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1.
Infectio ; 25(4): 207-211, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286715

RESUMO

Resumen Objetivo: Describir la proporción, características clínicas, demográficas y programáticas de casos fatales de coinfección TB/VIH de Cali-Colombia, en 2017. Material y Método: Estudio de corte transversal, con información de las bases de datos del programa de tuberculosis, las historias clínicas y unidades de análisis de mortalidad disponibles. Resultados: Se depuraron 257 casos fatales por TB, el 24,5% (63/257) falleció con coinfección TB/VIH. La mediana de edad fue 43 años (Rango Intercuartílico: 30-52), 73% (46/63) eran hombres, 76,2% (48/63) no pertenecían al régimen contributivo, 28,6% eran habitantes de calle. 81,2% (39/48) eran casos nuevos de TB, 76,6% (37/47), inició tratamiento; al 74,6% (47/63) se les realizó unidad de análisis de mortalidad. La presentación pulmonar fue frecuente (75,9%-44/58), en 60% de los registros se observó desnutrición (Índice de Masa Corporal <20), en 39,7% (25/63) dependencia al alcohol, tabaco o farmacodependencia. Conclusiones: La mortalidad asociada a TB/VIH es prevenible, pero en 2017 representó la cuarta parte de la mortalidad por TB en Cali. Hombres adultos con condiciones de vulnerabilidad social, diagnosticados en estados avanzados de enfermedad, fueron blanco de fatalidad. Mejorar los sistemas de información e integrar los programas de TB/VIH, deben ser estrategias prioritarias para la salud pública en Colombia.


Abstract Objective: To describe the proportion, clinical, demographic and programmatic characteristics of fatal cases of TB/HIV coinfection from Cali-Colombia, in 2017. Material and Method: Cross-sectional study, with information from the TB program databases, clinical records and mortality analysis units available. Results: 257 TB fatal cases were cleared in Cali in 2017, 24.5% (63/257) of these died with TB/HIV coinfection. The median age was 43 years (Interquartile Range: 30-52), 73% (46/63) were men, 76.2% (48/63) did not belong to the contributory health regimen, 28.6% were homeless. 81.2% (39/48) were new TB cases, 76.6% (37/47) started treatment; 74.6% (47/63) had mortality analysis register. Pulmonary presentation was frequent (75.9% -44 / 58), in 60% of the registries malnutrition was observed (Body Mass Index <20), in 39.7% (25/63), dependence on alcohol, tobacco or drug dependence was registered. Conclusions: Mortality associated with TB/HIV is preventable, but in 2017 it represented a quarter of the TB mortality in Cali. Adult men with conditions of social vulnerability, diagnosed in advanced stages of disease, were fatally targeted. Improving information systems and integrating TB/HIV programs should be priority strategies for public health in Colombia.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tuberculose , HIV , Índice de Massa Corporal , Infecções por HIV , Saúde Pública , Estudos Transversais , Mortalidade , Estratégias de Saúde , Colômbia , Vulnerabilidade Social , Desnutrição
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(36)2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475214

RESUMO

A customized susceptible, exposed, infected, and recovered compartmental model is presented for describing the control of asymptomatic spread of COVID-19 infections on a residential, urban college campus embedded in a large urban community by using public health protocols, founded on surveillance testing, contact tracing, isolation, and quarantine. Analysis in the limit of low infection rates-a necessary condition for successful operation of the campus-yields expressions for controlling the infection and understanding the dynamics of infection spread. The number of expected cases on campus is proportional to the exogenous infection rate in the community and is decreased by more frequent testing and effective contact tracing. Simple expressions are presented for the dynamics of superspreader events and the impact of partial vaccination. The model results compare well with residential data from Boston University's undergraduate population for fall 2020.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Universidades , Boston , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Saúde Pública , Quarentena , Estudantes , População Urbana
3.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(8): 1048-1053, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516409

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In Africa, the first case of COVID-19 was reported in February 2020. Mauritania's first case was confirmed in March 2020. METHODOLOGY: We provide an update of the COVID-19 epidemic in Mauritania as of December 2020, and describe the country's Health System Response. RESULTS: In total, 133,749 diagnostic tests were performed, 14,364 (10.7%) were positive (309 cases/100,000 inhabitants). Case fatality rate was 2.4%. The 20-39 year-olds (41%) and males (59.1%) were most commonly affected. Comorbidities among fatal cases included cardiovascular diseases (44.8%) and diabetes (37.1%). Clinical symptoms included fever (57%), cough (52%), running nose (47%) and headache (26%). After the first case, prevention measures were progressively tightened, and quarantine implemented for all suspected cases. Schools and universities were closed, and flights to Mauritania suspended. Restaurants and cafeterias were closed, and night curfews installed. Friday prayers were suspended nationwide, and movements between regions restricted. These measures helped to contain the spread of SARS-CoV-2 during the first pandemic wave, which peaked in June 2020 with low rates. However, the number of daily cases reached high levels in December 2020, during the second wave (40.1% of all cases and 48.9% of deaths). During the first wave, there were 38 ICU beds nationwide, but the ICU's capacity increased in short time. CONCLUSIONS: Mauritania has passed through the first pandemic wave with relatively low case fatality rates, currently being at the end of the second wave. As the country's health system is very vulnerable, there is a need for strict public health measures during epidemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção à Saúde/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Planejamento em Saúde Comunitária , Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mauritânia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(8): 1066-1073, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516412

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is a severe respiratory syndrome caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. In Brazil the highest infection rates are associated with socially vulnerable populations. This study therefore sought to analyze the spatial distribution of the disease and its relation with geographic, socioeconomic and public health policy characteristics associated with quilombola communities in Salvaterra municipality, state of Pará, for the period of March to September, 2020. METHODOLOGY: This cross-sectional and ecological study used data from the Disease Notification System and the National Registry of Health Establishments of the Ministry of Health, the Income Transfer Registry of the Ministry of Citizenship and the 2010 census of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Statistical and spatial analysis of the data was done through percentages of cases and Flow and Kernel map techniques. RESULTS: Seventy-five notified cases of COVID-19 distributed among 7 quilombola communities in the municipality were analyzed. The epidemiological profile followed a national trend, with a higher percentage of cases among persons who were female, adults with low schooling levels, working as family farmers and with an outcome ending in recovery. The spatial distribution of the disease was not homogenous and showed clusters of cases and high incidence rates, especially in communities close to the municipal seat or to highways. CONCLUSIONS: The use of data analysis techniques was satisfactory for providing an understanding of the socioeconomic production of the disease in the areas studied. Accordingly, the need for intensifying epidemiological survey actions in the quilombola communities of the municipality is emphasized.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores de Risco , Análise Espacial
5.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(8): 1107-1116, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516418

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: National strategies to control COVID-19 pandemic consisted mostly of social distancing measures such as lockdowns, curfews, and stay-home guidelines, personal protection such as hand hygiene and mask wearing, as well as contact tracing, isolation and quarantine. Whilst policy interventions were broadly similar across the globe, there were some differences in individual and community responses. This study explored community responses to COVID-19 containment measures in different countries and synthesized a model. This exaplains the community response to pandemic containment measures in the local context, so as to be suitably prepared for future interventions and research. METHODOLOGY: A mutlinational study was conducted from April-June 2020 involving researchers from 12 countries (Japan, Austria, U.S., Taiwan, India, Sudan, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Myanmar, Vietnam and Thailand). Steps in this research consisted of carrying out open-ended questionnaires, qualitative analyses in NVivo, and a multinational meeting to reflect, exchange, and validate results. Lastly, a commuinty response model was synthesized from multinational experiences. RESULTS: Effective communication is key in promoting collective action for preventing virus transmission. Health literacy, habits and social norms in different populations are core components of public health interventions. To enable people to stay home while sustaining livelihoods, economic and social support are essential. Countries could benefit from previous pandemic experience in their community response. Whilst contact tracing and isolation are crucial intervention components, issues of privacy and human rights need to be considered. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding community responses to containment policies will help in ending current and future pandemics in the world.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Internacionalidade , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Busca de Comunicante , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Pública/métodos , Quarentena
6.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486869

RESUMO

The inclusion of public health and health care measures in labor functions of professional standards of medical specialists increased significance of mastering of these standards by students during specialty training, since on this depends their successful completion of primary accreditation of specialists and implementation of job descriptions in the course of daily activities. The purpose of the study was to analyze factors determining qualitative of mastering the discipline "Public health and Health Care" by students of medical educational organizations. The analytical, logical, statistical, questionnaire survey and direct ranking methods were applied. The sampling of 316 students of the Sechenov University was involved in survey using questionnaire of 17 closed questions. The study established that the determining factors effecting quality of mastering by students the discipline "Public health and Health Care" are the need to use by physicians this knowledge in the course of their daily activities; the need of students to pass profile exam; the determination of up to 40% of trainees to work as heads of structural units or professionals of health care and public health; the dedication of student; organization of educational process at the Chair; the professionalism of faculty; the application of active learning methods in classroom; organization of career guidance among students.


Assuntos
Médicos , Estudantes de Medicina , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Estudantes , Universidades
8.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(9)2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489329

RESUMO

In early 2019, following the 2015-2016 severe drought, the provinces of Sofala and Cabo Delgado, Mozambique, were hit by Cyclones Idai and Kenneth, respectively. These were the deadliest and most destructive cyclones in the country's history. Currently, these two provinces host tens of thousands of vulnerable households due to the climatic catastrophes and the massive influx of displaced people associated with violent terrorist attacks plaguing Cabo Delgado. The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic added a new challenge to this already critical scenario, serving as a real test for Mozambique's public health preparedness. On the planetary level, Mozambique can be viewed as a 'canary in the coal mine', harbingering to the world the synergistic effects of co-occurring anthropogenic and natural disasters. Herein, we discuss how the COVID-19 pandemic has accentuated the need for an effective and comprehensive public health response in a country already deeply impacted by health problems associated with natural disasters and population displacement.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Emergências , Humanos , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(1): 121, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the era of evidence-based policy-making (EBPM), scientific outputs and public policy should engage with each other in a more interactive and coherent way. Notably, this is becoming increasingly critical in preparing for public health emergencies. METHODS: To explore the coevolution dynamics between science and policy (SAP), this study explored the changes in, and development of, COVID-19 research in the early period of the COVID-19 outbreak in China, from 30 December 2019 to 26 June 2020. In this study, VOSviewer was adopted to calculate the link strength of items extracted from scientific publications, and machine learning clustering analysis of scientific publications was carried out to explore dynamic trends in scientific research. Trends in relevant policies that corresponded to changing trends in scientific research were then traced. RESULTS: The study observes a salient change in research content as follows: an earlier focus on "children and pregnant patients", "common symptoms", "nucleic acid test", and "non-Chinese medicine" was gradually replaced with a focus on "aged patients", "pregnant patients", "severe symptoms and asymptomatic infection", "antibody assay", and "Chinese medicine". "Mental health" is persistent throughout China's COVID-19 research. Further, our research reveals a correlation between the evolution of COVID-19 policies and the dynamic development of COVID-19 research. The average issuance time of relevant COVID-19 policies in China is 8.36 days after the launching of related research. CONCLUSIONS: In the early stage of the outbreak in China, the formulation of research-driven-COVID-19 policies and related scientific research followed a similar dynamic trend, which is clearly a manifestation of a coevolution model (CEM). The results of this study apply more broadly to the formulation of policies during public health emergencies, and provide the foundation for future EBPM research.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Idoso , China , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Política Pública , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Front Public Health ; 9: 698995, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490183

RESUMO

Objective: The first wave of the coronavirus SARS-COV-2 pandemic has revealed a fragmented governance within the European Union (EU) to tackle public health emergencies. This qualitative study aims: 1) to understand the current EU position within the field of public health emergencies taking the case of the COVID-19 as an example by comparing and contrasting experiences from EU institutions and experts from various EU Member States at the beginning of the pandemic; and, 2) to identify and to formulate future EU pandemic strategies and actions based on experts' opinions. Methods: Eighteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with public health experts from various European Member States and European Commission officials from May 2020 until August 2020. The transcripts were analyzed by Thematic Content Analysis (TCA), mainly a manifest content analysis. Results: This study demonstrated that the limited EU mandate in health hinders proper actions to prevent and tackle infectious disease outbreaks, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. The results showed that this limitation significantly impacted the ECDC, as the Member States' competence did not allow the agency to have more capacity. The European Commission has fulfilled its role of coordinating and supporting the Member States by facilitating networks and information exchange. However, EU intra- and inter-communication need further improvement. Although diverse EU instruments and mechanisms were found valid, their implementation needed to be faster and more efficient. The results pointed out that underlying political challenges in EU decision-making regarding health emergencies hinder the aligned response. It was stated that the Member States were not prepared, and due to the restriction of their mandate, EU institutions could not enforce binding guidelines. Additionally, the study explored future EU pandemic strategies and actions. Both, EU institutions and national experts suggested similar and clear recommendations regarding the ECDC, the investment, and future harmonized preparedness tools. Conclusion: The complex politics of public health at the EU level have led to the fragmentation of its governance for effective pandemic responses. This ongoing pandemic has shed light on the fragility of the political and structural systems in Europe in public health emergencies. Health should be of high importance in the political agenda, and robust health reforms at the local, regional, national, and EU levels are highly recommended.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Pública , Emergências , União Europeia , Prova Pericial , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Front Public Health ; 9: 700638, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490185

RESUMO

Public health education has long been concentrated in a core set of public health disciplines such as epidemiology, biostatistics, and environmental health. Despite leaps forward in our understanding of the myriad influences on public health, little has changed in the organization of our educational systems. One issue brought to the forefront of public consciousness by the COVID-19 pandemic is the importance of leisure experiences, such as nature walks, to mental and physical well-being. In this descriptive best practice article, we discuss our approach to expanding the notion of a school of public health and provide examples of how disciplines and subjects outside of the "norms" of public health education, including leisure studies, can help better prepare students for their future in the field. Leisure studies is just one of many subject areas that can add value to public health pedagogy, and we envision many other subject areas and departments integrating into schools of public health in the future.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Pública , Currículo , Humanos , Pandemias , Saúde Pública/educação , SARS-CoV-2 , Instituições Acadêmicas
12.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 401, 2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ongoing worldwide COVID-19 pandemic has heightened several risk factors  for child abuse and neglect (CAN). We study whether COVID-19 and the public health response to it affected CAN-related pediatric emergency department (ED) visits in the southeastern United States (US). METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review on medical records of ED visits from a level I pediatric hospital system serving one of the largest metropolitan areas in the southeastern US from January through June 2018-2020. We used multivariate Poisson regression and linear regression to compare professionally identified CAN-related ED visits before and after a COVID-19 public health emergency declaration in 2020, relative to trends over the same period in 2018 and 2019. RESULTS: Although the number of both overall pediatric ED visits and CAN-related ED visits declined, the number of CAN-related ED visits due to neglect from inadequate adult supervision increased by 62 % (p < 0.01). The number of CAN visits per 1,000 pediatric ED visits also increased by 97 % (p < 0.01). Finally, the proportion of CAN-related ED visits due to neglect from inadequate supervision increased by 100 % (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Physicians should be aware that patients who present with injuries during a pandemic may be victims of neglect due to changes in social structures in their households. In particular, maltreatment presenting to the ED shifted toward treating injuries and abuse resulting from inadequate supervision. Policymakers should consider the impacts of stay-at-home orders on child well-being when determining appropriate public health responses in the midst of a pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Adulto , Criança , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Glob Health Action ; 14(1): 1968124, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2017 hundreds of thousands of 'Rohingya' fled to camps for Forcefully Displaced Myanmar Nationals (FDMN) in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh. OBJECTIVE: To describe the FDMNs presenting for care at public health facilities in Bangladesh so as to understand the health problems faced by the FDMNs and the burden on these public health facilities. METHODS: This study combined a retrospective review of existing hospital and clinic data with prospective surveillance in government health care centres. FINDINGS: The retrospective data showed a 26% increase in the number of consultations at the Kutupalong community clinic, the primary health facility closest to the camps, from 19,567 in 2015 to 26,309 in 2019. There was a corresponding 11% increase in admissions to health facilities in the area, from 80,991 in 2017 to 91,424 in 2019. Prospective surveillance of 9,421 FDMNs seeking health care from July 2018 to December 2019 showed that 29% had an infectious disease, 20% nutritional problems, 12% pregnancy-related conditions and 7% trauma or injury. CONCLUSIONS: Great uncertainty remains regarding the return of FDMN to their home country of Myanmar. The current on-going protests following the military coup adds further insecurity to the status of the Rohingya. The presence of a large migrant population relative to a smaller host community burdens the limited facilities and resources of the public health sector. Continued support by the international public health community and civil society organizations is needed.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública , Refugiados , Bangladesh , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Mianmar , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(8): e00247820, 2021.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495095

RESUMO

The article aims to analyze the work process for community health agents (ACS in Portuguese) in remote rural municipalities (counties) and identify specificities and contributions to primary healthcare. The qualitative study included 23 interviews with ACS and nurses in the family health teams in five remote rural counties in western Pará State, Brazil. Analysis of the work process for ACS covered two interconnected dimensions: scope of practices and qualification for the work. The scope of practices proved to be comprehensive, involving family follow-up, individual care and preventive measures, collective approach, and administrative activities. Home visits are the main activity by ACS and an important form of contact between health services and the clientele, meeting different objectives of enrollment, care, and information. ACS in remote rural communities, usually the only available health resource, display a broader scope of practices than in the municipal seats, including individual procedures. The qualification of ACS for the work can either enhance or limit the development of their practices and was expressed by the high motivation of the ACS, insufficient supervision and continuing education, and low integration with the larger health team. Policies are needed that acknowledge the specificities and guarantee greater support (materials, transportation, and continuing education) for full development of work by ACS in remote rural communities in the Amazon. The expanded set of practices by ACS suggests that they are relevant actors for providing care, facilitating the population's access to the healthcare network, and as a real link between rural populations and health services in remote rural communities.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Rural , População Rural , Brasil , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Saúde Pública
15.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0254432, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495962

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Community engagement (CE) is an effective public health strategy for improving health outcomes. There is limited published knowledge about effective approaches to CE in ensuring effective responses to COVID-19 throughout lockdowns, travel restrictions and social distancing. In this paper, we contribute to bridging this gap by highlighting experience of CE in Vietnam, specifically focusing on migrant workers in Vietnam. METHODS: A cross-sectional qualitative study design was used with qualitative data collection was carried out during August-October 2020. Two districts were purposefully selected from two large industrial zones. Data was collected using in-depth interviews (n = 36) with individuals and households, migrants and owners of dormitories, industrial zone factory representatives, community representatives and health authorities. Data was analyzed using thematic analysis approach. The study received ethics approval from the Hanoi University Institutional Review Board. RESULTS: The government's response to COVID-19 was spearheaded by the multi-sectoral National Steering Committee for the Prevention and Control of COVID-19, chaired by the Vice Prime Minister and comprised different members from 23 ministries. This structure was replicated throughout the province and local levels and all public and private organizations. Different activities were carried out by local communities, following four key principles of infection control: early detection, isolation, quarantine and hospitalization. We found three key determinants of engagement of migrant workers with COVID-19 prevention and control: availability of resources, appropriate capacity strengthening, transparent and continuous communication and a sense of trust in government legitimacy. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Our results support the current literature on CE in infection control which highlights the importance of context and suggests that future CE should consider five key components: multi-sectoral collaboration with a whole-of-community approach to strengthen governance structures with context-specific partnerships; mobilization of resources and decentralization of decision making to encourage self-reliance and building of local capacity; capacity building through training and supervision to local institutions; transparent and clear communication of health risks and sensitization of local communities to improve compliance and foster trust in the government measures; and understanding the urgent needs ensuring of social security and engaging all parts of the community, specifically the vulnerable groups.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Participação da Comunidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto , Fortalecimento Institucional/legislação & jurisprudência , Comunicação , Estudos Transversais , Coleta de Dados/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Quarentena/legislação & jurisprudência , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Confiança , Vietnã , Adulto Jovem
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17805, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497297

RESUMO

The COVID-19 global pandemic has significantly impacted every aspect of life all over the world. The United States is reported to have suffered more than 20% of the global casualties from this pandemic. It is imperative to investigate the growth dynamics of the disease in the US based on varying geographical and governmental factors that best manifest itself in each State of the Country. This paper utilizes a hybrid machine learning and continuum deformation-based approach for analyzing the stability and growth rate of the pandemic. To this end, principal stress values of the pandemic continuum body are obtained using Mohr's Circle method and overlapping, moving windows of data are analysed successively. This helps in finding the correlations between the growth rate and Governments' action/Public's reaction. Government actions include "state of emergency", "shelter at place", and "phase declarations". We also consider the vaccination rate milestones, which shows us the coordinated Governments' action/Public's reaction. Finally, a number of recommendations are made to the Governments and people for better management of future pandemics.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1652021 09 07.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523848

RESUMO

During the covid-19 pandemic there were large differences in excess deaths between high income countries, as shown in a study recently published in BMJ. The number of excess deaths gives a better estimate of the effects of covid-19 on mortality than the number of reported deaths from covid-19. This comment explains why and shows the consequences for the interpretation of Dutch mortality data. Differences in excess deaths are an important starting point for the evaluation of public health measures against coronavirus spreading.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Mortalidade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Front Public Health ; 9: 721952, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490198

RESUMO

Background: Contact tracing is a core element of the public health response to emerging infectious diseases including COVID-19. Better understanding the implementation context of contact tracing for pandemics, including individual- and systems-level predictors of success, is critical to preparing for future epidemics. Methods: We carried out a prospective implementation study of an emergency volunteer contact tracing program established in New Haven, Connecticut between April 4 and May 19, 2020. We assessed the yield and timeliness of case and contact outreach in reference to CDC benchmarks, and identified individual and programmatic predictors of successful implementation using multivariable regression models. We synthesized our findings using the RE-AIM implementation framework. Results: Case investigators interviewed only 826 (48%) of 1,705 cases and were unable to reach 545 (32%) because of incomplete information and 334 (20%) who missed or declined repeated outreach calls. Contact notifiers reached just 687 (28%) of 2,437 reported contacts, and were unable to reach 1,597 (66%) with incomplete information and 153 (6%) who missed or declined repeated outreach calls. The median time-to-case-interview was 5 days and time-to-contact-notification 8 days. However, among notified contacts with complete time data, 457 (71%) were reached within 6 days of exposure. The least likely groups to be interviewed were elderly (adjusted relative risk, aRR 0.74, 95% CI 0.61-0.89, p = 0.012, vs. young adult) and Black/African-American cases (aRR 0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.97, pairwise p = 0.01, vs. Hispanic/Latinx). However, ties between cases and their contacts strongly influenced contact notification success (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) 0.60). Surging caseloads and high volunteer turnover (case investigator n = 144, median time from sign-up to retirement from program was 4 weeks) required the program to supplement the volunteer workforce with paid public health nurses. Conclusions: An emergency volunteer-run contact tracing program fell short of CDC benchmarks for time and yield, largely due to difficulty collecting the information required for outreach to cases and contacts. To improve uptake, contact tracing programs must professionalize the workforce; better integrate testing and tracing services; capitalize on positive social influences between cases and contacts; and address racial and age-related disparities through enhanced community engagement.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Busca de Comunicante , Idoso , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 82, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466184

RESUMO

COVID-19 was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) in January 2020 and a pandemic in March 2020. Botswana reported its first case on 30th March 2020 and as of 31st January 2021 had 21,293 cases and 46 deaths. The University of Botswana Public Health Medicine Unit has made significant contributions to the national preparedness and response to COVID-19. The program alumni and Public Health Medicine residents have and continue to provide key technical support to the Ministry of Health and Wellness across the major pillars of COVID-19. This includes key roles in national and subnational coordination and planning, surveillance, case investigations and rapid response teams, points of entry, travel and transportation, infection prevention and control and case management. The unit is thus supporting the country in achieving the World Health Organization (WHO) primary objective of limiting human-to-human transmission, optimal care of the affected and maintaining essential services during the outbreak. The Public Health Medicine Unit has played a key role in capacity building including early rapid COVID-19 training of healthcare workers across the country. Furthermore faculty members and residents are involved in several COVID-19 research projects and collaborations.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Saúde Pública/educação , Botsuana/epidemiologia , Fortalecimento Institucional , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Universidades
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