper we focus on adolescents in transition towards young adulthood (ATYA). We know from international studies that the transition process makes adolescents vulnerable to mental illness. However, little is known about Belgian ATYA mental-health status. Nor are risk factors associated with their mental illness understood, in particular with regard to depressive and anxiety disorder. The aim of this study is (1) to discuss evolution in time of prevalence of depressive disorder (DD) and anxiety disorder (AD) among Belgian ATYA and (2), to identify risk factors associated with these disorders among ATYA. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Data was extracted from the Belgian Health Interview Survey (BHIS), which is a cross-sectional population survey, carried out in 2001, 2004, 2008, and 2013. Information about the population's background characteristics, health services utilization, health behaviours and mental health status were extracted and statistically analyzed. RESULTS: ATYA prevalence of DD and AD was higher in 2013 in comparison with previous years. These changes were significant only for DD (F=4.466, p=0.004). In contrast with younger adolescents, among ATYA odds of DD were 28.2% higher (OR 1.282, 95% CI 0.967-1.698, p=0.084) and, odds of AD were 55.2% higher (OR 1.552, 95% CI 1.137-2.119, p=0.006). For ATYA, a poor quality of social support was the most predictive factor of DD (OR 11.187, 95% CI 5.530-22.629, p<0.0001) and AD (OR 6.238, 95% CI 2.845-13.676, p<0.0001); whereas, having a paid job was the most protective factor with regard to DD (OR 0.282, 95% CI 0.169-0.470, p<0.0001) and AD (OR 0.552, 95% CI 0.330-0.924, p<0.024). CONCLUSION: Prevalence of mental illness among Belgian ATYA appears to worsen in time. In comparison with younger adolescents, ATYA are more vulnerable to anxiety disorders. Adverse and protective risk factors were identified and discussed in a way to improve access, continuity and mental healthcare pathways for Belgian ATYA.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 395-399, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees the number of people forced to leave their home as a result of conflict, persecution, violence or human rights violations remains high with 68.5 million forcibly displaced people worldwide. Asylum seekers are vulnerable in terms of mental health but they receive very little specific psychiatric care. The purpose of this literature review is to examine current situation regarding asylum seekers' psychiatric healthcare. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This research was conducted using a keyword search on Medline, PubMed and Google Scholar. RESULTS: The literature on the management of the mental health of asylum seekers focuses on the issue of post-traumatic stress disorder. There is little data on other forms of mental illness in this population. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder among asylum seekers is higher than in the general population and its clinical expression is varied and often complex because it involves various vulnerability factors. Guidelines for post-traumatic stress disorder recommend cognitive behavioral therapy with, in some cases, the use of pharmacotherapy. Given the specificities of the asylum seekers' population, in many cases it is not possible to set up such therapy immediately. Asylum seekers face a number of challenges in accessing mental healthcare. CONCLUSION: Management of the mental health of asylum seekers requires special attention and guidelines for the general population are not directly applicable to this specific population. The literature focuses on the issue of post-traumatic stress disorder. This review was not able to analyse the state of existing care offer in Belgium for managing the mental health of asylum seekers and the care pathways they take.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Psiquiatria , Refugiados/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Bélgica , Humanos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Psiquiatria/organização & administração , Psiquiatria/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 534-542, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poland is a democratic, sovereign state in Central Europe, member of the European Union. The healthcare in Poland is delivered to patients mainly through a public contributor called the National Health Fund, supervised by the Ministry of Health. The care for people with disabilities, including intellectual disabilities in Poland is coordinated by the Governmental Program on Activities for People with Disabilities and their Integration with the Society. The system of care for people with intellectual disability in Poland is constitutionally guaranteed. The aim of this review was to analyze the different forms of care for persons suffering from intellectual disability and mental health problems in our country. METHODS: Analysis of available documents on the policy and organizations of systems of services for this group of patients was performed. RESULTS: Non-governmental organizations play an important role in taking care of people with disabilities. In Poland there are no special psychiatric services dedicated for patients with intellectual disabilities. The comorbid psychiatric disorders are treated in general psychiatric wards or hospitals or in outpatient settings. Offenders with intellectual disabilities in the penitentiary system are referred to therapeutic settings in wards for convicts with non-psychotic mental disorders and intellectual disabilities. Training of medical students and young doctors offers only very limited basic knowledge on intellectual disability within psychiatry curriculum. The is no separate specialty in mental health in intellectual disability within psychiatry. CONCLUSIONS: The main conclusion of this review is that the specialist working with persons suffering from intellectual disabilities in Poland face many challenges regarding the need to introduces positive changes in this field.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Saúde Mental , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Mental/provisão & distribução , Polônia/epidemiologia
20.
BMC Womens Health ; 19(1): 114, 2019 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human instinctively desire to have offspring. Infertility can cause painful emotional experiences throughout the life mainly known as quality of life impairment. This study aimed to investigate the impact of infertility on a woman's quality of life. METHODS: A number of 180 infertile and 540 fertile women participated in this matched case-control study. The cases were selected through a combination of multistage stratified and cluster sampling methods. For each infertile woman three fertile women were randomly selected. The data gathering instrument consisted of demographic variables and the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Data collection was conducted through interview with participants. The multivariate marginal model and SPSS software 21 were used for data analyses with a significance level of 0.05. RESULTS: The results of the multivariate modeling show infertility can potentially affect various aspects of women's quality of life such as physical health (p <  0.001), mental health (p <  0.001), social health (p <  0.001) and the total score of quality of life (p <  0.001) significantly. CONCLUSION: An infertile woman practice a relatively lower scores in QOL sub-scales of mental, physical and environmental health; while they experience a higher social health score than a fertile woman.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Feminina/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Estresse Psicológico , Saúde da Mulher , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/epidemiologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
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