Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.825
Filtrar
1.
Int J Cancer ; 148(2): 277-284, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638362

RESUMO

The age-standardised incidence of cervical cancer in Europe varies widely by country (between 3 and 25/100000 women-years) in 2018. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage is low in countries with the highest incidence and screening performance is heterogeneous among European countries. A broad group of delegates of scientific professional societies and cancer organisations endorse the principles of the WHO call to eliminate cervical cancer as a public health problem, also in Europe. All European nations should, by 2030, reach at least 90% HPV vaccine coverage among girls by the age of 15 years and also boys, if cost-effective; they should introduce organised population-based HPV-based screening and achieve 70% of screening coverage in the target age group, providing also HPV testing on self-samples for nonscreened or underscreened women; and to manage 90% of screen-positive women. To guide member states, a group of scientific professional societies and cancer organisations engage to assist in the rollout of a series of concerted evidence-based actions. European health authorities are requested to mandate a group of experts to develop the third edition of European Guidelines for Quality Assurance of Cervical Cancer prevention based on integrated HPV vaccination and screening and to monitor the progress towards the elimination goal. The occurrence of the COVID-19 pandemic, having interrupted prevention activities temporarily, should not deviate stakeholders from this ambition. In the immediate postepidemic phase, health professionals should focus on high-risk women and adhere to cost-effective policies including self-sampling.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/imunologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Saúde Pública/métodos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Alphapapillomavirus/fisiologia , /prevenção & controle , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Saúde Pública/normas , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357173

RESUMO

Background: Public health surveillance is crucial for supporting a rapid and effective response to public health emergencies. In response to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, an enhanced surveillance system of hospitalised COVID-19 patients was established by the Victorian Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and the Victorian Healthcare Associated Infection Surveillance System Coordinating Centre. The system aimed to reduce workforce capacity constraints and increase situational awareness on the status of hospitalised patients. Methods: The system was evaluated, using guidelines from the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, against eight attributes: acceptability; data quality; flexibility; representativeness; simplicity; stability; timeliness; and usefulness. Evidence was generated from stakeholder consultation, participant observation, document review, systems review, issues log review and audits. Data were collected and analysed over a period of up to three months, covering pre- and post-implementation from March to June 2020. Results: This system was rapidly established by leveraging established relationships and infrastructure. Stakeholders agreed that the system was important but was limited by a reliance on daily manual labour (including weekends), which impeded scalability. The ability of the system to perform well in each attribute was expected to shift with the severity of the pandemic; however, at the time of this evaluation, when there were an average 23 new cases per day (0.3 cases per 100,000 population per day), the system performed well. Conclusion: This enhanced surveillance system was useful and achieved its key DHHS objectives during the COVID-19 public health emergency in Victoria. Recommendations for improvement were made to the current and future systems, including the need to plan alternatives to improve the system's scalability and to maintain stakeholder acceptability.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Saúde Pública/métodos , /diagnóstico , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Saúde Pública/normas , Administração em Saúde Pública , Participação dos Interessados , Fatores de Tempo , Vitória/epidemiologia
4.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(11): 1034-1037, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151866

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 is an emerging pandemic infection whose significant ability to spread in a naïve population is well established. The first response of states to the COVID-19 outbreak was to impose lock-down and social barrier measures, such as wearing a surgical mask or social distancing. One of the consequences of this pandemic in terms of public health was the suspension or slowdown of infant vaccination campaigns, in almost all countries. The indirect effects of COVID-19 may therefore weigh on mortality from measles and polio in developing countries. In this pandemic chaos, the only hope lies in the rapid development of an effective vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, acceptance of this vaccine has not yet been won, as beyond the many unknowns that will inevitably weigh around such rapid development, skepticism among vaccine hesitants is growing.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Programas de Imunização/normas , Programas de Imunização/tendências , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Participação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Participação do Paciente/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública/normas , Saúde Pública/tendências , Cobertura Vacinal/organização & administração , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico
7.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 141, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046120

RESUMO

In the past five months, success in control the national epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been witnessed in China. The implementation of public health measures accounts for the success which include different interventions in the early or later stages of the outbreak. It is clear that although not all measures were universally effective worldwide, their achievements have been significant. More solidarity is needed to deal with this global pandemic with more learning and understanding. Understanding which of the public health interventions implemented in China were effective may provide ideas for international epidemic control.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública/métodos , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Saúde Pública/normas
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961702

RESUMO

This study focuses on stigma communication about COVID-19 on Twitter in the early stage of the outbreak, given the lack of information and rapid global expansion of new cases during this period. Guided by the model of stigma communication, we examine four types of message content, namely mark, group labeling, responsibility, and peril, that are instrumental in forming stigma beliefs and sharing stigma messages. We also explore whether the presence of misinformation and conspiracy theories in COVID-19-related tweets is associated with the presence of COVID-19 stigma content. A total of 155,353 unique COVID-19-related tweets posted between December 31, 2019, and March 13, 2020, were identified, from which 7000 tweets were randomly selected for manual coding. Results showed that the peril of COVID-19 was mentioned the most often, followed by mark, responsibility, and group labeling content. Tweets with conspiracy theories were more likely to include group labeling and responsibility information, but less likely to mention COVID-19 peril. Public health agencies should be aware of the unintentional stigmatization of COVID-19 in public health messages and the urgency to engage and educate the public about the facts of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Saúde Pública/normas , Mídias Sociais , Estigma Social , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Comunicação em Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238627, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915831

RESUMO

People often form perceptions about how prevalent a behavior is in a social group. However, these perceptions can be inaccurate and biased. While persistent undesirable practices in low-income countries have drawn global attention, evidence regarding people's perception of how prevalent these practices are is scarce. Among those harmful practices, open defecation in India remains a significant public health concern, where it perpetuates the vicious cycle of disease and poverty. In this study, we focus on measuring the perceived prevalence of open defecation among respondents in Bihar, India. We examined the bias in perceived prevalence, which is defined as a pattern of deviation from the actual prevalence of open defecation. Results showed that respondents who defecate in the open overestimate the prevalence of open defecation, whereas those who consistently use toilets underestimate it. This finding suggests a false consensus bias in the perceived prevalence of open defecation. Scholars, policymakers, and program implementers who seek to correct misperceptions about open defecation by broadcasting real prevalence should be aware of biases in the perceived prevalence and address them in behavior change interventions.


Assuntos
Defecação/ética , Saúde Pública/normas , Saneamento/normas , Comportamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Atenção/fisiologia , Defecação/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública/tendências , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e040951, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912958

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the experience of people with long-term respiratory conditions regarding the impact of measures to reduce risk of COVID-19. DESIGN: Analysis of data (n=9515) from the Asthma UK and British Lung Foundation partnership COVID-19 survey collected online between 1 and 8 April 2020. SETTING: Community. PARTICIPANTS: 9515 people with self-reported long-term respiratory conditions. 81% female, age ranges from ≤17 years to 80 years and above, from all nations of the UK. Long-term respiratory conditions reported included asthma (83%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (10%), bronchiectasis (4%), interstitial lung disease (2%) and 'other' (<1%) (eg, lung cancer and pulmonary endometriosis). OUTCOME MEASURES: Study responses related to impacts on key elements of healthcare, as well as practical, psychological and social consequences related to the COVID-19 pandemic and social distancing measures. RESULTS: 45% reported disruptions to care, including cancellations of appointments, investigations, pulmonary rehabilitation, treatment and monitoring. Other practical impacts such as difficulty accessing healthcare services for other issues and getting basic necessities such as food were also common. 36% did not use online prescriptions, and 54% had not accessed online inhaler technique videos. Psychosocial impacts including anxiety, loneliness and concerns about personal health and family were prevalent. 81% reported engaging in physical activity. Among the 11% who were smokers, 48% reported they were planning to quit smoking because of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 and related social distancing measures are having profound impacts on people with chronic respiratory conditions. Urgent adaptation and signposting of services is required to mitigate the negative health consequences of the COVID-19 response for this group.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Exercício Físico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Saúde Pública , Doenças Respiratórias , Autogestão , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Saúde Pública/métodos , Saúde Pública/normas , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/fisiopatologia , Doenças Respiratórias/psicologia , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Autogestão/métodos , Autogestão/psicologia , Autogestão/tendências , Reino Unido
19.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 95, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32832388

RESUMO

Currently, Nigeria is still at the ascending phase of the COVID-19 curve with no sign of deceleration. Thus, the recent decision by governors of states in northern Nigeria to deport Almajirai (itinerant Islamic school pupils) from their states as part of efforts to contain COVID-19 transmission is likely to have a serious backlash. With hundreds of Almajirai testing positive to COVID-19, and millions of others untested, they constitute ubiquitous nodes of transmission. Their deportation has created multiple emigration channels that constitute prospective feeders to covert community transmission. This viewpoint examines this trend within the context of Nigeria's current [in]capacity to manage the spread of COVID-19 and concludes that greater risks seem to lie ahead unless the government takes stringent containment measures.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Saúde Pública , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Islamismo , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Política , Pobreza , Saúde Pública/métodos , Saúde Pública/normas
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA