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1.
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 17(2): 16-23, ago. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1008244

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the abundance and diversity of the species and their presumed vectorial role in the transmission of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL). Research on sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) was carried out in two municipalities in the Ribeira River Valley in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil. One, Adrianópolis, is an endemic area of CL and the other is a recent outbreak area (Cerro Azul). A total of 432 specimens were collected from residential, peri-domestic and wild environments. According to the data obtained, for each ecotope studied, the statistical analysis has shown that two lines of the Lutzomyia intermedia population coexist and that the quantity of specimens from L. intermedia s.l. is significantly different from L. intermedia s.s. in all environments (χ2=9.943; DF=2; p=0.07). The prevalence of L. intermedia (93.28%) in the ecotopes studied suggests that it is the main vector of leishmaniasis. The succession of vector species and their involvement in the epidemiological cycle of L. braziliensis is discussed in this article(AU)


El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la abundancia y diversidad de las especies y su supuesto papel vectorial en la transmisión de Leishmaniasis Cutánea (LC). La investigación sobre flebótomos (Diptera: Psychodidae) se llevó a cabo en dos municipios en el Valle del Río Ribeira en el Estado de Paraná, sur de Brasil. Las regiones estudiadas fueron Adrianópolis, área endémica de LC, y Cerro Azul, que se reporta como zona de brote reciente. Se recolectaron un total de 432 especímenes de ambientes residenciales, peri-domésticos y silvestres. El análisis estadístico realizado, a partir de los datos obtenidos para cada ecotopo estudiado, mostró que coexistían dos linajes de la población de Lutzomyia intermedia y que la cantidad de especímenes de L. intermedia s.l. fue significativamente diferente de L. intermedia s.s. en todos los entornos (χ2=9,943; GL=2; p=0,07). La prevalencia de L. intermedia (93,28%) en los ecotopos estudiados sugiere que es el principal vector de la leishmaniasis. La sucesión de especies de vectores y su participación en el ciclo epidemiológico de L. braziliensis se discute en este artículo(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Psychodidae , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Saúde Pública
2.
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 17(2): 56-63, ago. 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1008419

RESUMO

Los adultos jóvenes constituyen gran parte de la población paraguaya y se considera que los conocimientos y prácticas sobre salud bucodental están muy relacionados al nivel de instrucción, el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el nivel de conocimientos y prácticas sobre salud bucodental de estudiantes de posgrado de la Carrera de Enfermería de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud de la Universidad Católica de Asunción (CE FCSUCA), en el 2018. Estudio observacional descriptivo de corte transversal con componente analítico en el que se incluyeron a todos los estudiantes de posgrado entre mayo y junio de 2018. La recolección de datos se realizó mediante un cuestionario sobre salud bucodental autoadministrado y de carácter anónimo. Los datos se asentaron en una planilla electrónica, y fueron analizados utilizando el Programa estadístico IBMSSPS 23.0. La muestra estuvo constituida por 166 estudiantes, en su mayoría del sexo femenino (75,3%), de entre 20 y 29 años (54,8%), cursando algún programa de especialización (57,8% y pertenecientes al área de la salud (94%). El 57,83% y el 55,42% de los estudiantes presentaron conocimientos y prácticas de salud bucodental de nivel regular, respectivamente. Se encontró asociación entre nivel de conocimiento y de práctica y entre el nivel de conocimiento y la edad. Se concluye que los niveles de conocimientos y prácticas sobre salud bucodental en los estudiantes de posgrado fueron deficientes por lo que se propone la implementación de estrategias educativas de concienciación en el área(AU)


Young adults constitute a large part of the Paraguayan population and considering that oral health knowledge and practices are closely related to the level of education, the objective of this study was to evaluate the level of knowledge and practices on oral health of postgraduate students of the Nursing Career of the Faculty of Health Sciences of the Catholic University of Asunción (CE FCSUCA), in 2018. The design was descriptive, cross-sectional with an analytical component in which all postgraduate students were included in May and June 2018. Data collection was carried out through a questionnaire on oral health self-administered and anonymous. The data were recorded in an electronic spreadsheet and analyzed using the IBMSSPS 23.0 Statistical Program. The sample consisted of 166 students, mostly female (75.3%), between 20 and 29 years old (54.8%), studying some specialization program (57.8%) and belonging to the area of Health (94%). 57.83% and 55.42% of the students presented knowledge and practices of oral health at the regular level, respectively. An association was found between the level of knowledge and practice and between the level of knowledge. It is concluded that the levels of knowledge and practices on oral health in the postgraduate students were insufficient, so the implementation of educational awareness strategies in the area is proposed(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Saúde Bucal , Saúde Pública , Educação
3.
Lancet ; 394(10197): 470, 2019 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402027
4.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1131-1134, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438101

RESUMO

Electronic Health Records (EHR) face the challenge of collecting data about patient's gender identity in order to provide standardized and quality data to manage public policies in order to improve health disparities of the Trans population. Innovation in Health Information Technologies (HIT) develops in the midst of a cultural change process related to social representations of gender in favor of a diversity perspective. Understanding the health field as a complex adaptive system, the changes in the systems must consider multiple factors in every stage of the process. It is relevant to consider the people involved in it and the culture in which they are embedded. This article describes the implementation strategies of functionality that represents the transgender population in the EHR of the Public Health Care System of the Buenos Aires City.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Pessoas Transgênero , Cidades , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Pública
5.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1841-1842, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438370

RESUMO

Diagnosis and prescription data in the electronic health records (EHR) of a New Zealand primary care clinic are analyzed to identify skin infection occurrences in support of a public health initiative. High prevalence of this disease and substantial differences in the prevalence and occurrence rates among ethnic groups are identified. The findings indicate application potential of the analysis algorithm in public health for identifying the population groups with high needs and assessing intervention impact.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Saúde Pública , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/etnologia , Algoritmos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Prevalência
6.
Wiad Lek ; 72(7): 1337-1342, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398166

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: The right to health is exercised through a complex system of state and social measures of legal, economic, social, scientific, cultural, educational, organizational, technical, sanitary and hygienic nature, aimed at preserving and improving the health of people , lengthening the life expectancy and working capacity, creating good living and working conditions, providing physical and mental development for children and young people, and preventing and managing illnesses and their treatment. The aim: Investigate the international legal and constitutional legal regulation of the right to health care in the countries of the European Union. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The article analyzes the Constitution of the European Union, a number of international legal acts and judgments of the European Court of Human Rights. RESULTS: Review: Each country defines the conditions for realizing the right to health care, according to which people should be healthy, the state itself assumes the obligations of the controller and the protection of this right. These provisions should primarily be enshrined in the Basic Laws - the constitutions. The main direction of state policy in reforming social relations is the achievement of European international legal standards in all spheres of public life. These standards fix the principles, guarantees of norms that determine the scope of human rights, in particular the right to health care. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The main problem of ensuring and realizing the right to health in the European Union, as in many countries, is the financing of this industry, because in general, it is impossible to talk about free medical care in the European Union. There are also problems in the field of investment in health care. The urgent issues of primary health care and public health and the elderly dependence period.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Direitos Humanos , União Europeia , Humanos , Saúde Pública
7.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1223-1227, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438120

RESUMO

Community health workers in primary care programs increasingly use Mobile Health Data Collection Systems (MDCSs) to report their activities and conduct health surveys, replacing paper-based approaches. The mHealth systems are inherently privacy invasive, thus informing individuals and obtaining their consent is important to protect their rights to privacy. In this paper, we introduce an e-Consent tool tailored for MDCSs. It is developed based on the requirement analysis of consent management for data privacy and built upon the solutions of Participant-Centered Consent toolkit and Consent Receipt specification. The e-Consent solution has been evaluated in a usability study. The study results show that the design is useful for informing individuals on the nature of data processing, allowing them to make informed decisions.


Assuntos
Privacidade , Telemedicina , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Saúde Pública
8.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 516-520, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437977

RESUMO

The Primary Health Care strategy is based on organization of interdisciplinary teams and comprehensive approach to health, disease and health care processes. To strengthen information systems so that they represent primary health care complexities, participatory meetings were held with primary care practitioners from the public health care system of Buenos Aires City. Terms for the record tool and its components were chosen using consensus methodologies. This process involved 300 practitioners from 49 centers, and submission of 21 proposals. It was decided to change the term "Electronic Medical Record" with "Comprehensive Health Record." It was also agreed that, apart from "Reason for Consultation," the field "Problem Situation" would be added, that "Care Service" would be replaced with "Care Act," and that a new module "Health Team Management and Education Activities" would be included to document practitioners team activities.


Assuntos
Atenção Primária à Saúde , Saúde Pública , Cidades , Assistência à Saúde , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde
9.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 2009-2010, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438453

RESUMO

Previous literature has revealed that patients have difficulty making sense of their clinical data. To address this barrier, we first need to understand what kinds of support that patients may seek. In this study, we analyzed question posts and their replies in a social Q&A community to understand what types of support people are providing to and receiving from the community and what contextual information they provide in order to elicit relevant answers.


Assuntos
Comunicação em Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Pública
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33(Suppl 2): 4, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402964

RESUMO

Introduction: Lessons learned from the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak enabled Liberia to develop a health plan for strengthening public health capacity against potential public health threats. risk communication is one of the core pillars that provide life-saving information and knowledge for the public to take preventive and proactive actions against public health threats. These were applied in response to the post-ebola meningococcal septicemia and meningitis outbreaks in Sinoe and Grand Kru counties. This paper documents risk communication experiences in these post-ebola outbreaks in Liberia. Methods: Risk Communication and health promotion strategies were deployed in developing response plans and promptly disseminating key messages to affected communities to mitigate the risks. Other strategies included engagement of community leaders, partnership with the media and dissemination of messages through the community radios, active monitoring community risk perceptions and compliance, rumor management, mobile stage and interpersonal communication (IPC) during the Meningococcal disease outbreaks in Sinoe and Grand Kru counties. Results: In Sinoe, about 36,891 households or families in 10 health districts were reached through IPC and dialogue. Circulating rumors such as "Ebola" was the cause of deaths was timely and promptly mitigated. There was increased trust and adherence to health advice including prompt reporting of sick people to the nearest health facility in the two counties. Conclusion: Risk communication and health promotion encouraged community support and involvement in any response to public threats and events. No doubt, risk communication and health promotion play an important role in preparedness and response to public health emergencies.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Infecções Meningocócicas/epidemiologia , Fortalecimento Institucional , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Libéria/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Risco
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33(Suppl 2): 9, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402967

RESUMO

Introduction: The 2014-2016 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in Liberia highlighted the importance of robust preparedness measures for a well-coordinated response; the initially delayed response contributed to the steep incidence of cases, infections among health care workers, and a collapse of the health care system. To strengthen local capacity and combat disease transmission, various healthcare worker (HCW) trainings, including the Ebola treatment unit (ETU) training, safe & quality services (SQS) training and rapid response team (RRT), were developed and implemented between 2014 and 2017. Methods: Data from the ETU, SQS and RRT trainings were analyzed to determine knowledge and confidence gained. Results: The ETU, SQS and RRT training were completed by a total of 21,248 participants. There were improvements in knowledge and confidence, an associated reduction in HCWs infection and reduced response time to subsequent public health events. Conclusion: No infections were reported by healthcare workers in Liberia since the completion of these training programs. HCW training programmes initiated during and post disease outbreak can boost public trust in the health system while providing an entry point for establishing an Epidemic Preparedness and Response (EPR) framework in resource-limited settings.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde/organização & administração , Mão de Obra em Saúde/organização & administração , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Fortalecimento Institucional , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Humanos , Libéria/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública
12.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33(Suppl 2): 10, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402968

RESUMO

Introduction: in spite of the efforts and resources committed by the division of infectious disease and epidemiology (DIDE) of the national public health institute of Liberia (NPHIL)/Ministry of health to strengthening integrated disease surveillance and response (IDSR) across the country, quality data management system remains a challenge to the Liberia NPHIL/MoH (Ministry of health), with incomplete and inconsistent data constantly being reported at different levels of the surveillance system. As part of the monitoring and evaluation strategy for IDSR continuous improvement, data quality assessment (DQA) of the IDSR system to identify successes and gaps in the disease surveillance information system (DSIS) with the aim of ensuring data accuracy, reliability and credibility of generated data at all levels of the health system; and to inform an operational plan to address data quality needs for IDSR activities is required. Methods: multi-stage cluster sampling that included stage 1: simple random sample (SRS) of five counties, stage 2: simple random sample of two districts and stage 3: simple random sample of three health facilities was employed during the study pilot assessment done in Montserrado County with Liberia institute of bio medical research (LIBR) inclusive. A total of thirty (30) facilities was targeted, twenty nine (29) of the facilities were successfully audited: one hospital, two health centers, twenty clinics and respondents included: health facility surveillance focal persons (HFSFP), zonal surveillance officers (ZSOs), district surveillance officers (DSOs) and County surveillance officers (CSOs). Results: the assessment revealed that data use is limited to risk communication and sensitization, no examples of use of data for prioritization or decision making at the subnational level. The findings indicated the following: 23% (7/29) of health facilities having dedicated phone for reporting, 20% (6/29) reported no cell phone network, 17% (5/29) reported daily access to internet, 56.6% (17/29) reported a consistent supply of electricity, and no facility reported access to functional laptop. It was also established that 40% of health facilities have experienced a stock out of laboratory specimens packaging supplies in the past year. About half of the surveyed health facilities delivered specimens through riders and were assisted by the DSOs. There was a large variety in the reported packaging process, with many staff unable to give clear processes. The findings during the exercise also indicated that 91% of health facility staff were mentored on data quality check and data management including the importance of the timeliness and completeness of reporting through supportive supervision and mentorship; 65% of the health facility assessed received supervision on IDSR core performance indicator; and 58% of the health facility officer in charge gave feedback to the community level. Conclusion: public health is a data-intensive field which needs high-quality data and authoritative information to support public health assessment, decision-making and to assure the health of communities. Data quality assessment is important for public health. In this review completeness, accuracy, and timeliness were the three most-assessed attributes. Quantitative data quality assessment primarily used descriptive surveys and data audits, while qualitative data quality assessment methods include primarily interviews, questionnaires administration, documentation reviews and field observations. We found that data-use and data-process have not been given adequate attention, although they were equally important factors which determine the quality of data. Other limitations of the previous studies were inconsistency in the definition of the attributes of data quality, failure to address data users' concerns and a lack of triangulation of mixed methods for data quality assessment. The reliability and validity of the data quality assessment were rarely reported. These gaps suggest that in the future, data quality assessment for public health needs to consider equally the three dimensions of data quality, data use and data process. Measuring the perceptions of end users or consumers towards data quality will enrich our understanding of data quality issues. Data use is limited to risk communication and sensitization, no examples of use of data for prioritization or decision making at the sub national level.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Saúde Pública , Análise por Conglomerados , Comunicação , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Libéria/epidemiologia , Projetos Piloto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 930-934, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438060

RESUMO

Foodborne disease is a growing public health problem worldwide and imposes a considerable economic burden on hospitals and other healthcare costs. Thus, accurately predicting the propagation of foodborne disease is crucial in preventing foodborne disease outbreaks. Few studies have investigated the dependencies between environmental variables and foodborne disease activity. This study develops a regularization-based eXtreme gradient boosting approach for foodborne disease trend forecasting considering environmental effects to capture dependencies hidden in foodborne disease time series. A real case in Shanghai, China was studied to validate our proposed model along with comparisons to traditional and benchmark algorithms for foodborne disease prediction. Results show that the foodborne disease prediction approach we propose achieves slightly superior performance in terms of one-day-ahead prediction of foodborne disease, and presents more robust prediction for 2-7 days ahead prediction.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Algoritmos , China , Humanos , Saúde Pública
14.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 940-944, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438062

RESUMO

Current approaches to gathering sexually transmitted infection (STI) case information for surveillance efforts are inefficient and lead to underreporting of disease burden. Electronic health information systems offer an opportunity to improve how STI case information can be gathered and reported to public health authorities. To test the feasibility of a standards-based application designed to automate STI case information collection and reporting, we conducted a pilot study where electronic laboratory messages triggered a FHIR-based application to query a patient's electronic health record for details needed for an electronic case report (eCR). Out of 214 cases observed during a one week period, 181 (84.6%) could be successfully confirmed automatically using the FHIR-based application. Data quality and information representation challenges were identified that will require collaborative efforts to improve the structure of electronic clinical messages as well as the robustness of the FHIR application.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Registros de Saúde Pessoal , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Saúde Pública , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis
18.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1574-1575, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438238

RESUMO

Infections are a global public health concern. For coordinated actions against infectious diseases, semantic interoperability between infection control systems is crucial. This requires a consistent use of standard terminologies such as SNOMED CT. Here, we compare two value sets of infectious agents annotated with SNOMED CT (WHONET 2018 vs. pathogens reported under the German Protection against Infection Act). Our comparison revealed several inconsistencies, highlighting the importance of the consistent and coordinated use of standard terminologies.


Assuntos
Semântica , Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine , Saúde Pública
19.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46682

RESUMO

Para combater as Fake News sobre saúde, o Ministério da Saúde, de forma inovadora, está disponibilizando um número de WhatsApp para envio de mensagens da população. Vale destacar que o canal não será um SAC ou tira dúvidas dos usuários, mas um espaço exclusivo para receber informações virais, que serão apuradas pelas áreas técnicas e respondidas oficialmente se são verdade ou mentira.


Assuntos
Notícias , Comunicação , Saúde Pública , Sistema Único de Saúde
20.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 39(9): 31-34, Julio 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1007196

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: revisar el desarrollo de las políticas públicas y el marco legal en Argentina para garantizar el acceso a la interrupción legal del embarazo (ILE) sobre la base de los derechos sexuales y los derechos reproductivos. MÉTODOS: Se revisaron las leyes y jurisprudencia que establecen el marco legal para el acceso a la interrupción legal del embarazo, documentos técnicos oficiales y otros materiales bibliográficos que hacen referencia a dicho marco legal. RESULTADOS: Los resultados del análisis bibliográfico mostraron que Argentina cuenta con un marco legal, encabezado por el Código Penal de la Nación (CPN), que permite la ILE por las siguientes causales: peligro para la salud o la vida de la persona gestante o embarazo como producto de violación. El Fallo F., A. L. de la Corte Suprema de Justicia de la Nación estableció una lectura aclaratoria del CPN, propiciando las políticas públicas que garanticen el derecho a la ILE. CONCLUSIONES: Por un lado, a pesar del marco legal vigente en Argentina, todavía se presentan barreras para el acceso a la ILE; por el otro, es necesario reforzar las políticas públicas destinadas a garantizar dicho acceso, lo que implica seguir capacitando a los equipos de salud y continuar con la tarea de gestión de la Dirección de Salud Sexual y Reproductiva de la Secretaría de Gobierno de Salud de la Nación, junto con los ministerios provinciales.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Política Pública , Aborto Legal/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos/legislação & jurisprudência , Argentina , Saúde Pública , Direitos do Paciente/legislação & jurisprudência
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